Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages. It is collaboratively edited via a wiki, and its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and it is available in 172 languages and in Simple English. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation and its wiki software, MediaWiki, allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. The English Wiktionary includes a Wikisaurus of synonyms of various words, Wiktionary data are frequently used in various natural language processing tasks. Wiktionary was brought online on December 12,2002, following a proposal by Daniel Alston, on March 28,2004, the first non-English Wiktionaries were initiated in French and Polish. Wiktionaries in numerous other languages have since been started, Wiktionary was hosted on a temporary domain name until May 1,2004, when it switched to the current domain name. As of November 2016, Wiktionary features over 25.9 million entries across its editions, forty-one Wiktionary language editions now contain over 100,000 entries each.
Seven of the 18 bots registered at the English Wiktionary created 163,000 of the entries there, of the 648,970 definitions the English Wiktionary provides for 501,171 English words,217,850 are form of definitions of this kind. This means its coverage of English is slightly smaller than that of major monolingual print dictionaries, the Oxford English Dictionary, for instance, has 615,000 headwords, while Merriam-Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged has 475,000 entries. Detailed statistics exist to show how many entries of various kinds exist, the English Wiktionary does not rely on bots to the extent that some other editions do. The French and Vietnamese Wiktionaries, for example, imported large sections of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project and these imported entries make up virtually all of the Vietnamese editions contents. Almost all non-Malagasy-language entries of the Malagasy Wiktionary were copied by bot from other Wiktionaries, like the English edition, the French Wiktionary has imported the approximately 20,000 entries from the Unihan database of Chinese and Korean characters.
The Russian edition grew by nearly 80,000 entries as LXbot added boilerplate entries for words in English, in 2017 English part of en. wikitionary had over 500,000 gloss definitions and over 900,000 definitions. Wiktionary has historically lacked a uniform logo across its numerous language editions, some editions use logos that depict a dictionary entry about the term Wiktionary, based on the previous English Wiktionary logo, which was designed by Brion Vibber, a MediaWiki developer. Because a purely textual logo must vary considerably from language to language, some communities adopted the winning entry by Smurrayinchester, a 3×3 grid of wooden tiles, each bearing a character from a different writing system. However, the poll did not see as much participation from the Wiktionary community as some community members had hoped, in April 2009, the issue was resurrected with a new contest. This time, a depiction by AAEngelman of an open hardbound dictionary won a vote against the 2006 logo. In the following years, some wikis replaced their logos with one of the two newer logos
Wikinews is a free-content news source wiki and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. The site works through collaborative journalism, Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has distinguished Wikinews from Wikipedia by saying on Wikinews, each story is to be written as a news story as opposed to an encyclopedia article. The neutral point of view policy espoused in Wikinews distinguishes it from other citizen journalism efforts such as Indymedia, in contrast to most projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, Wikinews allows original work under the form of original reporting and interviews. The first recorded proposal of a Wikimedia news site was a two-line anonymous post on January 5,2003, daniel Alston, who edited Wikipedia as Fonzy, claimed to have been the one who posted it. The proposal was further developed by German freelance journalist, software developer. In November 2004, a demonstration wiki was established to show how such a news site might work. A month later, in December 2004, the site was moved out of the demo stage, a German language edition was launched at the same time.
On March 13,2005, the English edition of Wikinews reached 1,000 news articles, a few months in September 2005, the project moved to the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 license. It reached 5,000 articles on April 29,2006, Wikinews reporters have conducted interviews with several notable people, including an interview in December 2007 with Israeli President Shimon Peres by Wikinews reporter David Shankbone. Shankbone had been invited to conduct the interview by the America-Israel Friendship League, other notable interviews have included writers and politicians, such as Augusten Burroughs, several 2008 U. S. Wikinews—like Wikipedia—has been criticized for its inability to be neutral or include only verified. Robert McHenry, former editor-in-chief of the Encyclopædia Britannica, criticized the credibility of the project, Above all, the central question about the Wikinews effort is its credibility. Making a newspaper is hard. Someone who wants to do it but doesnt really know how hasnt solved the problem by gathering a lot of people who dont know.
McHenry was skeptical about Wikinews ability to provide a point of view and its claim to be evenhanded. At its heart, its just a craft, and that means that it can be practiced by anyone who is sensible and intelligent and thoughtful and curious. I go back to the morning of Virginia Tech – the morning I decided I wanted to work, the conversation on the talk page that day was extremely thoughtful. I remember thinking to myself if my own newsroom had been having a conversation that intelligent I would have been delighted. So yes, you absolutely have proved Robert McHenry wrong, on bigger stories theres just no point in competing with the ruthless purview of the encyclopedia
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means organ, a hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organization consisting of volunteers, such organizations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs. Organizations may operate in secret and/or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organizations, the study of organizations includes a focus on optimizing organizational structure. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt and quantify damages, juries are used in athletic contests, book awards. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury, in the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables.
Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions, condorcets jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice, adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote. The problem is that if the member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice. Parliamentary procedure, such as Roberts Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in discussions without reaching decisions. Bad parts of the organization starve, everybody is paid for what they actually do, and runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Companies who utilize this organization type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology and it is the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not in general compete with one another in any way, but are very autonomous. The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organization in this article from The Guardian. This organizational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies, one hierarchy is functional and assures that each type of expert in the organization is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field.
The other direction is executive and tries to get projects completed using the experts, projects might be organized by products, customer types, or some other schema. As an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organization, so one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirized in The Peter Principle, a book that introduced hierarchiology, the broader analysis of organizations is commonly referred to as organizational structure, organizational studies, organizational behavior, or organization analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible, From a functional perspective, from an institutional perspective, an organization is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
A wiki is a website that provides collaborative modification of its content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a markup language. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine, there are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are open source, whereas others are proprietary, some permit control over different functions, for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control, other rules may be imposed to organize content. Wikipedia is not a wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis. There are at least tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites. The English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles, as of September 2016, ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as the simplest online database that could possibly work.
Wiki is a Hawaiian word meaning quick, Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not. A wiki is not a carefully crafted site created by experts and professional writers, instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of editors and contributors to write documents collaboratively, all that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser and a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a website is referred to as a wiki page, while the entire collection of pages. A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, a wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated, there is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online, this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them, maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. Unfit sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered fit, while such openness may invite vandalism and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a quality wiki page
The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally.
In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014.
Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sites
Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages.
While the project was proposed to contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures.
Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting