Timeline of World War II (1941)
This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II from 1941, marked by the beginning of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front. 1, Accounting of the nights bombing of London reveals that the Old Bailey, the Guildhall. RAF bombs aircraft factories in Bremen, Germany,2, German bombers, perhaps off course, bomb Irish Free State for the second night in a row. 2–4, Bardia is bombed by British bombers and bombarded by naval vessels off shore,3, RAF bombers attacked Bremen and the Kiel Canal in Germany. The Kiel Canal Bridge suffered a hit and collapsed on Finnish ship Yrsa. 5, Operation Compass, Australian troops of XIII Corps capture Italian-held Bardia and 45,000 Italian prisoners are taken, the next target, is 70 miles away. The leader of Wallonias fascist party, Léon Degrelle, gives a speech in the German-occupied city of Liège announcing the support of the Rexist Party for German Nazism,6, The Greeks advance towards Klisura Pass. 7, British and Commonwealth offensive in North Africa nears Tobruk,10, Lend-Lease introduced into the U. S.
Congress. German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement is signed, German aircraft damage aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious, which is heading for Malta. German Luftwaffe, it is now clear, has command of air over the Mediterranean, the attack is the opening of Maltas agony over the next months. Greek forces in Albania take the strategically important Klissoura pass,11, In London,57 people are killed and 69 injured when a German bomb lands outside the Bank of England, demolishing the Underground station below and leaving a 120-foot crater. 12, Operation Compass and Australian troops of XIII Corps prepare for the assault on Italian-held Tobruk,13, Heavy Luftwaffe night raid on Plymouth. 14, First use of V for Victory by Victor de Laveleye on the BBCs Belgian service,15, The rivalry between Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists becomes more evident, large numbers of the latter are forced to give up their arms, reluctantly of course. 16, British forces start the first attacks of their East African counter-offensive, on Italian-held Ethiopia, from Kenya, German bombers pound Valletta, Malta,17, The Battle of Ko Chang ended in a decisive victory for the Vichy French naval forces during the Franco-Thai War.
Molotov meets German Ambassador Schulenburg in Moscow, the Soviets are surprised that they have not received any answer from Germany to their offer to join the Axis. Schulenburg replies that it has to be first discussed with Italy,18, Air raids on Malta are increasing in focus and intensity. 19, The 4th and 5th Indian Divisions continue the British counter-offensive in East Africa and Mussolini meet at Berchtesgaden, Hitler agrees to provide aid in North Africa. 21, Operation Compass and Australian troops of XIII Corps complete capture of Italian-held Tobruk, there are reports that Romanian Fascist are executing Jews in Bucharest
HMS Exmouth (H02)
HMS Exmouth was an E-class destroyer flotilla leader built for the Royal Navy in the early 1930s. Although assigned to the Home Fleet upon completion, the ship was attached to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1935–36 during the Abyssinia Crisis. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939 she spent considerable time in Spanish waters, enforcing the blockade imposed by Britain. Exmouth was assigned to escort and anti-submarine patrol duties in the Western Approaches when World War II began in September 1939. She was sunk by a German submarine in January 1940 while escorting a merchant ship north of Scotland, Exmouth displaced 1,495 long tons at standard load and 2,050 long tons at deep load. The ship had a length of 343 feet, a beam of 33 feet 9 inches. She was powered by two Parsons geared steam turbines, each driving one shaft, using steam provided by three Admiralty three-drum boilers. The turbines developed a total of 38,000 shaft horsepower, Exmouth carried a maximum of 470 long tons of fuel oil that gave her a range of 6,350 nautical miles at 15 knots.
The ships complement was 175 officers and ratings, the ship mounted five 45-calibre 4. 7-inch Mark IX guns in single mounts. For anti-aircraft defence, Exmouth had two quadruple Mark I mounts for the 0.5 inch Vickers Mark III machine gun and she was fitted with two above-water quadruple torpedo tube mounts for 21-inch torpedoes. One depth charge rail and two throwers were fitted,20 depth charges were carried, but this increased to 35 shortly after the war began. Exmouth was ordered on 1 November 1932 under the 1931 Naval Programme and she was launched on 30 January 1934, named the following day, and commissioned for service on 9 November 1934. On commissioning, Exmouth was assigned as leader of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla of the Home Fleet and she returned to Britain in March and Exmouth was assigned to training duties and local flotilla work based at Portsmouth on 28 April. She carried out duties until 2 August, when she was placed into full commission as the leader of the 12th Destroyer Flotilla.
Exmouth and her flotilla were assigned to the Home Fleet upon the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. The ship and two of her flotilla mates and Echo, escorted the battlecruiser Hood as she searched for German commerce raiders south of Iceland in late November. She was escorting the merchant Cyprian Prince on 21 January 1940 when she was spotted by the German submarine U-22, under the command of Karl-Heinrich Jenisch and she sank with the loss of all hands. After sinking Exmouth, the submarine fired on Cyprian Prince whose master deemed it too dangerous to pick up survivors
Events preceding World War II in Asia
This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. The revolution led by the Kuomintang and others ended the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, which was replaced by a republic, prior to World War I, the ROC central government failed to effectively rule its territory. China fell into a region of local warlords. Other than the central government, two primary forces aimed to unite China under their ideology. The KMT was reorganized in 1919, and the Communist Party of China was formed in 1921, the two parties were not immediate enemies and had short-term partnership. In 1924, KMT started a campaign to defeat the northern warlords. In 1927, with much of southern and central China under the KMT control, the KMT took most parts of China under its power in 1928, and the warlord controlling Manchuria agreed to KMT leadership of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Britain won the war and as a result gained control over Hong Kong,1853, American Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Tokyo harbor and forces Japanese to allow trade with American merchants with threat of military action.
1856, Outbreak of the Second Opium War or the Arrow War in China, resulting Treaties of Tianjin at 1858, Treaty of Aigun, etc. Unequal Treaties and burning, looting of the Old Summer Palace, beyond any doubt, by 1860 the ancient civilization that was China had been thoroughly defeated and humiliated by the West. 1858, Western nations force Japan to sign the Unequal Treaties and these articles established export and import tariffs and the concept of extraterritoriality. Japan had no power to change these terms,1868, Japan, in an effort to modernize and prevent future Western dominance, ousts the Tokugawa Shogunate and adopts a new Meiji Emperor. The next few decades see arguably the most rapid and successful industrialization of any economy in world history during the Meiji Restoration, 1894–1895, The First Sino-Japanese War ends in Japanese victory, results in Japanese dominance in Korea and Japanese control of Liaodong Peninsula and Penghu Islands. Balance of power in Asia permanently altered,1899, With newly gained power from recent industrialization, Japan successfully renegotiates aspects of the Unequal Treaties.
1904–1905, The Russo-Japanese War begins with an attack and ends by an eventual Japanese victory over Imperial Russia. Japanese control over Korea until World War II is assured,1910, Empire of Japan annexes Korea. 1911, The Chinese Revolution overthrows the Manchu Qing Dynasty and establishes the Republic of China,1914, During World War I Japan and other Allies seize German colonial possessions. 1919, The May Fourth Movement erupts in Beijing to protest to the Chinese government’s weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, Japan, as a member of the victorious Allies during World War I, gains a mandate over various Pacific islands previously part of the German colonial empire
Diplomatic history of World War II
The Diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II, the United States, the Soviet Union and China were the Big Four Allied powers, who called themselves The United Nations. They were joined by other countries, such as Canada, and other Commonwealth countries, as well as governments in exile, such as the Free France. The Cairo Conference held in Cairo, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II, the meeting was attended by President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin did not attend the conference because his meeting with Chiang could have caused friction between the Soviet Union and Japan. Britain, the USSR and the US, were in frequent contact through ambassadors, top generals, foreign ministers, there were numerous high-level conferences, in total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, and Stalin 5.
Most visible were the three conferences that brought together the three top leaders. The first meeting of the Big Three, Stalin and Churchill and it agreed on an invasion of France in 1944 and dealt with Turkey, Iran and the war against Japan as well as the post-war settlement. The Yalta Conference met in the Crimea February 4–11,1945 and it focused on postwar plans for European boundaries. The new boundaries of Poland were especially important, with Stalin seeking control of western Belorussia, Poland was to gain parts of Germany. Stalin promised free elections in Poland under the auspices of a government he controlled, at Roosevelts strong urging, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan three months after the defeat of Germany. It was agreed the USSR would be a member of the United Nations Security Council, with a veto, and Ukraine and Belorussia would be UN members, Germany was to be divided into three zones of occupation, and France was to get a zone. In a decision that became controversial, all civilians would be repatriated.
The Potsdam Conference was held July 17-Aug,2,1945, at Potsdam, near Berlin. Stalin met with the new U. S. President Harry S. Truman and it demanded unconditional surrender from Japan, and finalized arrangements for Germany to be occupied and controlled by the Allied Control Commission. The status of occupied countries was discussed in line with the basic agreements made earlier at Yalta. The conference was held at Dumbarton Oaks from August 21,1944 to October 7,1944, San Francisco Conference was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, United States. At this convention, the delegates reviewed and rewrote the Dumbarton Oaks agreements, though most Americans favoured Britain in the war, there was widespread opposition to American military intervention in European affairs
Timeline of World War II (1942)
This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II from 1942. 1, Twenty-six Allied countries signed the Declaration by United Nations during the Arcadia Conference,2, Manila is captured by Japanese forces. They take Cavite naval base, and the American and Filipino troops continue the retreat into Bataan,5, The beginning of a major Red Army offensive under General Zhukov. 6, The British advance continues to El Agheila, on the edge of Libya. In his State of the Union speech, President Roosevelt promises more aid to Britain, including planes,7, The Soviet Winter counter-offensive comes to a halt, after having pushed the exhausted and freezing German Army back 62–155 mi from Moscow. Siege of the Bataan Peninsula begins, Heavy air attacks on Malta, it is estimated that the bomb tonnage dropped on the island is twice that dropped on London. 8, Japanese troops penetrated the lines of defense at Kuala Lumpur. 9, Japanese advances in Borneo meet with little opposition,10, Japan declares war on the Netherlands.
11, Japanese troops capture Kuala Lumpur, Japan invades the Dutch East Indies. 13, The Red Army takes Kirov and Medya, as its counter-offensive continues, the German U-boat offensive comes closer to the US shores starting the Second Happy Time. 15, German authorities begin to deport Jews from the Lodz ghettos to the Chelmno Concentration Camp,19, Japanese forces take large numbers of British troops prisoner, north of Singapore. 20, Nazis at the Wannsee conference in Berlin decide that the solution to the Jewish problem is relocation. Japanese bomb Singapore as their troops approach the city,21, Rommels Afrika Korps begins a surprise counter-offensive at El Agheila, his troops, with new reinforcements and tanks, capture Agedabia, push north to Beda Fomm. At the Vilna Ghetto the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye a Jewish partisan organisation is established,23, The Battle of Rabaul, on New Britain begins. 24, American troops land in Samoa, as part of a strategy to stop the Japanese advance in the Pacific,25, Thailand declares war on the United States and United Kingdom.
Japanese troops invade the Solomon Islands,26, The first American forces arrive in Europe landing in Northern Ireland. 27, The British withdraw all troops back into Singapore,28, Brazil breaks off relations with the Axis powers. 29, Rommels Afrika Korps recaptures Benghazi, Libya in his drive east, for the next few months, the two sides will rest and rearm
Declarations of war during World War II
This is a timeline of formal declarations of War during World War II. A declaration of war is an act by which one nation goes to war against another. The official international protocol for declaring war was defined in The Hague Peace Conference of 1907, for the diplomatic maneuvering behind these events which led to hostilities between nations during World War II, see the article entitled Diplomatic history of World War II. Below is a showing the Outbreaks of Wars between Nations which occurred during World War II. Indicated are the dates, from which a de facto state of war existed between nations, the table shows both the Initiator Nation and the nation at which the aggression was aimed, or Targeted Nation. Events listed include those in there were simple diplomatic breaking of relations that did not involve any physical attack. Outbreaks of Wars between Nations during World War II Table Legend, Concerning Declaration of War, Type, a = Attack without prior, formal declaration of war, U = State of war arrived at through use of ultimatum, W = Formal declaration of war made.
The Great Tragedy, Germanys Declaration of War against the United States of America, for Their Own Good, Civilian Evacuations in Germany and France, 1939-1945
Battle of Suomussalmi
The Battle of Suomussalmi was a battle fought between Finnish and Soviet forces in the Winter War. The action took place from around December 7,1939 to January 8,1940, the outcome was a Finnish victory against superior forces. Suomussalmi is considered the clearest, most important, and most significant Finnish victory in the half of Finland. In Finland, the battle is seen today as a symbol of the entire Winter War itself. On November 30,1939, the Soviet 163rd Rifle Division crossed the border between Finland and the Soviet Union and advanced from the north-east towards the village of Suomussalmi, the Soviet objective was to advance to the city of Oulu, effectively cutting Finland in half. This sector had only one Finnish battalion, which was placed near Raate, the first extensive fight started on December 8, when Soviet forces began to attack across the frozen lakes to the west. The second part of Soviet forces led the attack to the northwest on Puolanka, that was defended by the Er. P16, on December 9, the defenders were reinforced with a newly founded regiment.
Colonel Hjalmar Siilasvuo was given the command of the Finnish forces, the main forces advanced on Suomussalmi, but failed to take the village, suffering serious losses. On December 24, Soviet units counterattacked, but failed to break through the surrounding Finnish forces, reinforced with two new regiments, the Finns again attacked on December 27. This time, they took the village, and the Soviets retreated in panic over the frozen lakes. A large part of them managed to reach the Russian border along the Kiantajärvi lake, during this time, the Soviet 44th Rifle Division had advanced from the east towards Suomussalmi. It was entrenched on the road between Suomussalmi and Raate and got caught up in the retreat of the other Soviet forces. Between January 4 and January 8,1940, the 44th Rifle Division was divided into isolated groups and destroyed by the Finnish troops, the battle resulted in a major victory for the Finns. If the Soviet Union had captured the city of Oulu, the Finns would have had to defend the country on two fronts and an important rail link to Sweden would have been severed, the battle gave a decisive boost to the morale of the Finnish army.
Alvar Aalto sculpted a memorial for the Finnish soldiers who died, the battle of Suomussalmi is often cited as an example of how a small force, properly led and fighting in familiar terrain, can defeat a vastly numerically superior enemy. Factors which contributed to the Finnish victory included, Finnish troops having higher mobility due to skis and sleds, in contrast, Finnish strategy was flexible and often unorthodox, for example, targeting Soviet field kitchens, which demoralized Soviet soldiers fighting in a sub-Arctic winter. Soviet army being poorly equipped, especially regard to winter camouflage clothing. Finnish army had very high morale, they were defending their homes, Soviet troops had only political reasons for their attack, and consequently lost their will to fight soon despite continual efforts by Soviet propagandists
Timeline of World War II (1939)
This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II. For events preceding September 1,1939, see the timeline of events preceding World War II,1, The Republic of China and the Empire of Japan are involved in the early stages of the third year of armed conflict between them during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The war is in what will be known as the Second Period and this conflict will eventually be swept up into WWII when Japan joins the Axis and China joins the Allies. 1, The Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany starts at 4,45 a. m. with the Luftwaffe attacking several targets in Poland, the Luftwaffe launches air attacks against Kraków, Łódź, and Warsaw. By 8,00 a. m. troops of the German Army, still without a declaration of war issued. 1, Norway and Switzerland declare their neutrality,1, The British government declares general mobilization of the British Armed Forces and starts evacuation plans in preparation of German air attacks. 2, The National Service Act 1939 is enacted immediately and enforces full conscription on all males between 18 and 41 resident in the UK,2, The Free City of Danzig is annexed by Germany.
Resistors entrenched in the citys Polish Post Office are overwhelmed, australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany within hours of Britains declaration. 3, At 12, 30pm BST the French Government delivers a final ultimatum. The Battle of the Atlantic starts,3, Bromberg massacre, many ethnic German civilians are killed in the Polish city of Bromberg. Newfoundland Standard Time, Dominion of Newfoundland declares war on Germany,4, In the first British offensive action of the War, the Royal Air Force launch a raid on the German fleet in the Heligoland Bight. They target the German pocket-battleship Admiral Scheer anchored off Wilhelmshaven at the end of the Kiel Canal. Several aircraft are lost in the attack and, although the German vessel is hit three times, all of the bombs fail to explode,4, Japan announces its neutrality in the European situation. The British Admiralty announces the beginning of a blockade on Germany. 4, The United States launches the Neutrality Patrol,5, South African Prime Minister Barry Hertzog fails to gain support for a declaration of South African neutrality and is deposed by a party caucus for Deputy Prime Minister Jan Smuts.
5, The United States publicly declares neutrality,6, South Africa, now under Prime Minister Jan Smuts, declares war on Germany. 6, Battle of Barking Creek, a fire incident. 6, One of the German army captures Kraków in the south of Poland,7, France begins a token offensive, moving into German territory near Saarbrücken
Events preceding World War II in Europe
The events preceding World War II in Europe are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany. World War II is generally viewed as having its roots in the aftermath of World War I, in that war, the German Empire under Kaiser Wilhelm II, with its allies, was defeated, chiefly by the United Kingdom and the United States. The victors blamed Germany entirely for the war and all resulting damages, the British naval blockade of Germany was not lifted until the treaty was signed at the end of June 1919. The fascists maintained a paramilitary wing, which they employed to fight anarchists, communists. Within a few years, Mussolini had consolidated power and Italy became a police state. He sent large forces into Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, the two colonies of Italy that bordered Ethiopia, Britain attempted to broker peace but failed, Mussolini was bent on conquest. Britain declared an embargo on both Italy and Ethiopia, but cleared its warships from the Mediterranean, further allowing Italy unhindered access.
Shortly after the League of Nations exonerated both parties in the Walwal Incident, Italy attacked Ethiopia, resulting in the Second Italo–Abyssinian War, shortly after Italy conquered Ethiopia, the Spanish Civil War began. During the Spanish Civil War, seen by many as a ground for the Second World War, Germany provided troops, weapons. On April 7,1939, Italy invaded Albania, after a short campaign Albania was occupied and joined Italy in a personal union. The Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, blamed Germanys ruined economy on the harshness of the Versailles Treaty, on faults of democracy, the situation was further aggravated by the worldwide economic depression that followed the Wall Street crash in 1929. This enabled the president and Cabinet to bypass the Parliament, spain was non-belligerent during World War II, but the civil war division of fascism versus democracy and communism was repeated. Meanwhile, in Germany, once political consolidation was in place, on March 16,1935, Hitler ignored the Versailles Treaty and ordered Germany to re-arm, reintroducing military conscription.
The treaty had limited the German Reichswehr to 100,000 men with few arms. Many Britons felt the restrictions placed on Germany in Versailles had been too harsh and this sentiment was underscored by the signing of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, which authorized Germany to build a fleet one third the size of the Royal Navy. Hitler moved troops into the demilitarized Rhineland on March 7,1936, but, as before, Hitlers defiance was met with inaction, despite Polands proposal to put the Franco-Polish Military Alliance into action. He was visiting Berlin at the time to address the Nazi Law Society, in the meeting, Hitler emphasized his limited expansionist aim of building a greater German nation, and his desire for British understanding and cooperation. Toynbee was convinced of Hitlers sincerity, and endorsed Hitlers message in a memorandum for the British prime minister
World War II by country
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan