Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies
The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the War in 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history, most Indonesians joyfully welcomed the Japanese, as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters. The sentiment changed, as Indonesians were expected to more hardship for the war effort. In 1944–1945, Allied troops largely bypassed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java, as such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of their surrender, in August 1945. Unlike the Dutch, the Japanese facilitated the politicisation of Indonesians down to the village level, particularly in Java and, to a lesser extent, the Japanese educated and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Until 1942, Indonesia was colonised by the Netherlands and was known as the Dutch East Indies, the Japanese spread the word that they were the Light of Asia.
The Japanese had gradually spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the 20th century and these ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade. The Japanese population peaked in 1931, with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease, a number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists, particularly with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan. Such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an Asia for the Asians, concerned were members of the Indonesian communist underground who followed the Soviet Unions popular united front against fascism. Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort, Dutch intelligence services monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.
The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people, within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago. On 8 December 1941, the Netherlands declared war on Japan, in January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia, under the command of General Archibald Wavell. In the weeks leading up to the invasion, senior Dutch government officials went into exile taking political prisoners, before the arrival of Japanese troops, there were conflicts between rival Indonesian groups where people were killed, vanished or went into hiding. Chinese- and Dutch-owned properties were ransacked and destroyed, the invasion in early 1942 was swift and complete. By January 1942, parts of Sulawesi and Kalimantan were under Japanese control, by February, the Japanese had landed on Sumatra where they had encouraged the Acehnese to rebel against the Dutch. On 27 February, the Allied navys last effort to contain Japan was swept aside by their defeat in the Battle of the Java Sea, from 28 February to 1 March 1942, Japanese troops landed on four places along the northern coast of Java almost undisturbed.
The fiercest fighting had been in invasion points in Ambon, Kalimantan, in places where there were no Dutch troops, such as Bali, there was no fighting. On 9 March, the Dutch commander surrendered along with Governor General Jonkheer A. W. L, as the Japanese advanced, rebellious Indonesians in virtually every part of the archipelago killed groups of Europeans and informed the Japanese reliably on the whereabouts of larger groups
Puerto Ricans in World War II
Puerto Ricans and people of Puerto Rican descent have participated as members of the United States Armed Forces in every conflict in which the United States has been involved since World War I. Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States in accordance to the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, ratified on December 10,1898, citizenship was imposed upon Puerto Ricans as a result of the 1917 Jones-Shafroth Act and were expected to serve in the military. When an Imperial Japanese Navy carrier fleet launched an attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7,1941. During World War II, it is estimated by the Department of Defense that 65,034 Puerto Ricans served in the U. S. military, most of the soldiers from the island served in either the 65th Infantry Regiment or the Puerto Rico National Guard. Those who resided in the mainland of the United States were assigned to units of the military. They were often subject to the discrimination that was widespread in the United States at the time. Puerto Rican women who served had their options restricted to nursing or administrative positions, in World War II some of the islands men played active roles as commanders in the military.
Years before the United States entered World War II Puerto Ricans were already fighting on European soil in the Spanish Civil War. Puerto Ricans fought on behalf of both of the factions involved, the Nationalists as members of the Spanish Army and the Loyalists as members of the Abraham Lincoln International Brigade. Among the Puerto Ricans who fought alongside General Franco on behalf of the Nationalists was General Manuel Goded Llopis, Llopis was sent to lead the fight against the Anarchists in Catalonia, but his troops were outnumbered. He was captured and was sentenced to die by firing squad, delgado was an anti-fascist who believed that the Spanish Nationalists were traitors. He fought in the Battle of Madrid, but was captured and was sentenced to die by firing squad on April 29,1937, in 1937, Japan invaded China and in September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. During that period of time, Puerto Ricos economy was suffering from the consequences of the Great Depression, unemployment was one of the reasons that some Puerto Ricans chose to join the Armed Forces.
Most of these men were trained in Camp Las Casas in Santurce, Puerto Rico, and were assigned to the 65th Infantry Regiment, the rumors of war spread, and the involvement of the United States was believed to be a question of time. The 65th Infantry was ordered to intensify its maneuvers, many of which were carried out at Punta Salinas near the town of Salinas in Puerto Rico. Those who were assigned to the 295th and 296th regiments of the Puerto Rican National Guard received their training at Camp Tortuguero near the town of Vega Baja, there werent any Puerto Rican military related fatalities in the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor. However, there was one civilian Puerto Rican fatality, daniel LaVerne was a Puerto Rican amateur boxer who was working at Pearl Harbors Red Hill underground fuel tank construction project when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. He died as a result of the injuries which he received during the attack
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russias political future. In addition, rival militant socialists and nonideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites, eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies. The Red Army defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine, the remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. Armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934, there were an estimated 7,000, 000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen, many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war.
Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland, Latvia, the rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the Russian Provisional Government was established during the February Revolution of 1917, Political commissars were appointed to each unit of the army to maintain morale and ensure loyalty. In June 1918, when it became apparent that an army composed solely of workers would be far too small. Former Tsarist officers were utilized as military specialists, sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty, at the start of the war three-quarters of the Red Army officer corps was composed of former Tsarist officers. By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers, a Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno, some of the military forces were set up on the basis of clandestine officers organizations in the cities.
The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917 and they had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok to France. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos, under pressure from the Central Powers, Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries, which created tensions with the Bolsheviks. The Western Allies armed and supported opponents of the Bolsheviks, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be strangled in its cradle, the British and French had supported Russia during World War I on a massive scale with war materials. After the treaty, it looked like much of material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Under this pretext began allied intervention in the Russian Civil War with the United Kingdom, there were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks
Nevada during World War II
Nevada during World War II was a time of great change that began immediately after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in December 1941. The population of Nevada grew significantly, largely due to an influx of men who were stationed at several newly built military bases. The economy improved as the number of workers steadily increased, mining was one of Nevadas main industries at the beginning of the World War II-era. Just like during World War I, the mines and the right next to them began to thrive once again due to an increase in demand for copper and silver. The increase is exemplified by the rise in production from $24,945,376 in 1938 to $43,864,107 in 1940. The construction of new bases brought in thousands of workers from outside of Nevada and cities next to the militarys facilities greatly profited from the new arrivals and grew in size. Nevadas population in 1940 was 110,247 and by 1950 it had grown to 160,083, although this number was small compared to California, for example, it represented a 45. 2% increase.
The Las Vegas and Reno areas were affected most by the increase in population, Las Vegas was just a town of 8,422 people in 1940. By 1950 it had grown to 24,624, a gain of 192. 4%, Reno went from a population of 21,317 in 1940 to 32,492 in 1950. Mining and the industries were not the only industries to benefit from the war. It was during World War II and the years afterward that Nevadas gambling. People like Bugsy Siegel, a New York City gangster, flocked to Nevada to take advandage of the growing communities, many people visited Nevadas snow topped mountains during the war years to ski. The Red-light districts attracted lots of people, including many men from California, however. Like other states in the Desert Southwest, most of the new military installations built were United States Army airbases, the states weather, wide open spaces, railroad connections, and access to California made it an ideal location for training pilots. Ranges and emergency strips included the Battle Mountain Flight Strip, the Black Rock Desert Gunnery Range, Churchill Flight Strip, tonopah Army Air Field and Indian Springs each had five auxiliary airstrips, including Indian Springs Forty-Mile Canyon Field and Groom Lake Field.
Camp Williston, located at Boulder City, provided security for Hendersons Basic Magnesium Plant, enemy aliens, including Japanese Americans, residing within Nevada faced new restrictions which had never been implemented before. The Japanese, were subjected to forced removal by the military, conditions were not bad for the entire Japanese community though, not all were forced to move to relocation camps. As aliens they had to register in accordance with the law and were required to turn in all weapons, some experienced little interference with their daily lives, while others were relocated to WRA internment camps
The Vargas Era is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Dornelles Vargas. The Brazilian Revolution of 1930 marked the end of the Old Republic, Federal intervention in State governments increased and the political landscape was altered by suppressing the traditional oligarchies of São Paulo and Minas Gerais states. The Estado Novo period, that began when, in order to perpetuate his rule, Vargas imposed a new, authoritarian Constitution in a coup détat, and shut down Congress, assuming dictatorial powers. The tenente rebellion did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough for Brazils bourgeois social reformers, Brazils vulnerability to the Great Depression had its roots in the economys heavy dependence on foreign markets and loans. Despite limited industrial development in São Paulo, the export of coffee, days after the U. S. stock market crash on October 29,1929, coffee quotations immediately fell 30% to 60%. Between 1929 and 1931, coffee prices fell from 22.5 cents per pound to 8 cents per pound, as world trade contracted, the coffee exporters suffered a vast drop in foreign exchange earnings.
The Great Depression possibly had a dramatic effect on Brazil than on the United States. The coffee planters had grown dangerously dependent on government valorization, for example, in the aftermath of the recession following World War I, the government was not short of the cash needed to bail out the coffee industry. But between 1929–30, world demand for Brazils primary products had fallen far too drastically to maintain government revenues, by the end of 1930, Brazils gold reserves had been depleted, pushing the exchange rate down to a new low. The program for warehoused coffee collapsed altogether, Government of President Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa faced a deepening balance-of-payments crisis and the coffee growers were stuck with an unsellable harvest. Since power ultimately rested on patronage system, wide-scale defections in the balance of regional interests left the regime of the Washington Luís vulnerable. Government policies designed to favor foreign interests further exacerbated the crisis, despite capital flight, Washington Luís clung to a hard-money policy, guaranteeing the convertibility of the Brazilian currency into gold or British sterling.
Once the gold and sterling reserves were exhausted amid the collapse of the valorization program, a populist governor of Brazils southernmost Rio Grande do Sul state, Vargas was a cattle rancher with a doctorate in law and the 1930 presidential candidate of the Liberal Alliance. He came from a region with a positivist and populist tradition, Vargas built up political networks, and was attuned to the interests of the rising urban classes. In his early years Vargas even relied on the support of the tenentes of the 1922 rebellion, using such insights, he gradually established such mastery over the Brazilian political world that he stayed in power for 15 years. During this time, as the stranglehold of the agricultural elites eased, new urban industrial leaders acquired more influence nationally, along with the urban bourgeois groups, Northeastern sugar barons were left with a legacy of longstanding grievances against the paulista coffee oligarchs of the South. Northeastern landowners opposed Washington Luís 1930 discontinuance of the relief projects of his predecessor.
The decay of established sugar oligarchies of the Northeast had begun dramatically with the drought of 1877
Manchuria is a modern name, first created by the Japanese, given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the Peoples Republic of China, the definition of Manchuria can be any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest, Northeast China, consisting of Heilongjiang and this is the area referred to as Manchuria in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. Inner Manchuria, the above, plus parts of modern Inner Mongolia, The above, plus Outer Manchuria, the area from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains, in Russian administrative terms, Ussuri krai, southern Harbin oblast, Primorskiy kray. The above, plus Sakhalin Island, which is included on Qing dynasty maps as part of Outer Manchuria even though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The island was included in Manchuria on maps made by the Japanese Shogunate.
Despite of lines on maps and empiress political claims, the island was inhabited by Ainu people until the Soviet Union enforced a policy after 1945. Three centuries and a half must now pass away before entering upon the act of the Manchu drama. During the ensuing two hundred years the Nü-chêns were scarcely heard of, the House of Ming being busily occupied in other directions and it may be noted here that Manchuria is unknown to the Chinese or to the Manchus themselves as a geographical expression. The present extensive home of the Manchus is usually spoken of as the Three Eastern Provinces, namely, Shêngking, or Liao-tung, or Kuan-tung and Heilungchiang or Tsitsihar. — Herbert A. Giles and the Manchus,1912 Manchuria is a translation of the Japanese word Manshū, the Manchu and Chinese languages had no such word as Manchuria and the word has imperialist connotations. According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using the name Manchuria to refer to the location, the historian Gavan McCormack agreed with Robert H. G.
The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria, the historian Norman Smith wrote that The term Manchuria is controversial. Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she should use the term in quotation marks when referring to Manchuria, in his 2012 dissertation on the Jurchen people to obtain a Doctor of Philosophy degree in History from the University of Washington, Professor Chad D. In the 18th-century Europe, the known as Manchuria was most commonly referred to as Tartary. However, the term Manchuria started appearing by the end of the century, in current Chinese parlance, an inhabitant of the Northeast, or Northeast China, is a Northeasterner. In China, the term Manchuria is rarely used today, and this usage is seen in the expression Chuǎng Guāndōng referring to the mass migration of Han Chinese to Manchuria in the 19th and 20th centuries. The name Guandong came to be used more narrowly for the area of the Kwantung Leased Territory on the Liaodong Peninsula and it is not to be confused with the southern province of Guangdong
Eastern Front (World War II)
The battles on the Eastern Front constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, and immense loss of life due to combat, exposure and massacres. The Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches, ghettos, of the estimated 70 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million, many of them civilian, occurred on the Eastern Front. The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome of the European portion of World War II and it resulted in the destruction of the Third Reich, the partition of Germany for nearly half a century and the rise of the Soviet Union as a military and industrial superpower. The two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in action in the Eastern Front, the United Kingdom. The joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front, in addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front.
Despite their ideological antipathy, both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union shared a dislike for the outcome of World War I. The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was an agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union, Estonia and Lithuania would return to Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. I need the Ukraine so that they cant starve us out, the two powers invaded and partitioned Poland in 1939. The annexations were never recognized by most Western states, the annexed Romanian territory was divided between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum, acquiring new territory for Germans in Eastern Europe, Wehrmacht officers told their troops to target people who were described as Jewish Bolshevik subhumans, the Mongol hordes, the Asiatic flood and the red beast.
The vast majority of German soldiers viewed the war in Nazi terms, Hitler referred to the war in unique terms, calling it a war of annihilation which was both an ideological and racial war. In addition, the Nazis sought to wipe out the large Jewish population of Central, after Germanys initial success at the Battle of Kiev in 1941, Hitler saw the Soviet Union as militarily weak and ripe for immediate conquest. On 3 October 1941, he announced, We have only to kick in the door, Germany expected another short Blitzkrieg and made no serious preparations for prolonged warfare. Throughout the 1930s the Soviet Union underwent massive industrialization and economic growth under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, Stalins central tenet, Socialism in one country, manifested itself as a series of nationwide centralized Five-Year Plans from 1929 onwards. It served as a testing ground for both the Wehrmacht and the Red Army to experiment with equipment and tactics that they would employ on a wider scale in the Second World War
North African Campaign
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco, the campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had colonial interests in Africa dating from the late 19th century. The Allied war effort was dominated by the British Commonwealth and exiles from German-occupied Europe, the United States entered the war in December 1941 and began direct military assistance in North Africa on 11 May 1942. Fighting in North Africa started with the Italian declaration of war on 10 June 1940, on 14 June, the British Armys 11th Hussars crossed the border from Egypt into Libya and captured the Italian Fort Capuzzo. Information gleaned via British Ultra code-breaking intelligence proved critical to Allied success in North Africa, victory for the Allies in this campaign immediately led to the Italian Campaign, which culminated in the downfall of the fascist government in Italy and the elimination of a German ally.
On 10 May 1940, the Wehrmacht had started the Battle of France, one month later, it was plain to see that France would have to surrender within two weeks. On 10 June 1940, the Kingdom of Italy aligned itself with Nazi Germany and declared war upon France, British forces based in Egypt were ordered to undertake defensive measures, but to act as non-provocatively as possible. However, on 11 June they began a series of raids against Italian positions in Libya, following the defeat of France on 25 June, Italian forces in Tripolitania—facing French troops based in Tunisia—redeployed to Cyrenaica to reinforce the Italian Tenth Army. Italian dictator Benito Mussolini ordered the Tenth Army to invade Egypt by 8 August, two days later, no invasion having been launched, Mussolini ordered Marshal Graziani that, the moment German forces launched Operation Sea Lion, he was to attack. The battle plan was to advance along the road, while limited armoured forces operated on the desert flank. To counter the Italian advance, Wavell ordered his forces to harass the advancing Italians, falling back towards Mersa Matruh.
Positioned on the flank was the 7th Armoured Division, which would strike the flank of the Italian force. By 16 September, the Italian force had advanced to Maktila, around 80 mi west of Mersa Matruh, in response to the dispersed Italian camps, the British planned a limited five-day attack, Operation Compass, to strike at these fortified camps one by one. The British Commonwealth force, totalling 36,000 men, attacked the forward elements of the 10-division-strong Italian army on 9 December, following their initial success, the forces of Operation Compass pursued the retreating Italian forces. In January, the port at Bardia was taken, soon followed by the seizure of the fortified port of Tobruk. Some 40,000 Italians were captured in and around the two ports, with the remainder of the Tenth Army retreating along the coast road back to El Agheila. Richard OConnor sent the 7th Armoured Division across the desert, with a reconnaissance group reaching Beda Fomm some ninety minutes before the Italians.
Although desperate attempts were made to overcome the British force at the Battle of Beda Fomm, the Italians were unable to break through, and the remnants of the retreating army surrendered
The Xinhai Revolution, known as the Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew Chinas last imperial dynasty, and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the cycle of the Chinese calendar. The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings, the turning point was the Wuchang Uprising on October 10,1911, which was the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution arose mainly in response to the decline of the Qing state, many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui. After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC.
In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, the day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, in the wars against the Taiping, Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional Manchu armies proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local Han armies. Following defeat in the Second Opium War, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861, in 1895, China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War. This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a reform in education, military. The reform was a failure, as it was ended prematurely by a coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898.
Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled, while in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor. Empress Dowager Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on, under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on power by suppressing, often with great brutality. Dissidents could operate only in societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish a Han Chinese government, the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wans Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Empire of Iran during World War II by Soviet and other Commonwealth armed forces. The invasion lasted from 25 August to 17 September 1941 and was codenamed Operation Countenance and its purpose was to secure Iranian oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines for the USSR, fighting against Axis forces on the Eastern Front. In 1925, after years of war and foreign intervention, Persia was unified under the rule of Reza Khan. Later, in 1935, he asked foreign delegates to use the term Iran and he set on an ambitious program of economic and military modernisation. Iran, which had been a divided and isolated country under the rule of the Qajar Dynasty, was now evolving into a modern industrial state. Reza Shah made improvements, such as building infrastructure, expanding cities and transportation networks. He set forth on a policy of neutrality, but to finance and support his ambitious modernisation projects.
For many decades and the German Empire had cultivated ties, partly as a counter to the ambitions of Britain. Trading with Germany appealed to Iran because the Germans did not have a history of imperialism in the region, unlike the British, Iranian embassies in occupied European capitals rescued over 1,500 Jews and secretly granted them Iranian citizenship, allowing them to move to Iran. The British began to accuse Iran of supporting Nazism and being pro-German. of the profits, following Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Britain and the Soviet Union became formal Allies, providing further impetus for an Allied invasion. British and Soviet planners recognised the importance of railway and sought to control it. As increasing U-boat attacks and winter ice made convoys to Arkhangelsk dangerous, the Soviets wanted to make Iranian Azerbaijan and the Turkmen Sahra part of the Soviet Union or even turn Iran into a communist state. The two Allied nations applied pressure on Iran and the Shah, which led only to increased tensions, the British described the protests as being pro-German.
Irans strategic position threatened Soviet Caucasian oil and their armies rear, demands from the Allies for the expulsion of German residents in Iran, were refused by the Shah. A British embassy report in 1940, estimated there were almost 1,000 German nationals in Iran. According to Irans Ettelaat newspaper, there were actually 690 German nationals in Iran, the Iranians began to reduce their trade with the Germans under Allied demands. Reza Shah sought to remain neutral and anger neither side, which was becoming increasingly difficult with the British/Soviet demands on Iran, British forces were already present in sizeable numbers in Iraq as a result of the Anglo-Iraqi War earlier in 1941. Thus, British troops were stationed on the border of Iran prior to the invasion
Southern Rhodesia in World War II
Southern Rhodesia, a self-governing colony of the United Kingdom, entered World War II along with Britain shortly after the invasion of Poland in 1939. The colonys operational casualties numbered 916 killed and 483 wounded of all races, Southern Rhodesia had no diplomatic powers, but largely oversaw its own contributions of manpower and materiel to the war effort, being responsible for its own defence. Rhodesian officers and soldiers were distributed in groups throughout the British. Most of the men served in Britain, East Africa and the Mediterranean, particularly at first. Other non-white soldiers and white servicewomen served in East Africa and on the front within Southern Rhodesia. Tens of thousands of men were conscripted from rural communities for work, first on the aerodromes. World War II prompted major changes in Southern Rhodesias financial and military policy, the war remained prominent in the national consciousness for decades afterwards. Southern Rhodesias dead of the war today have no official commemoration and it was unique in the British Empire and Commonwealth in that it held extensive autonomous powers while lacking dominion status.
In practice, it acted as a quasi-dominion, and was treated as such in many ways by the rest of the Commonwealth. The franchise was non-racial and in open to all, contingent on meeting financial and educational qualifications. The colonys Prime Minister was Godfrey Huggins, a physician and veteran of World War I who had emigrated to Rhodesia from England in 1911, the Rhodesia Regiment comprised about 3,000 men, including reserves, in 1938. The country had fielded black troops during World War I, the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitlers Nazi Germany in March 1939 convinced Huggins that war was imminent. Seeking to renew his governments mandate to pass emergency measures, he called an election in which his United Party won an increased majority. Huggins rearranged his Cabinet on a war footing, making the Minister of Justice Robert Tredgold Minister of Defence as well, the territory proposed forces not only for internal security but for the defence of British interests overseas. Self-contained Rhodesian formations were planned, including a reconnaissance unit.
He proposed to concentrate on training white Rhodesians for leadership roles and specialist units. These ideas met with approval in both Salisbury and London and were adopted, the Southern Rhodesian parliament unanimously moved to support Britain in the event of war during a special sitting on 28 August 1939. When Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, following the invasion of Poland, Southern Rhodesia issued its own declaration of war almost immediately, the majority of the black population paid little attention to the outbreak of war
World War II by country
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan