Flushing Meadows Natatorium
Located inside the historic Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, site of the world’s fair in 1939 and 1964, the public facility caters to all New York City residents. Built in 2008, the $66.3 million project is the first indoor pool to open in New York City in four decades. The result is a building with 130-foot-high twin masts and a swooping roof form. The masts are an architectural feature extending up into the Queens skyline as well as the supports for the cable-stayed roof. This design provides the clear spans necessary to house an Olympic swimming pool along with an ice skating rink, the Flushing Meadows Natatorium was designed by Handel Architects in association with Kevin Hom Architects. The 1939 and 1964 World’s Fair pavilions, which occupied the site, inspired the architects to design the canopy roof suspended above the natatorium. The World’s Fair was a universal exposition showcasing various cultural exhibitions from all over the world, World’s fairs have become historic markers exemplifying commercial and industrial successes of various eras.
The organizers of the 1939 World’s Fair boasted it was “the greatest exhibition ever held. ”They referred to its vast size, the symbolism of the Trylon and Perisphere. Known as the Corona dumps, Robert Moses headed its transformation into a new park, for the borough of Queens, and the construction of the fair. The theme of the 1939 World’s Fair was, “Building the World of Tomorrow. ”The fair was to symbolize the faith in new technology. Through the various showcases from different countries, citizens around the world were given gave a chance to learn about countries that they have heard of in books. The magical and futuristic land housed new buildings, including the iconic General Motors’ Futurama and Democracity, twenty-five years later, the Flushing Meadows Park was selected, again to be the site of the 1964 World’s Fair. Americans had a fascination with space and “the new frontier. ”The themes of the 1964 World’s Fair were, “A Millennium of Progress” and “Man’s Achievements in an Expanding Universe.
”Space-oriented pavilions such as the New York Pavilion, which housed an observation platform, symbolized the growing infatuation with the Space Age. The New York State Pavilion, designed by Philip Johnson and Richard Foster, is one of the few still standing in Flushing Meadows Park. The oval roof and cable-hung, was the largest in the world, the pavilion was praised for its suspended roof and two towers that stood as the tallest structures of the fair. This large tent-like structure may have been an influence on the current Flushing Meadows Natatorium, all these structures are either demolished or left in an uninhabitable, dilapidated state. The buildings foundation was completed in 2001 but after the September 11 attacks the project was halted due to funding issues, finally, in 2003, the Natatorium was designated as the swimming arena in New York Citys bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics. The Parks Department partnered with the Economic Development Corporation and plans re-commenced for New York City to build its first public swimming pool in 40 years
1964 New York World's Fair
The 1964/1965 New York Worlds Fair was the third major worlds fair to be held in New York City. However, the fair did not receive official sanctioning from the Bureau of International Expositions, hailing itself as a universal and international exposition, the fairs theme was Peace Through Understanding, dedicated to Mans Achievement on a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding Universe. American companies dominated the exposition as exhibitors, the theme was symbolized by a 12-story high, stainless-steel model of the earth called the Unisphere. The fair ran for two seasons, April 22 – October 18,1964, and April 21 – October 17,1965. Admission price for adults was $2 in 1964 but $2.50 in 1965, the fair is noted as a showcase of mid-20th-century American culture and technology. The nascent Space Age, with its vista of promise, was well represented, more than 51 million people attended the fair, though fewer than the hoped-for 70 million. Most major American manufacturing companies from pen manufacturers to auto companies had a major presence and this fair gave many attendees their first interaction with computer equipment.
The site, Flushing Meadows Corona Park in the borough of Queens, was previously Manhattans Corona Ash Dumps featured prominently in F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby as the Valley of Ashes. Prior to that, the site had been a natural wetland — literally wetland meadows that would flush the nearby runoff entering the adjacent bay, Flushing Meadows had been a Dutch settlement, named after the village of Vlissingen. Subsequently, the site was reclaimed for the 1939/1940 New York Worlds Fair, one of the largest worlds fairs to be held in the United States, the 1939 fair occupied space that was filled in for the 1964/1965 exposition. The 1964/1965 Fair was conceived by a group of New York businessmen who remembered their experiences at the 1939 New York Worlds Fair. Thoughts of a boom to the city as the result of increased tourism was a major reason for holding another fair 25 years after the 1939/1940 extravaganza. Then-New York City mayor, Robert F. Wagner, Jr and he was joined by Austrian architect Victor Gruen in studies that eventually led the Eisenhower Commission to award the worlds fair to New York City in competition with a number of American cities.
Organizers turned to financing and the sale of bonds to pay the huge costs to stage them. The organizers hired New Yorks Master Builder Robert Moses, to head the corporation established to run the fair because he was experienced in raising money for vast public projects, Moses had been a formidable figure in the city since coming to power in the 1930s. He was responsible for the construction of much of the highway infrastructure and, as parks commissioner for decades. In the mid-1930s, Moses oversaw the conversion of a vast Queens tidal marsh/garbage dump into the fairgrounds that hosted the 1939/1940 Worlds Fair, called Flushing Meadows Park, it was Moses grandest park scheme. He envisioned this vast park, comprising some 1,300 acres of land, easily accessible from Manhattan, when the 1939/1940 Worlds Fair ended in financial failure, Moses did not have the available funds to complete work on his project
In metallurgy, stainless steel, known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10. 5% chromium content by mass. Stainless steel is notable for its resistance, and it is widely used for food handling. Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does, however, it is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments. There are various grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure, Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present, unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film is active and accelerates corrosion by making it easier for more iron oxide to form, since iron oxide has lower density than steel, the film expands and tends to flake and fall away. In comparison, stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to undergo passivation and this layer prevents further corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and stops corrosion from spreading into the bulk of the metal.
Passivation occurs only if the proportion of chromium is high enough, Stainless steel’s resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar lustre make it an ideal material for many applications. Storage tanks and tankers used to transport orange juice and other food are made of stainless steel. This influences its use in kitchens and food processing plants, as it can be steam-cleaned and sterilized. High oxidation resistance in air at ambient temperature is achieved with addition of a minimum of 13% chromium. The chromium forms a layer of chromium oxide when exposed to oxygen. The layer is too thin to be visible, and the metal remains lustrous, the layer is impervious to water and air, protecting the metal beneath, and this layer quickly reforms when the surface is scratched. This phenomenon is called passivation and is seen in other metals, corrosion resistance can be adversely affected if the component is used in a non-oxygenated environment, a typical example being underwater keel bolts buried in timber.
When stainless steel parts such as nuts and bolts are forced together, when forcibly disassembled, the welded material may be torn and pitted, a destructive effect known as galling. Galling can be avoided by the use of materials for the parts forced together, for example bronze and stainless steel. However, two different alloys electrically connected in a humid, even mildly acidic environment may act as a voltaic pile, nitronic alloys, made by selective alloying with manganese and nitrogen, may have a reduced tendency to gall. Additionally, threaded joints may be lubricated to provide a film between the two parts and prevent galling, low-temperature carburizing is another option that virtually eliminates galling and allows the use of similar materials without the risk of corrosion and the need for lubrication
Queens Botanical Garden
The Queens Botanical Garden began as part of the 1939 New York Worlds Fair in Queens. After the fair, the garden expanded to take up a portion of Flushing Meadows Park. When work begun on construction of the 1964 Worlds Fair, the garden was moved to a site across the street from Flushing Meadows Park to a location atop the bed of Kissena Creek. The construction cost of the center amounted $12 million, the main contractor of the construction was Stonewall Contracting Corporation from New York. The Queens Botanical Garden now consists of 39 acres of rose, herb and it is open to the public. Wedding photography is popular on the lawns by appointment, among other attractions, the garden hosts a Bee Garden. On September 27,2007, Mayor Bloomberg and other dignitaries attended the ribbon cutting of QBGs new visitor center. The center, designed by BKSK Architects, was the first building in New York City to achieve the Platinum LEED rating, list of botanical gardens in the United States Official website USGBC Profile of Queens Botanical Garden
American Bridge Company
The American Bridge Company is a civil engineering firm that specializes in building and renovating bridges and other large civil engineering projects. Founded in 1900, the company is headquartered in Coraopolis, the firm has built many bridges in the U. S. and elsewhere, the Historic American Engineering Record notes at least 81. American Bridge has built or helped build the Willis Tower, the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, launch pads, during World War II, it produced tank landing ships for the United States Navy. Competitors include Walsh Group, Flatiron Construction, and Skanska USA, related companies include American Bridge Holding Company and American Bridge Manufacturing Company, both headquartered in Coraopolis. American Bridge Company was founded in April 1900, when JP Morgan led a consolidation of 28 of the largest U. S. steel fabricators and constructors, in 1902, the company became a subsidiary of United States Steel as part of the Steel Trust consolidation. It went on to do work across the nation and around the world, during World War II, the company built warships for the U. S.
Navy. In 1944, American painter Thomas Hart Benton recorded the construction and launch of LST768, producing numerous drawings, the company went private in 1987 and was sold to Continental Engineering Corporation in 1988. The town of Ambridge, was an American Bridge company town, both municipalities are on the Ohio River near Pittsburgh, with access to many steel suppliers, as well as to waterborne and rail transport, to allow shipment of components and subassemblies. This is a representative, not an exhaustive, orinoco Bridge, Venezuela 25th of April Bridge, Portugal Built the worlds longest arch bridge on three occasions. 25 April Bridge in Lisbon, Portugal First stiffening truss replacement on a loaded, lions Gate Bridge, British Columbia, Canada The ongoing Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, in a joint venture with Fluor Corporation, American Bridge-Fluor. Built the world’s tallest building on numerous occasions, john Hancock Center, Chicago Aon Center, Chicago Columbia Seafirst Center, Seattle U. S.
Steel Tower,1970 Flatiron Building, New York City,1902 Built the world’s largest building by volume twice. Hammerhead Crane, 350ton Cantilever type, Cardwell v. American Bridge Co, news article on American Bridge legacy Another article on legacy
Communications satellites are used for television, radio and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth, the purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between widely separated points. Communications satellites use a range of radio and microwave frequencies. To avoid signal interference, international organizations have regulations for which frequency ranges or bands certain organizations are allowed to use and this allocation of bands minimizes the risk of signal interference. The concept of the communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on the 1929 work by Herman Potočnik Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums — der Raketen-motor, in October 1945 Clarke published an article titled Extraterrestrial Relays in the British magazine Wireless World.
The article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals, Arthur C. Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite and the term Clarke Belt employed as a description of the orbit. Decades a project named Communication Moon Relay was a project carried out by the United States Navy. Its objective was to develop a secure and reliable method of communication by using the Moon as a passive reflector. The first artificial Earth satellite was Sputnik 1, put into orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4,1957, it was equipped with an on-board radio-transmitter that worked on two frequencies,20.005 and 40.002 MHz. Sputnik 1 was launched as a step in the exploration of space, while incredibly important it was not placed in orbit for the purpose of sending data from one point on earth to another. And it was the first artificial satellite in the leading to todays satellite communications.
The first artificial satellite used solely to further advances in communications was a balloon named Echo 1. Echo 1 was the worlds first artificial communications satellite capable of relaying signals to other points on Earth and it soared 1,600 kilometres above the planet after its Aug.12,1960 launch, yet relied on humanitys oldest flight technology — ballooning. Launched by NASA, Echo 1 was a 30-metre aluminized PET film balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. The worlds first inflatable satellite — or satelloon, as they were informally known — helped lay the foundation of todays satellite communications, the idea behind a communications satellite is simple, Send data up into space and beam it back down to another spot on the globe. Echo 1 accomplished this by serving as an enormous mirror,10 stories tall
New York Hall of Science
The New York Hall of Science, known as NYSCI, is a science museum located in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in the New York City borough of Queens, in the section of the park that is in Corona. It occupies one of the few remaining structures from the 1964 New York Worlds Fair, the more than 400 hands-on exhibits focus on biology and physics. The museum was established in 1964 as part of the 1964 Worlds Fair in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, unlike many other institutions, which were closed immediately or soon after the Fair, the Hall remained open after the fair, and served as a resource for students. Its exhibits at the time were limited but included plans for the worlds first atomarium open to the public. The Hall remained open for 15 years, but in 1979 it was closed for major renovations, not to reopen until 1983 at the earliest. At the time, even though renovations were completed in 1983, in 1984, New York City hired physicist Alan Friedman to help with the museums transition from a focus on science fiction to relevance to everyday lives of ordinary citizens.
At the time Friedman was appointed, the museum was basically an empty shell, all the exhibits had been given away. Even the light fixtures had been yanked out of the wall”, the museums growth and ability to draw crowds was unexpected and led to the citys pursuit of further funds and expansion. In recognition of its continued upgrading, the Hall was granted the status of a New York City cultural institution, the Hall has continued to receive funding from a number of sources essential to its operation and expansion. This represented a change for the museum from the 1990s during which severe cuts in funding threatened its ability to operate successfully. The Hall mainly focuses on education for children ages 1–17 and its audience consists primarily of city children for whom the exposure to science is something new, the museum includes a large permanent collection as well as a range of travelling exhibitions. Although somewhat more common now, the museum was among the first to have its young visitors assess its exhibits, the Halls permanent exhibitions include, Official website nywf64. com
The Flushing River, more properly and historically known as Flushing Creek, is a waterway that flows through the northern part of central Queens in New York City and empties into the East River. The river runs through a valley that may have been a larger riverbed before the last Ice Age. In the 18th and 19th centuries, it divided the towns of Flushing on its bank and Newtown on its left, today. Flushing Creek once rose in the neighborhood of Kew Gardens Hills. The Flushing River, from the Water Gate buildings in Flushing Meadow Park, is measured about 200 feet wide with a depth of about 15 feet, the area near the mouth of the creek became the site of the early Flushing settlement. He explored and mapped the bays as he went, the town of Flushing was settled in 1645 under charter of the Dutch West India Company and was named after the port of Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands. It is said that the name Vlissingen means salt meadow, given as a nod to the waters of Flushing Meadows. As the English version of the name of the Dutch town is Flushing, during his presidency, George Washington arrived at Flushing by ferry across the creek.
The first road crossing, a drawbridge at Northern Boulevard, was built in the early 19th century, during the Civil War, steamboats made two scheduled trips daily between Flushing and James Slip in Manhattan. The steamers included the Statesman and Washington Irving, among their more renowned captains and operators were Captains Jonathan Peck and Curtis Peck, Eliajah Peck, and William Nimmo. By the 1850s, a crossing, Strongs Causeway, was built near the present-day Long Island Expressway. This crossing was near the confluence of Horse Brook and Flushing Creek, in the mid-19th century, the growing city of Brooklyn acquired the land around the creek and gave it to the Brooklyn Ash Removal Company, which turned the salt marshes into landfill. The pollution was chronicled by F. Scott Fitzgerald in The Great Gatsby, within the 1850s, the New York and Flushing Railroad built a railroad line across the river leading to what was a railroad terminal on the east side of the river in Flushing. The Flushing and North Side built a spur leading to Flushing Bay just southwest of the Flushing River delta.
All lines were acquired by the Long Island Rail Road, and most were abandoned at various periods, in 1936, Robert Moses proposed closing the ash landfill and transforming it into a park through its use as a Worlds Fair site. At its northern section, a tidal gate bridge was built to keep the East River tide from flooding into the park, by then, Horse Brook was long gone, its course destined to be covered by the future Long Island Expressway. Ireland Creek was filled in for use as parkland to prevent flooding in the surrounding neighborhoods and reduced in size, the creek became navigable only up to Roosevelt Avenue. Barges still docked on the river, bringing sand and gravel, at its southern end, the Jamaica subway yard reduced some of the flow coming from the headwaters
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange