The Potato Eaters
The Potato Eaters is an oil painting by Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh painted in April 1885 in Nuenen, Netherlands. It is in the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam and he worked on the painting from April 13 until the beginning of May, when it was mostly done except for minor changes which he made with a small brush the same year. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were, I wanted it to give the idea of a wholly different way of life from ours — civilized people. So I certainly don’t want everyone just to admire it or approve of it without knowing why, the work was criticized by his friend Anthon van Rappard soon after it was painted. Van Gogh made a lithograph of the composition The Potato Eaters before embarking on the painting proper and he sent impressions to his brother, and in a letter to a friend, wrote that he made the lithograph from memory in the space of a day. Van Gogh had first experimented with lithography in The Hague in 1882, though he appreciated small scale graphic work and was an enthusiastic collector of English engravings he worked relatively little in graphic mediums.
No, in most cases the solidity and pith of the small is only obtained through much more study than is imagined by those who think lightly of the task of illustrating. Anyway, some paintings in their huge frames look very substantial, and from what you said about ‘Impressionism’, I’ve grasped that it’s something different from what I thought it was, but it’s still not entirely clear to me what one should understand by it. But for my part, I find so much in Israëls, for instance. Compositionally the two are similar, in both paintings the composition of the painting is centered by a figure whose back is turned to us. Thieves stole the early version of The Potato Eaters, the Weavers Interior, in April,1989, the thieves returned Weavers Interior in an attempt to gain a $2.5 million ransom. The police recovered the two on July 14,1989, no ransom was paid. On April 14,1991, the Vincent van Gogh National Museum was robbed of twenty major paintings including the version of The Potato Eaters. For unknown reasons, the abandoned the art 35 minutes after the robbery.
ISBN 1-86046-859-4 De La Faille, Jacob Baart, the works of Vincent van Gogh. The Complete Van Gogh, Drawings, new York, NY, Harrison House/Harry N. Abrams Distributed by Crown Publishers, Random House. Naifeh and Smith, Gregory White
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
The Royal Concertgebouw is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Dutch term concertgebouw literally translates into English as concert building, on 11 April 2013, on occasion of the buildings 125th anniversary, Queen Beatrix bestowed the Royal Title Koninklijk upon the building, as she did previously to the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. Because of its highly regarded acoustics, the Concertgebouw is considered one of the finest concert halls in the world, along with such as Bostons Symphony Hall. The architect of the building was Adolf Leonard van Gendt, who was inspired by the Gewandhaus in Leipzig, construction began in 1883 in a pasture that was outside the city, in Nieuwer-Amstel, a municipality that in 1964 became Amstelveen. A total of 2,186 piles of length twelve to thirteen metres were sunk into the soil. The hall opened on 11 April 1888 with a concert, in which an orchestra of 120 musicians and a chorus of 500 singers participated, performing works of Wagner, Bach. The resident orchestra of the Concertgebouw is the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, for many decades the Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra and the Radio Filharmonisch Orkest have been regular performers in the Concertgebouw.
The Main Hall seats 1,974, and is 44 metres long,28 metres wide and its reverberation time is 2.8 seconds without audience,2.2 seconds with, making it ideal for the late Romantic repertoire such as Mahler. Though this characteristic makes it unsuited for amplified music, groups such as Led Zeppelin, The Who. It hosts not only orchestral and operatic performances, but jazz, a smaller, oval-shaped venue, the Recital Hall, is located behind the Main Hall. The Recital Hall is 20 metres long and 15 metres wide and its more intimate space is well-suited for chamber music and Lieder. The Recital Hall has 437 seats, when the Concertgebouw was built, acoustics were something of a black art. As in shipbuilding, designers drew upon what had worked in the past without entirely understanding the underlying science, when the building was completed, the acoustics were not perfect, and a lot of effort went into fine-tuning the aural ambience. During restorations, particular care has been not to alter the materials used for interior decoration with this in mind.
In the 1980s, the hall embarked on extensive fund-raising for renovations after the hall was found to be sinking into the ground. Pi de Bruijn was the architect for the annex to the original hall. Today, some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over 700,000, as of February 2014, the managing director of the Concertgebouw is Simon Reinink and the artistic director is Anneke Hogenstijn. The organ was built in 1890 by the organ builder Michael Maarschalkerweerd from Utrecht and it has 60 registers on three divisions and pedal
Trams in Amsterdam
The Amsterdam Tram is a tram network in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The network dates back to 1875, since 1943, it has been operated by municipal public transport operator GVB, which runs the Amsterdam metro and the city bus and ferry services. The Amsterdam Tram is the largest tram network in the Netherlands, the trams on the network run on standard gauge track. Since 1900, they have been powered by electricity, at 600 V DC, at the terminus station of almost every tram route is a turning loop, so that the route can be operated by unidirectional trams. The only exception is Amstelveen Binnenhof, one of the termini of route 5, as of 2016, there are 14 tram routes. The network comprises a total of 80.5 kilometres of route, the fleet consists of 200 trams, of which 24 are bidirectional for use on the loop-less route 5. On 3 June 1875, Amsterdams first horse-drawn tramway was opened and it linked Plantage with the Leidseplein, and was operated by AOM, which had been founded in 1872 by Karel Herman Schadd, amongst others.
By the end of the century, about 15 routes led to or from the Vondelstraat, Willemsparkweg, Linnaeusstraat, Weesperzijde and Ceintuurbaan. The routes of the horse tram lines can still clearly be recognised in the present day tram routes 1,2,3,4,7,9,10 and 13. As of 1 January 1900, the municipality of Amsterdam took over AOM, the company continued as the Gemeentetram Amsterdam. A total of 242 tramcars,758 horses and 15 buildings were acquired along with the company, between 1900 and 1906, all but one of the existing tram lines were electrified. Additionally, the AOMs unusual track gauge of 1,422 mm was converted to 1,435 mm standard gauge, by 1906, the electric tram network consisted of 12 tram routes. To operate these routes, the GTA purchased 229 new electric tramcars, the former horse-drawn trams were progressively reclassified as tram trailers. In 1906, the Amsterdamse Tramharmonie orchestra was founded and this orchestra, composed of amateur musicians from the Amsterdam region, still exists.
The last remaining Amsterdam horse tramway was route 12, which was electrified in 1916, five years later, upon Amsterdams annexation of the municipality of Sloten, a former Sloten horse tramway came under the control of the GTA. The horses of this route, which linked Overtoom with Sloten, were replaced by tram-hauling buses in 1922, between 1910 and 1930, the growth of the city generated many new extensions to the tram routes. In 1931, the network reached its greatest extent, at 25 tram routes. From that year to 1940, all the districts in the city could be reached by tram, between 1900 and 1930, the fleet grew to 445 motorised trams and approximately 350 trailers
Art theft is usually for the purpose of resale or for ransom. Stolen art is used by criminals as collateral to secure loans. Only a small percentage of stolen art is recovered—estimates range from 5 to 10% and this means that little is known about the scope and characteristics of art theft. Many thieves are motivated by the fact that valuable art pieces are worth millions of dollars and weigh only a few kilograms at most. Transport for items such as paintings is trivial, assuming the thief is willing to inflict damage to the painting by cutting it off the frame. Also, while most high-profile museums have extremely tight security, many places with art collections works have disproportionately poor security measures. That makes them susceptible to thefts that are more complicated than a typical smash-and-grab. Thieves sometimes target works based on their own familiarity with the artist and it is difficult for the buyer to display the work to visitors without it being recognized as stolen, thus defeating much of the point of owning the art.
Many famous works have instead been held for ransom from the owner or even returned without ransom. Returning for ransom risks a sting operation, for those with substantial collections, such as the Marquess of Cholmondeley at Houghton Hall, the risk of theft is neither negligible nor negotiable. Jean-Baptiste Oudrys White Duck was stolen from the Cholmondeley collection at Houghton Hall in 1990, the Smithsonian Institution sponsors the National Conference on Cultural Property Protection, held annually in Washington, D. C. The conference is aimed at professionals in the field of property protection. Since 1996, the Netherlands-based Museum Security Network has disseminated news and information related to issues of property loss. Since its founding the Museum Security Network has collected and disseminated over 45,000 reports about incidents with cultural property, the founder of the Museum Security Network, Ton Cremers, is recipient of the National Conference on Cultural Property Protection Robert Burke Award.
2007 saw the foundation of the Association for Research into Crimes against Art, ARCA is a nonprofit think tank dedicated principally to raising the profile of art crime as an academic subject. Since 2009, ARCA has offered a postgraduate certificate program dedicated to this field of study. The Postgraduate Certificate Program in Art Crime and Cultural Heritage Protection is held from June to August every year in Italy, a few American universities, including New York University, offer courses on art crime. Art and antiquity crime is tolerated, in part, because it is considered a victimless crime, the pan-European operation had begun in October,2016 and led to the recovery of about 3,500 stolen items including archaeological artifacts and other artwork
Theo van Gogh (art dealer)
Theodorus Theo van Gogh was a Dutch art dealer. He was the brother of Vincent van Gogh, and Theos unfailing financial and emotional support allowed his brother to devote himself entirely to painting. Theo died at the age of 33, six months after his brother died at the age of 37, Theodorus Theo van Gogh was born on 1 May 1857 in the village Groot-Zundert in the province of North Brabant, Netherlands. He was the son of Theodorus van Gogh and Anna Cornelia Carbentus and his elder brother was Vincent van Gogh, who became a famous painter. Theo worked for years at the Dutch office of the Parisian art dealers Goupil & Cie in The Hague. Theo joined the Brussels office on 1 January 1873 as their youngest employee, after Theo was transferred to the London office, he moved to the office in The Hague, where he developed into a successful art dealer. By 1884, he was transferred to the Paris main office, starting in the winter of 1880–1881, he sent painting materials as well as monthly financial support to his brother and painter Vincent van Gogh, who was living back in the Netherlands.
In Paris, Theo met Andries Bonger and his sister Johanna and he married Johanna in Amsterdam on 17 April 1889 and they moved to Paris. Their son Vincent Willem was born in Paris on 31 January 1890, on 8 June, the family visited Vincent, who was living near Paris in Auvers-sur-Oise. Vincent died in July 1890 at age 37, Theo suffered from dementia paralytica, an infection of the brain, and his health declined rapidly after Vincents death. Weak and unable to come to terms with Vincents absence, he died six months at age 33 in Den Dolder, Theo admired his elder brother Vincent for his whole life. But communicating with him proved to be difficult, even before Vincent opted to follow his artistic vocation, the communication between both brothers suffered from diverging definitions of standards, and it was evidently Theo who kept on writing letters. Therefore, mostly Vincents answers survived and few of Theos, Theo was often concerned about Vincents mental condition and he was amongst the few who understood his brother.
It is known that Theo helped Vincent to maintain his artist lifestyle by giving him money and he helped Vincent pursue his life as an artist through his unwavering emotional support and love. The majority of Theo’s letters and communications with Vincent are filled with praise, Vincent would send Theo sketches and ideas for paintings, along with accounts of his day to day experiences, to the delight and eager attention of Theo. Theo was instrumental in the popularity of Impressionist artists such as Claude Monet and Edgar Degas by persuading his employers, Goupil & Cie, to exhibit and buy their works. In 1886, Theo invited Vincent to come and live with him in Paris, the two brothers maintained an intensive correspondence, with Theo often encouraging his depressed brother. Theo was one of the few people who Vincent could talk to, over three-quarters of the more than 800 letters Vincent wrote during his life were to Theo, including his first and his last letters
Guardia di Finanza
The Guardia di Finanza is an Italian law enforcement agency under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance. It is a police force, forming a part of the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Guardia di Finanza is essentially responsible for dealing with crime and smuggling. It maintains over 600 boats and ships and more than 100 aircraft to serve in its mission of patrolling Italys territorial waters. The mission and institutional tasks of Guardia di Finanza are stated in the law 189 of April 23,1959 and 68/2001 and are subdivided into priority ones and contribution ones. The origins of the Guardia di Finanza date back to October 5,1774 and this was the first example in Italy of a special corps established and organized for financial surveillance duties along the borders, as well as for military defense. Once the unification of Italy was completed in 1862, the Customs Guards Corps was set up and its main task was Customs surveillance and co-participation in the Countrys defense during wartime.
Subsequently, the Corps took part in rescue operations during serious natural disasters. The re-organization of the forces in 1919 affected the Royal Guardia di Finanza. In 1923, the Investigative Tax Police was set up as a branch of the Royal Financial Guard. Besides the review of its structure, laid out by the issuance of Presidential Decree Law no.34 dated January 29,1999. The Guardia di Finanza Historical Museum is custodian of the traditions of the Corps and it preserves artifacts of relevance to the Guardia di Finanza and promotes historical research, to aid researchers and military history enthusiasts. In 2005, the Financial Guard was responsible for 77% of the Heroin seizures, 69% of Cocaine seizures and these turned out to be counterfeit. Under the minister of finance and economy, the corps is commanded by a general commander, comando Aeronavale Central ´Aeronaval Operations Command, with one aeromaritime exploration group, and three aeronaval groups. Aviation Center Naval Center Source, Territorial commands Six interregional commands Regional commands, provincial commands, one for each of Italys provinces.
The Guardia di Finanza utilises a rank similar to that of other state police forces in Italy. The Guardia di Finanza has around 68,000 members and its personnel are in service in the Europol and OLAF. Its Latin motto since 1933 has been Nec recisa recedit, there are 3,250 officers in the Guardia di Finanza
Gerrit Thomas Rietveld was a Dutch furniture designer and architect. One of the members of the Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl, Rietveld is famous for his Red and Blue Chair and for the Rietveld Schröder House. Rietveld was born in Utrecht in 1888 as the son of a joiner and he left school at 11 to be apprenticed to his father and enrolled at night school before working as a draughtsman for C. J. Begeer, a jeweller in Utrecht, from 1906 to 1911. By the time he opened his own workshop in 1917. He afterwards set up in business as a cabinet-maker, Rietveld designed his famous Red and Blue Chair in 1917. Hoping that much of his furniture would eventually be mass-produced rather than handcrafted, the contacts that he made at De Stijl gave him the opportunity to exhibit abroad as well. In 1923, Walter Gropius invited Rietveld to exhibit at the Bauhaus and he built, the Rietveld Schröder House, in 1924, in close collaboration with the owner Truus Schröder-Schräder. The design seems like a realization of a Mondrian painting.
The house has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000 and his involvement in the Schröder House exerted a strong influence on Truus daughter, Han Schröder, who became one of the first female architects in the Netherlands. Rietveld broke with De Stijl in 1928 and became associated with a more functionalist style of architecture, the same year he joined the Congrès Internationaux dArchitecture Moderne. From the late 1920s he was concerned with housing, inexpensive production methods, new materials. In 1927 he was experimenting with prefabricated concrete slabs, a very unusual material at that time. Rietveld designed the Zig-Zag Chair in 1934 and started the design of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, in 1951 Rietveld designed a retrospective exhibition about De Stijl which was held in Amsterdam and New York. Interest in his work revived as a result, due to irreparable damages caused by regular decay, it was once again rebuilt, this time with new materials, in 2010. In order to all these projects, in 1961 Rietveld set up a partnership with the architects Johan van Dillen and J.
van Tricht built hundreds of homes. His work was neglected when rationalism came into vogue, but he benefited from a revival of the style of the 1920s thirty years later. Gerrit Rietvelds son Wim Rietveld became an industrial designer. Rietveld had his first retrospective exhibition devoted to his work at the Centraal Museum, Utrecht
Tilburg is a city in the Netherlands, in the southern province of Noord-Brabant. With a population of 210,289, it is the second largest city in Noord-Brabant, Tilburg University is located in Tilburg, as are Avans University of Applied Sciences and Fontys University of Applied Sciences. Tilburg is known for its ten-day-long funfair, held in July each year, the Monday during the funfair is called Roze Maandag, and is primarily LGBT-oriented. There are three stations within the municipality, Tilburg Universiteit and Tilburg Reeshof. The 75-hectare Spoorzone area around Tilburg Central station, once a Dutch Railways train maintenance yard, has purchased by the city and is being transformed into an urban zone. Little is known about the beginnings of Tilburg, the name Tilburg first appeared in documents dating from 709 AD but after that there was no mention for several centuries. This village centred around a castle or Motteburcht on an equally small hill. Of this first Tilburg Castle, nothing remained c,2000, except for a few remnants of its moat in the suburbs of Oisterwijk.
In the 14th century, Tilburg was proclaimed a manor, together with Goirle, it acquired the title of The Manor of Tilburg, the manorial rights fell into the hands of several lords of noble lineage. They derived their income taxes and interest paid by the villagers. In the 15th century, one of the lords of Tilburg, Jan van Haestrecht and that stone chamber at Hasselt is mentioned in several historical documents. In 1858, the castle was pulled down to make way for a factory, a replica of the foundations of the castle was restored in ca.1995 in its original location, after the factory was demolished. In 1803, Goirle was separated from Tilburg and on 18 April 1809, in that year, it had about 9,000 inhabitants. In 2009 Tilburg hosted several festivities in celebration of 200 years as a city, Tilburg grew around one of the so-called herd places or Frankish triangles, triangular plots where a number of roads met. These herd places were collective pasturelands for flocks of sheep and their shape is still reflected in the layout of many places in Tilburg.
Many districts, including Korvel, Broekhoven, Heikant, De Schans, as so-called drapers they supplied the weavers with the raw materials for their home working, and the first Tilburg mill houses came into existence. From on, the industry underwent rapid growth. Home weaving continued, until the early 20th century, woollen textiles from Tilburg were known far and wide
Amsterdam-Zuid is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The borough was formed in 2010 as a merger of the former boroughs Oud-Zuid, the borough has almost 138,000 inhabitants. With 8,500 homes per square kilometer, it is one of the most densely populated boroughs of Amsterdam and it has the highest income per household of all boroughs in Amsterdam. Amsterdam-Zuid is the borough of Amsterdam situated to the south and southwest of the Singelgracht canal, the Singelgracht canal had been Amsterdams city border since the 17th century, when the Amsterdam canal belt was constructed. The taking down of the surrounding the Singelgracht, the outer canal. South of the wall, the first neighborhoods to develop were the Oude Pijp neighborhood, the neighborhood surrounding the Rijksmuseum. This area is now known as Oud Zuid. In 1917, the area was further developed southwards on the basis of Plan Zuid, berlages plan included wide streets lined with four-story apartment blocks for the middle class. The plan included public art to be installed in the new residential areas, between 1920 and 1940, the Plan Zuid neighborhoods of Nieuwe Pijp, Rivierenbuurt and Apollobuurt were constructed, with many buildings designed in Amsterdam School style.
This area is known as Nieuw Zuid. Another neighborhood built in the 1920s is the Hoofddorppleinbuurt, west of the Schinkel river and this neighborhood is part of Plan West, another urban expansion plan by Berlage which was designed for the western area of the city on the territory of the former municipality of Sloten. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Buitenveldert neighborhood and the smaller Prinses Irenebuurt became the last major developments in the southern part of the city. In 1961, the Amsterdam RAI Exhibition and Convention Centre opened, the A10 motorway, which runs through the southern borough, was constructed in 1962. In 1978, the first section of the Weesp–Leiden railway and the Amsterdam Zuid railway station opened along the part of the A10 motorway. In the 1990s and 2000s, the surrounding the railway station became the rapidly developing business district of Zuidas. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the councils have been abolished and replaced by smaller. The district committees are elected every four years, on the day as the citys central municipal council.
Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously