Hans-Valentin Hube was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. He commanded several panzer divisions during the invasions of Poland, France and he was a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Diamonds, Nazi Germanys highest military decoration. Hube died in an air crash on 21 April 1944, hans-Valentin Hube was born on 29 October 1890, in Naumburg an der Saale, German Empire. In 1918, following the end of the war ended with the German Empires defeat and subsequent collapse. Hube took part in the invasion of Poland and the Battle of France as a regimental commander and he was appointed commander of 16th Infantry Division in June 1940. As commander of the 16th Panzer Division, he took part in Operation Barbarossa as part of Marshal Gerd von Rundstedts Army Group South, for this action during the campaign, Hube got the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross. On 16 January 1942, he was awarded the Oak leaves to the Knights Cross for his actions in the Battle of Kiev, Hube led the division during Fall Blau and the Battle of Stalingrad.
In September 1942, Hube was given command of XIV Panzer Corps, Hube commanded the XIVth Corps during the Soviet counter-offensive, Operation Uranus. He was promoted to Generalleutnant and received the Swords to the Knights Cross with Oakleaves from Adolf Hitler personally on 21 December 1942. During his time at the Führer-Headquarters in Rastenburg, Hube argued strongly, Hitler promised a new relief attack beginning in the middle of Feb. Hube conveyed that plan to Paulus upon his return to the cauldron. However, Hube was ordered to fly out again on 10 Jan. to reorganize the supply of the 6th Army, after the destruction of the 6th Army, Hube was sent to the Mediterranean front. He created Gruppe Hube in Sicily, an army-sized formation whose task was to defend German positions on the island, with the advent of Operation Husky on 10 July, Hube commanded the overall German defence. On 17 July 1943 Hube was given command of all army, Hube organised the evacuation to the Italian peninsula. He had prepared a defensive line, the Etna Line around Messina.
Patton began his assault on the line at Troina, but it was a linchpin of the defense, despite three end run amphibious landings the Germans managed to keep the bulk of their forces beyond reach of capture, and maintain their evacuation plans. Withdrawing a large number of troops from the threat of capture on Sicily represented a major success for the Axis, Hube was involved in the battles defending positions at Salerno during the Allied Operation Avalanche. Hube was moved back to Germany to take command of the Führer-Reserve OKH, on 23 October 1943, Hube was delegated as commander of the 200,000 man 1st Panzer Army, serving with Army Group South under Field Marshal Erich von Manstein. In February 1944, Hube was officially confirmed as commander of the 1st Panzer Army, one of Hubes units, was required to assist German forces breaking out of the Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket
Magdeburg is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe, Emperor Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor, founder of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, was buried in the towns cathedral after his death. Magdeburgs version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central, the city is well known for the 1631 Sack of Magdeburg, which hardened Protestant resistance during the Thirty Years War. Prior to it Magdeburg was one of the largest German cities, Magdeburg was destroyed twice in its history. Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences, nowadays Magdeburg is a traffic junction as well as an industrial and trading centre. In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary, in June 2013 Magdeburg was hit by record breaking flooding. Founded by Charlemagne in 805 as Magadoburg, the town was fortified in 919 by King Henry I the Fowler against the Magyars and Slavs.
Edith loved the town and often lived there, at her death she was buried in the crypt of the Benedictine abbey of Saint Maurice, in 937, Magdeburg was the seat of a royal assembly. Otto I repeatedly visited Magdeburg and was buried in the cathedral. He granted the abbey the right to income from various tithes, the Archbishopric of Magdeburg was founded in 968 at the synod of Ravenna, Adalbert of Magdeburg was consecrated as its first archbishop. The archbishopric under Adalbert included the bishoprics of Havelberg, Merseburg, the archbishops played a prominent role in the German colonisation of the Slavic lands east of the Elbe river. In 1035 Magdeburg received a patent giving the city the right to hold exhibitions and conventions. These laws were adopted and modified throughout Central and Eastern Europe, visitors from many countries began to trade with Magdeburg. In the 13th century, Magdeburg became a member of the Hanseatic League, with more than 20,000 inhabitants Magdeburg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire.
The town had a maritime commerce on the west, with the countries of the North Sea. The citizens constantly struggled against the archbishop, becoming independent from him by the end of the 15th century. In about Easter 1497, the twelve-year-old Martin Luther attended school in Magdeburg, in 1524, he was called to Magdeburg, where he preached and caused the citys defection from Catholicism. The Protestant Reformation had quickly found adherents in the city, where Luther had been a schoolboy, Emperor Charles V repeatedly outlawed the unruly town, which had joined the Alliance of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League
Battle of Kock (1939)
The Battle of Kock was the final battle in the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II in Europe. It took place between 2–5 October 1939, near the town of Kock, in Poland, the Polish Polesie Independent Operational Group, led by General Franciszek Kleeberg, fought the German 14th Motorised Corps, led by General Gustav Anton von Wietersheim. The Polish battle plan was disorganized due to few officers being available, the Wehrmacht had destroyed the Polish reserve and forced it to withdraw. Having taken heavy losses, the Polish armies retreated to Kraków, from there, they took the route from Warsaw to Sandomierz. From Sandomierz, they were able to move on to the Lublin area, the eastern edge of the Vistula was defended by Lublins weak army. The Polish forces were camped in areas where they could cross the river easily. Other German forces advanced to the Vistula and went on towards Zamość, the Polish Army at Kraków and Małopolska suffered heavy losses, and did not reach the San river front.
Therefore, they were unable to organize a proper defence, field Marshal Rydz Śmigły was tasked with the defence of southern Poland. The commander of army area IX Brześć, General Franciszek Kleeberg, was responsible for the defence of the line from Pińsk to Brześć, on 8 September, General Franciszek Kleeberg received orders from Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły to organize a division of infantry from the depot division. Kleeberg was ordered to organize a line from Brześć to Pińsk. While his forces were well-trained, they lacked heavy equipment as it had previously been dispatched to the front-line divisions, after breaking through the Polish line in the Battle of Wizna, the German XIX Panzer Corps under General Heinz Guderian started its rapid advance south. The purpose of this attack was to cut Poland in two and paralyse the defences east of the Bug River, Guderians forces advanced almost unopposed. However, on 14 September, they were stopped in the area of Brześć Fortress, in the three-day-long battle, both sides suffered significant casualties.
Although the Poles finally withdrew from the area on 17 September, both Polish units from Kobryń and Brześć were soon joined by the Podlaska Cavalry Brigade. The unit, commanded by General Ludwik Kmicic-Skrzyński, successfully evaded encirclement by withdrawing through the Białowieża Forest, General Kmicic-Skrzyński, with his chief of staff, Major Julian Szychiewicz, went to Wołkowysk where he made telephone contact with General Franciszek Kleeberg. The two agreed to join their forces and move southwards, towards the Romanian Bridgehead, the 16th Motorised Infantry Regiment with artillery and Luftwaffe help, began an attack on the positions of the 83rd Polish Infantry Regiment on 18 September, capturing a number of Polish positions. The Polish counter-attack, which began at 17.00 hours, Kleeberg began withdrawing his forces to Romania and Hungary. Over the next two days Polish forces were ordered to north of Kowel
Dnipropetrovsk or Dnepropetrovsk, is Ukraines fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants. It is 391 kilometres southeast of the capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, Dnipropetrovsk is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance, the city was originally envisioned as the Russian Empires third capital city, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg. A vital industrial centre of Soviet Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk was one of the key centres of the nuclear, arms, in particular, it is home to the Yuzhmash, a major space and ballistic missile design bureau and manufacturer. Because of its industry, Dnipropetrovsk was a closed city until the 1990s. On 19 May 2016 the official name of the city was changed to Dnipro, Dnipropetrovsk is a powerhouse of Ukraines business and politics as the native city for many of the countrys most important figures. Ukraines politics are still defined by the legacies of Leonid Kuchma, Pavlo Lazarenko, in some Anglophone media the city was known as the Rocket City.
In 1918, the Central Council of Ukraine proposed to change the name of the city to Sicheslav, however, in 1926 the city was renamed after Communist leader Grigory Petrovsky. Hence following the 2015 law on decommunization the city had to be renamed, on 19 May 2016 the Ukrainian parliament passed a bill to officially rename the city to the name Dnipro. A monastery was founded by Byzantine monks on Monastyrsky Island, probably in the 9th century, the Tatars destroyed the monastery in 1240. At the beginning of the 15th century, Tatar tribes inhabiting the right bank of the Dnieper were driven away by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, by the mid-15th century, the Nogai and the Crimean Khanate invaded these lands. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate agreed to a border along the Dnieper and it was in this time that a new force appeared, the free people, the Cossacks. They became known as Zaporozhian Cossacks and this was a period of raids and fighting causing considerable devastation and depopulation in that area, the area became known as the Wild Fields.
On the night of ¾ August 1635, the Cossacks of Ivan Sulyma captured the fort by surprise, burning it down, the fort was rebuilt by French engineer Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan for the Polish Government in 1638, and had a mercenary garrison. Kodak was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks on 1 October 1648, and was garrisoned by the Cossacks until its demolition in accordance with the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711, the ruins of the Kodak are visible now. There is currently a project to restore it and create a tourist centre, under the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654, the territory became part of the Russian Empire. For practical purposes, the Prydniprovye lands remained a border area until the destruction of the Zaporizhian Sich in 1775. The Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia was founded in the late-1760s, between the settlements of Stari and Novi Kodaky and it was located at the present centre of the city to the West to district of Central Terminal and the Ozyorka farmers market
Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin
Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. Fridolin Rudolph von Senger und Etterlin was born on September 4,1891, in 1912, he became a Rhodes scholar at Oxford and acquired fluency in French and English. World War I interrupted his education in August 1914, and he was commissioned a lieutenant in the reserves, after four years of dedicated service, Senger remained in the postwar Reichswehr as a cavalry officer. He thus became one of few reserve officers selected to serve with the regulars, as a professional soldier, Senger remained aloof from politics and studiously avoided the rising tide of Nazism. Senger subsequently studied for two years at the Cavalry School in Hannover, spent four years with the cavalry inspectorate in Berlin, Senger und Etterlin took part in the Battle of France in 1940. In October 1942 he was given command of the 17th Panzer Division in Southern Russia, in August 1943, Senger took command of the German forces on the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
He conducted the evacuation when the German positions became untenable, on 8 October 1943 he received the command of the XIV Panzer Corps in Italy. During the Battle of Monte Cassino, Senger und Etterlin fought at the Gustav Line, the German position was only broken by the Allies in May 1944. After the war he wrote his memoirs, entitled Neither Fear nor Hope and he was invited to the Konigswinter conferences by Lilo Milchsack. These annual conferences helped to heal the bad memories after the end of the Second World War, in 1950, Senger und Etterlin was one of the authors of the Himmerod memorandum which addressed the issue of rearmament of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II. He took part in a BBC Radio discussion on the Battle of Monte Cassino and he was interviewed on the BBC TV programme Face to Face in 1960. Senger und Etterlin was introduced by B. H. Liddell Hart to the military historian Michael Howard. Howard, who had fought in Italy during the war, recalls him saying, next time you invade Italy, do not start at the bottom.
He was the father of Bundeswehr General and military author Ferdinand Maria von Senger und Etterlin, panzer-Division Oak Leaves on 5 April 1944 as General der Panzertruppe and commanding general XIV
15th Panzergrenadier Division (Wehrmacht)
It was not long before it saw action again, this time in Sicily. As the Germans retreated from western Sicily, they halted and began setting up defences in the vicinity of the town of Troina along Highway 120 and this was to become a linchpin of the Etna Line. In pursuit was the US 1st Infantry Division, nicknamed The Big Red One, beginning on September 9,1943, the Allied invasion of mainland Italy, at Salerno and along the beaches to the southeast, found the 15th Panzergrenadiers among the principal defenders. On September 11, elements of the British 46th Infantry Division encountered stiff resistance from the 15th Panzergrenadier and Hermann Göring Divisions around Salerno itself, by mid-November 1943, the 15th Panzergrenadier Division had fallen back to help defend the Bernhardt Line in the vicinity of Mignano along Highway 6. The Battle of San Pietro Infine ensued, after ten days of intense attack and counter-attack, the Allies finally succeeded in gaining the high ground on both flanks.
On May 11,1944, the Allies launched Operation Diadem which finally resulted in the collapse of the Gustav Line, the 15th Panzergrenadiers fought the rest of the war on the Western Front. It fought in the Battle of the Bulge, where it participated in the Siege of Bastogne and in Operation Blockbuster and it surrendered to the British at wars end. Heer Flak Battalion Signal and Support Units Atkinson, The Day of Battle, The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944
Zaporizhia, or Zaporozhye is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the center of the Zaporizhia Oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and serves as a center of Zaporizhia Raion. Currently the city is the sixth largest in Ukraine, until 1921 the city carried the name of Aleksandrovsk after the name of a fortress that was part of the Dnieper Defense Line. Archaeological finds in the area suggest that Scythian nomads were living there two to three years ago. The Scythians were replaced in time by Khazars, Cumans, the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks passed through Khortysia island in old times. In 1552 Dmytro Vyshnevetsky erected wood-earth fortifications on the island Mala Khortytsia in the Dnieper River near the island Khortytsia and these fortifications were a prototype of the Zaporizhian Sich. The Sich was a stronghold of the Cossacks who lived south of the rapids of the Dnieper on the border of the Polish–Lithuanian Rzeczpospolita, the modern city was established in 1770 as the fortress of Aleksandrovskaya in a vicinity the old Ukrainian village Voznesenka that existed since at least 1596.
It is uncertain for whom the fortress was named some consider General Aleksander Golitsyn, the fortress was designed to protect the southern territories from Turkish threats as part of the Dnieper Defense Line. After the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire in 1783, in 1806, it became a town and was named Aleksandrovsk. In 1789, Mennonites from Prussia accepted an invitation from Catherine the Great, the colony included several rural settlements. Mennonite-owned mills and factories were built in Alexandrovsk and expropriated by the Communist government, after the Russian Revolution many Mennonites emigrated, fled as refugees, or were deported from the area. Currently few Mennonites live in Zaporizhia, Mennonite buildings still exist in the area and in the other main Mennonite colony center, current day Molochansk. The ferry closed when the Kichkas Bridge replaced it in 1904, the original railway bridge over the Dnieper was the Kichkas Bridge, which was designed by Y. D. Construction was supervised by F. W.
Lat, the bridge had a span of 336 m, and crossed the river with single arch of 190 m span. The upper tier carried a railway line, whilst the lower tier was a road bridge with pedestrian walkways either side of the bridge. It was built at the narrowest part of the Dnieper river known as Wolf Throat, construction started in 1900, and it opened for pedestrian traffic in 1902. The official opening of the bridge was 17 April 1904, though railway traffic on the bridge commenced on 22 January 1908
Battle of Monte Cassino
The Battle of Monte Cassino was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II. The intention was a breakthrough to Rome, at the beginning of 1944, the western half of the Winter Line was being anchored by Germans holding the Rapido-Gari and Garigliano valleys and some of the surrounding peaks and ridges. Together, these formed the Gustav Line. Monte Cassino, a historic hilltop abbey founded in AD529 by Benedict of Nursia, dominated the town of Cassino. Lying in a historic zone, it had been left unoccupied by the Germans. They had manned some positions set into the slopes below the abbeys walls. Repeated pinpoint artillery attacks on Allied assault troops caused their leaders to conclude the abbey was being used by the Germans as an observation post, fears escalated along with casualties and in spite of a lack of clear evidence, it was marked for destruction. On 15 February American bombers dropped 1,400 tons of high explosives, the raid failed to achieve its objective, as German paratroopers occupied the rubble and established excellent defensive positions amid the ruins.
Between 17 January and 18 May, Monte Cassino and the Gustav defences were assaulted four times by Allied troops, the German defenders were finally driven from their positions, but at a high cost. The capture of Monte Cassino resulted in 55,000 Allied casualties, with German losses being far fewer, estimated at around 20,000 killed and wounded. On the western front, the American Fifth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Mark W. Clarks Fifth Army made slow progress in the face of difficult terrain, wet weather, the original estimates that Rome would fall by October 1943 proved far too optimistic. Highway 6 ran through the Liri valley, dominated at its entrance by the rugged mass of Monte Cassino above the town of Cassino. Excellent observation from the peaks of several hills allowed the German defenders to detect Allied movement and direct highly accurate artillery fire, preventing any northward advance. Running across the Allied line was the fast flowing Rapido River, there the Liri river joined the Gari to form the Garigliano River, which continued on to the sea.
Nevertheless, some Allied reconnaissance aircraft maintained they observed German troops inside the monastery. The main central thrust by the U. S. II Corps would commence on 20 January with the U. S. 36th Infantry Division making an assault across the swollen Gari river five miles downstream of Cassino. Simultaneously the French Expeditionary Corps, under General Alphonse Juin would continue its right hook move towards Monte Cairo, VI Corps, under Major General John P. Lucas, was due to make an amphibious landing on 22 January. The intelligence assessment of Allied prospects was therefore over-optimistic and they hardly had time to prepare the new assault, let alone take the rest and reorganization they really needed after three months of attritional fighting north from Naples
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker