Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles. Batrachology is a subdiscipline of herpetology concerned with the study of amphibians alone. Herpetology is concerned with poikilothermic, ectothermic tetrapods, one of the most prestigious organizations, the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, is an example of this. Many herpetological societies exist today, having been formed to promote interest in reptiles, some toxins and venoms produced by reptiles and amphibians are useful in human medicine. Currently, some snake venom has been used to create anti-coagulants that work to treat stroke victims, the word herpetology is from Greek, ἑρπετόν, creeping animal and -λογία, -logia, knowledge. People with an avid interest in herpetology and who keep different reptiles or amphibians often refer to themselves as herpers, herp is a vernacular term for reptiles and amphibians. It is derived from the old term herpetile, with back to Linnaeuss classification of animals, in which he grouped reptiles.
There are over 6700 species of amphibians and over 9000 species of reptiles, career options in the field of herpetology include, but are not limited to lab research, field studies and survey, zoological staff, museum staff and college teaching. In modern academic science, it is rare for individuals to consider themselves a herpetologist first and foremost, for example, an evolutionary biologist who is a herpetologist may choose to work on an issue such as the evolution of warning coloration in coral snakes. Modern herpetological writers of note include Mark OShea and Philip Purser, most colleges or universities do not offer a major in herpetology at the undergraduate or even the graduate level. Instead, persons interested in herpetology select a major in the biological sciences, the knowledge learned about all aspects of the biology of animals is applied to an individual study of herpetology. Herping List of herpetologists List of herpetology academic journals Adler, contributions to the History of Herpetology.
Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Raymond Ditmars and the Hunt for the Worlds Largest Viper Goin, Coleman J. Olive B. Xi +378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4, herpMapper is a database of reptile and amphibian sightings
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Great Basin collared lizard
The Great Basin collared lizard, known as the desert collared lizard or the Mojave black-collared lizard, is a species of lizard of the Western United States. It is very similar to the collared lizard, Crotaphytus collaris, in shape and size. Males can be brown to orange and some red or pink on the belly, females are more black or dark brown. C. bicintores have elongated scales near the nails and their tail is more triangular in shape than round as with C. collaris and this species has a broad-head, large rear legs, and derives its name from a pair of black bands on the neck. Males have broader heads than the females, with a dark colored throat, adults range in size from 2.5 -4.5 inches long snout to vent, with a thick tail that is often twice as long as the body. The Great Basin collared lizard is endemic to the United States, and is found in California, most of Nevada, southeast Oregon, southern Idaho, and it is usually found in rocky regions of arid deserts, and is most common in desert scrub and desert wash habitats.
It is widely distributed throughout the Mojave and southeastern Great Basin deserts, C. bicinctores eats primarily arthropods, but will use its powerful jaws to eat small vertebrates including lizards and rodents. These lizards have been known to consume plant matter
Provo /ˈproʊvoʊ/ is the third-largest city in the U. S. state of Utah, located 43 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest city and county seat of Utah County and it lies between the cities of Orem to the north and Springville to the south. With a population at the 2010 census of 112,488, Provo is the city in the Provo-Orem metropolitan area. It is the third-largest metropolitan area in Utah after Salt Lake City, the city is the location of Brigham Young University, a private higher education institution, which is operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Provo has the largest Missionary Training Center for the LDS Church, the city is a focus area for technology development in Utah, with several billion dollar startups operating in Provo. Provo was the city in the United States to work with Google Fiber. The citys Peaks Ice Arena was a venue for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics in 2002, Sundance Resort is located 13 miles northeast at Provo Canyon.
In 2015, Provo was cited among the Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs, and Utah County, in 2013, Forbes ranked Provo the No.2 city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers. Provo was ranked first for community optimism, first for volunteerism and its metropolitan area was projected to have the greatest population increase in the 2010 United States Census. The area was originally called Timpanogots and was inhabited by the Timpanogos and it was the largest and most settled area in modern-day Utah. The ample food from the Provo River made the Timpanogos a peaceful people, the area served as the traditional meeting place for the Ute and Shoshone tribes and as a spot to worship their creator. Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, is considered the first European explorer to have visited the area and he was guided by two Timpanogos Utes, whom he called Silvestre and Joaquin. Escalante chronicled this first European exploration across the Great Basin desert, the Europeans did not build a permanent settlement, but traded with the Timpanogos whom they called Lagunas or Come Pescado.
In 1847, the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, at first, they were friendly with the Mormons. But, as relations deteriorated with the Shoshoni and Utes because of land claims and stealing of livestock by the Indians, tensions rose. Because of the stolen goods of settlers by the Utes, Brigham Young gave a small militia orders to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future. ”This ended in what is known as the Battle Creek Massacre, in modern-day Pleasant Grove. The Mormons continued pushing into Timpanog lands, in 1849,33 Mormon families from Salt Lake City established Fort Utah. In 1850, Brigham Young sent an army from Salt Lake to drive out the Timpanogos in what is called the Provo War, the ruthlessness of the Mormon invaders angered the Timpanog, which contributed to the Walker War and Black Hawk War
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, United States. It is Utahs oldest continuously published daily newspaper and has the largest Sunday circulation in the state, the News is owned by Deseret News Publishing Company, a subsidiary of Deseret Management Corporation, a holding company owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The newspaper is printed by the Newspaper Agency Corporation, which it co-owns with The Salt Lake Tribune under a joint operating agreement, in 2006, combined circulation of the two papers was 151,422. The Church News includes news of the LDS Church and has published since 1931, while the Mormon Times is about the people, faith. Since 1974 the Deseret News has published the Church Almanac, the editorial tone of the Deseret News is usually described as moderate to conservative, and is often assumed to reflect the values of its owner, the LDS Church. For example, the newspaper does not accept advertising that violates church standards, Phelps left Winter Quarters sometime in May, and went to Boston by way of the former Mormon settlement of Nauvoo, Illinois.
In Boston, with the help of William I, the president of the Churchs Eastern States Mission, and Church member Alexander Badlam, Phelps was able to procure a wrought iron Ramage hand-press and other required equipment. He returned to Winter Quarters on November 12,1847, with the press, due partly to its size and weight, the press and equipment would not be taken to Salt Lake City until 1849. By that time many of the Mormon pioneers had left Winter Quarters, in April 1849 the press and other church property was loaded onto ox drawn wagons, and traveled with the Howard Egan Company along the Mormon Trail. The wagon company, with the press, arrived in the Salt Lake Valley August 7,1849, the press was moved into a small adobe building that served as a coin mint for the settlers. The press was at first used to print the necessary documents used in setting up the provisional State of Deseret, the first issue of the Deseret News was published June 15,1850, and was 8 pages long. Because it was meant to be the voice of the State of Deseret, it was called the Deseret News and it was at first a weekly Saturday publication, and published in pamphlet form in hopes that readers would have the papers bound into volumes.
Subscription rate was $2.50 for six months, a jobs press, usually called the Deseret News Press, was set up so the News could print books, handbills, etc. for paying customers and other publishers. From the beginning paper shortages were a problem for the News staff, starting with the October 19,1850 issue—only four months after publication began—the paper had to be changed to a bi-weekly publication. Even so, many times in the 1850s there were periods when the News could not be published for lack of paper. The publishers asked everyone to donate old paper and cloth to the venture, in the summer of 1854 the first issues of the News were published on homemade paper that was very thick, and grayish in color. Even with paper shortages, occasionally a News extra would be published, during a turbulent time period, known as the Utah War, the News presses and equipment were moved to the central and southern parts of the state. As armed forces of the United States camped just outside the state at Fort Bridger, Cannon was assigned to take some presses and equipment to Fillmore while Henry McEwan was to take the remainder to Parowan
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
Central America is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, Central America consists of seven countries, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The combined population of Central America is between 41,739,000 and 42,688,190, Central America is a part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot, which extends from northern Guatemala through to central Panama. Due to the presence of several active faults and the Central America Volcanic Arc. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur frequently, these disasters have resulted in the loss of many lives. In the Pre-Columbian era, Central America was inhabited by the peoples of Mesoamerica to the north and west. Soon after Christopher Columbuss voyages to the Americas, the Spanish began to colonize the Americas, the seven states finally became independent autonomous states, beginning with Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Guatemala, followed by El Salvador and finally Belize.
Middle America is usually thought to comprise Mexico to the north of the 7 states of Central America as well as Colombia, usually the whole of the Caribbean to the north-east and sometimes the Guyanas are included. According to one source, the term Central America was used as a synonym for Middle America as recently as 1962, in Brazil, Central America comprises all countries between Mexico and Colombia, including those in the Caribbean. Mexico, in whole or in part, is included by British people. For the people living in the 5 countries formerly part of the Federal Republic of Central America there is a distinction between the Spanish language terms América Central and Centroamérica, in the Pre-Columbian era, the northern areas of Central America were inhabited by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica. Most notable among these were the Mayans, who had built numerous cities throughout the region, and the Aztecs, following Christopher Columbuss voyages to the Americas, the Spanish sent many expeditions to the region, and they began their conquest of Maya territory in 1523.
Soon after the conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado commenced the conquest of northern Central America for the Spanish Empire. Beginning with his arrival in Soconusco in 1523, Alvarados forces systematically conquered and subjugated most of the major Maya kingdoms, including the Kiche, Tzutujil and the Kaqchikel. By 1528, the conquest of Guatemala was nearly complete, with only the Petén Basin remaining outside the Spanish sphere of influence, the last independent Maya kingdoms – the Kowoj and the Itza people – were finally defeated in 1697, as part of the Spanish conquest of Petén. In 1538, Spain established the Real Audiencia of Panama, which had jurisdiction over all land from the Strait of Magellan to the Gulf of Fonseca. This entity was dissolved in 1543, and most of the territory within Central America fell under the jurisdiction of the Audiencia Real de Guatemala. This area included the current territories of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and the Mexican state of Chiapas, the president of the Audiencia, which had its seat in Antigua Guatemala, was the governor of the entire area
Missionary (LDS Church)
Mormon missionaries may serve on a full- or part-time basis, depending on the assignment, and are organized geographically into missions. The mission assignment could be to any one of the 418 missions organized worldwide, the LDS Church is one of the most active modern practitioners of missionary work, reporting that it had over 74,000 full-time missionaries worldwide at the end of 2015. Most full-time Mormon missionaries are young men and women in their late teens and early twenties. Missionaries are often assigned to serve far from their homes, including in other countries, many missionaries learn a new language at a missionary training center as part of their assignment. Missions typically last two years for males,18 months for females, and 6 to 18 months for older couples, the LDS Church strongly encourages, but does not require, missionary service for young men. All Mormon missionaries serve voluntarily and do not receive a salary for their work, many Latter-day Saints save money during their teenage years to cover their mission expenses.
Throughout the churchs history, over one million missionaries have been sent on missions, LDS Church president Spencer W. Kimball said, Every young man should fill a mission. Completing a mission is described as a rite of passage for a young Latter-day Saint. The phrase the best two years of my life is a common cliché among returned missionaries when describing their experience, hinckley had suggested that a mission is not to be a rite of passage, this cultural aspect remains. With the usual starting age of 18–20, a provides a clear event or marker for the traditional age of adulthood. Young men between the ages of 18 and 25 who meet standards of worthiness are strongly encouraged to consider a two-year and this expectation is based in part on the New Testament passage Go ye therefore, and teach all nations. Prior to the announcement, some held that male missionaries may be 18 years old because of educational or military requirements. It was announced that women may serve beginning at age 19 instead of 21.
In 2007, approximately 30% of all 19-year-old LDS men became Mormon missionaries, from LDS families that are active in the church, in cases where an immediate family member dies, the missionary has the choice to travel home for the funeral or to remain on the mission. Missionaries can be sent home for violating rules, and occasionally missionaries choose to go home for health or various other reasons. However, the vast majority of serve the whole two-year or eighteen-month terms. As of 2007, 80% of all Mormon missionaries were young, single men, 13% were young single women, women who would like to serve a mission must meet the same standards of worthiness and be at least 19 years old. Women generally serve as missionaries for 18 months, married retired couples, on the other hand, are encouraged to serve missions, but their length of service may vary from 6 to 36 months depending on their circumstances and means