The Urals are a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains. It extends approximately from north to south, from the Arctic Ocean to the bend of Ural River near Orsk city, the boundary between Europe and Asia runs along the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. Ural mostly lies within Russia but includes a part of northwestern Kazakhstan and this is a historical, not an official entity, with the boundaries overlapping its western Volga and eastern Siberia neighbor regions. At points in time, parts of the Urals were considered a gateway to Siberia, if not Siberia itself, at present time, there are two official namesake entities, the Ural Federal District and the Ural economic region. While the latter follows the boundaries, the former is a political product. The historical center of the Urals is Cherdyn, nowadays it is the town in Perm Krai. Perm was a center of the gubernia with the same name by 1797. The most territory of historical and modern Ural was included in Perm gubernia, the administrative center of Urals was moved to Sverdlovsk after Revolution and Civil war.
Nowadays Ural economic region does not have an administrative and informal capital, from the 11th century, the region of the Ural Mountains was called stone by Russians. In the mid-16th – early 17th century, the parts became known as Ural. The name probably originated from Turkic aral and this word literally means island and was used for any territory different from the surrounding terrain. In Bashkortostan there is a 13th-century legend about a hero named Ural and he sacrificed his life for the sake of his people, and they poured a stone pile over his grave, which turned into the Ural Mountains. By topography and other features, Ural is divided, from north to south, into the Polar, Near-Polar, Central. The Polar Ural has an area of about 25,000 km2, the Near-Polar Ural is wider and higher than the Polar Ural. The Northern Ural consists of a series of ridges with the height up to 1, 000–1,300 m and longitudinal depressions. The Central Ural is the lowest part of Urals, with the highest mountain of 994 m, the relief of Southern Ural is more complex, with numerous valleys and ridges directed south-west and meridionally.
Urals contains 48 species of valuable ores and minerals. Eastern regions are rich in chalcopyrite, nickel oxide and magnetite ores, as well as in coal, gold, Western Ural contains deposits of coal, oil and potassium salts
The ruble or rouble is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia. Originally, the ruble was the unit of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. The Russian ruble is used in the partially recognised states of Abkhazia. In the past, several other countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union had currency units that were named rubles, one ruble is divided into 100 kopeks. According to one version, the ruble is derived from the Russian verb рубить, to cut, to chop, to hack. Rubles were parts of the grivna or pieces of silver with notches indicating their weight, each grivna was divided into four parts, the name ruble came from the word cut because the silver rod weighing 1 grivna was split into four parts, which were called rubles. Another version of the origin is that it comes from the Russian noun рубец. Therefore, the word means a cast with a seam. A popular theory deriving word ruble from rupee is probably not correct, the ruble was the Russian equivalent of the mark, a measurement of weight for silver and gold used in medieval Western Europe.
The weight of one ruble was equal to the weight of one grivna, in Russian, a folk name for ruble, tselkovyj, is known, which is a shortening of the целковый рубль, i. e. a wholesome, uncut ruble. This name persists in the Mordvin word for ruble, целковой, the word kopek, copeck, or kopeyka is a diminutive form of the Russian kopyo — a spear. The first kopek coins, minted at Novgorod and Pskov from about 1534 onwards, from the 1540s onwards the horseman bears a crown, and doubtless the intention was to represent Ivan the Terrible, who was Grand Prince of all Russia until 1547, and Tsar thereafter. Subsequent mintings of the coin, starting in the 18th century, since the monetary reform of 1534, one Russian accounting ruble became equivalent to 100 silver Novgorod denga coins or smaller 200 Muscovite denga coins or even smaller 400 polushka coins. Exactly the former coin with a rider on it became colloquially known as kopek and was the higher coin until the beginning of the 18th century. Ruble coins as such did not exist till Peter the Great, apart from one ruble and one kopek coins other smaller and greater coins existed as well.
Both the spellings ruble and rouble are used in English, the form rouble is preferred by the Oxford English Dictionary, but the earliest use recorded in English is the now completely obsolete robble. The form rouble probably derives from the transliteration into French used among the Tsarist aristocracy, the Russian plurals that may be seen on the actual currency are modified according to Russian grammar. Numbers 1,21,31 etc. are followed by nominative singular рубль, numbers 2–4, 22–24, 32–34 etc. will be followed by genitive singular рубля, копейки
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a transition metal with a silver color, low density. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791, and it is named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll, the most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride, a component of smoke screens and catalysts, and titanium trichloride, the two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, there are two allotropic forms and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant. Although they have the number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table.
As a metal, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio and it is a strong metal with low density that is quite ductile and metallic-white in color. The relatively high melting point makes it useful as a refractory metal and it is paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity. Commercial grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 434 MPa, equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, titanium is 60% denser than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys achieve tensile strengths of over 1400 MPa, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C. Titanium is not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel, it is non-magnetic, machining requires precautions, because the material might gall unless sharp tools and proper cooling methods are used. Like steel structures, those made from titanium have a limit that guarantees longevity in some applications. The metal is an allotrope of an hexagonal α form that changes into a body-centered cubic β form at 882 °C.
The specific heat of the α form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but falls, similar to zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but metastable at ambient pressures. This phase is usually hexagonal or trigonal and can be considered to be due to a soft longitudinal acoustic phonon of the β phase causing collapse of planes of atoms, like aluminium and magnesium, titanium metal and its alloys oxidize immediately upon exposure to air. Titanium readily reacts with oxygen at 1,200 °C in air and it is, slow to react with water and air at ambient temperatures because it forms a passive oxide coating that protects the bulk metal from further oxidation. When it first forms, this layer is only 1–2 nm thick but continues to grow slowly
Treptower Park is a park alongside the river Spree in Alt-Treptow, in the district of Treptow-Köpenick, south of central Berlin. It was the location of the Great Industrial Exposition of Berlin in 1896 and it is a popular place for recreation of Berliners and a tourist attraction. On 14 July 1987 it was used by British band Barclay James Harvest for the first ever open-air concert by a rock band in the German Democratic Republic. It was opened four years after the war ended, on May 8,1949, within Treptower Park is Spreepark, an abandoned amusement park, which operated from October 1969 until 2001. The owner of Spreepark, Norbert Witte, went bankrupt and left Germany rather abruptly and he took several of the parks rides including the Jet Star and Fun Express with him to Peru where he was to open a small park called Lunapark at Jockey Plaza in Lima, Peru. Some of the rides were damaged in transit and followed by discussions of who would pay for the damages. Klingende Blume Media related to Treptower Park at Wikimedia Commons Website der Bürgerinitiative Treptower Park Rollercoaster Database - Spree-Park Info
Floodlights are broad-beamed, high-intensity artificial lights. They are often used to outdoor playing fields while an outdoor sports event is being held during low-light conditions. More focused kinds are used as a stage lighting instrument in live performances such as concerts. In the top tiers of professional sports, it is a requirement for stadiums to have floodlights to allow games to be scheduled outside daylight hours. Evening or night matches may suit spectators who have work or other commitment earlier in the day, one motivation for this is television marketing, especially in sports such as gridiron football which rely on TV rights money to finance the sport. Some sports grounds which do not have permanent floodlights installed may make use of portable temporary ones instead, many larger floodlights will have gantries for bulb changing and maintenance. These will usually be able to one or two maintenance workers. The most common type of floodlight is the lamp, which emits a bright white light.
Sodium-vapor lamps are commonly used for sporting events, as they have a very high lumen-to-watt ratio. In the recent years there have been new developments, and LED technology has come a long way, now LED flood lights are bright enough to be used for illumination purposes on large sport fields. The main reason for the use of LEDs is the power consumption. The first LED lit sports field in the United Kingdom was switched on at Taunton Vale Sports Club on 6 September 2014, the first sport to play under floodlights was polo, on 18 July 1878. Ranelagh Club hosted a match in Fulham, England against the Hurlingham Club, Cricket was first played under floodlights on Monday,11 August 1952 in England which was watched by several million people on their television sets. Since most test playing countries have installed floodlights in some or all of their stadiums, traditional Cricket floodlights have a long pole on which lights are fixed. This is done several times, the ball travels too high when a batsman hits it.
However, many cricket stadiums have different types of floodlights like the ANZ Stadium in Australia, the DSC Cricket Stadium in Dubai recently installed Ring of Fire system of floodlights which is latest and smartest system of floodlight in the world. Bramall Lane was reportedly the first floodlit stadium, floodlighting in association football dates as far back as 1878, when there were floodlit experimental matches at Bramall Lane, Sheffield during the dark winter afternoons. With no national grid, lights were powered by batteries and dynamoes, lights were be used by clubs such as Thames Ironworks, but they stopped the practice after joining the Southern League in 1888
In metallurgy, stainless steel, known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10. 5% chromium content by mass. Stainless steel is notable for its resistance, and it is widely used for food handling. Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does, however, it is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments. There are various grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure, Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present, unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film is active and accelerates corrosion by making it easier for more iron oxide to form, since iron oxide has lower density than steel, the film expands and tends to flake and fall away. In comparison, stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to undergo passivation and this layer prevents further corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and stops corrosion from spreading into the bulk of the metal.
Passivation occurs only if the proportion of chromium is high enough, Stainless steel’s resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar lustre make it an ideal material for many applications. Storage tanks and tankers used to transport orange juice and other food are made of stainless steel. This influences its use in kitchens and food processing plants, as it can be steam-cleaned and sterilized. High oxidation resistance in air at ambient temperature is achieved with addition of a minimum of 13% chromium. The chromium forms a layer of chromium oxide when exposed to oxygen. The layer is too thin to be visible, and the metal remains lustrous, the layer is impervious to water and air, protecting the metal beneath, and this layer quickly reforms when the surface is scratched. This phenomenon is called passivation and is seen in other metals, corrosion resistance can be adversely affected if the component is used in a non-oxygenated environment, a typical example being underwater keel bolts buried in timber.
When stainless steel parts such as nuts and bolts are forced together, when forcibly disassembled, the welded material may be torn and pitted, a destructive effect known as galling. Galling can be avoided by the use of materials for the parts forced together, for example bronze and stainless steel. However, two different alloys electrically connected in a humid, even mildly acidic environment may act as a voltaic pile, nitronic alloys, made by selective alloying with manganese and nitrogen, may have a reduced tendency to gall. Additionally, threaded joints may be lubricated to provide a film between the two parts and prevent galling, low-temperature carburizing is another option that virtually eliminates galling and allows the use of similar materials without the risk of corrosion and the need for lubrication
Soviet War Memorial (Treptower Park)
The Soviet War Memorial is a vast war memorial and military cemetery in Berlins Treptower Park. It was built to the design of the Soviet architect Yakov Belopolsky to commemorate 5,000 of the 80,000 Soviet soldiers who fell in the Battle of Berlin in April–May 1945 and it opened four years after World War II on May 8,1949. The Memorial served as the war memorial of East Germany. The monument is one of three Soviet memorials built in Berlin after the end of the war, the memorials are not only commemorative, but serve as cemeteries for those killed. A competition was announced shortly after the end of the war for the design of the park, the sculptures, and 2.5 meter diameter Flammenschalen were cast at the Kunstgießerei Lauchhammer in 1948. The memorial itself was built in Treptower Park on land occupied by a sports field. The memorial was completed in 1949, the stones and granite that were used in the construction came from the demolished New Reich Chancellery. Around the time of the fall of the Berlin wall, unknown persons vandalized parts of the memorial with anti-Soviet graffiti, the PDS claimed that the vandals were right-wing extremists and arranged a demonstration on January 3,1990,250,000 GDR citizens participated.
Through the demonstrations, the newly formed party stayed true to the communist roots of its founding party, PDS chairman Gregor Gysi took this opportunity to call for a Verfassungsschutz for the GDR, and questioned whether the Amt für Nationale Sicherheit should be reorganized or phased out. Historian Stefan Wolle believes that Stasi officers may have been behind the vandalism, as part of the Two Plus Four Agreement, Germany agreed to assume maintenance and repair responsibility for all war memorials in the country, including the Soviet memorial in Treptower Park. However, Germany must consult the Russian Federation before undertaking any changes to the memorial, since 1995, an annual vigil has taken place at the memorial on May 9, organized by the Bund der Antifaschisten Treptow e. V. The motto of the event is the Day of Freedom, corresponding to Victory Day, a Russian holiday and the final surrender of German soldiers at the end of World War II. The focus of the ensemble is a monument by Soviet sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and this was a great achievement of the Soviet people to the history of mankind.
The area is the resting place for some 5000 soldiers of the Red Army. At the opposite end of the area from the statue is a portal consisting of a pair of stylized Soviet flags built of red granite. These are flanked by two statues of kneeling soldiers, beyond the flag monuments is a further sculpture, along the axis formed by the soldier monument, the main area, and the flags, is another figure, of the Motherland weeping at the loss of her sons. In recent years, the ensemble has undergone a thorough renovation, in 2003 the main statue was removed and sent to a workshop on the island of Rügen for refurbishment. It was replaced on May 4,2004
Sniping requires the development of basic infantry skills to a high degree of skill. A snipers training incorporates a variety of subjects designed to increase value as a force multiplier. The art of sniping requires learning and repetitively practicing these skills until mastered, a sniper must be highly trained in long range rifle marksmanship and field craft skills to ensure maximum effective engagements with minimum risk. The verb to snipe originated in the 1770s among soldiers in British India in reference to shooting snipe, the agent noun sniper appears by the 1820s. The term sniper was first attested in 1824 in the sense of the word sharpshooter, a somewhat older term is sharp shooter, a calque of 18th-century German Scharfschütze, in use in British newspapers as early as 1801. According to figures released by the United States Department of Defense, the average number of rounds expended by U. S. military snipers to kill one enemy soldier is 1.3 rounds. According to the United States Army, the soldier will hit a man-sized target 10 percent of the time at 300 meters using the M16A2 rifle.
Graduates of the United States Army Sniper School are expected to achieve 90 percent first-round hits at 600 meters, different countries use different military doctrines regarding snipers in military units and tactics.50 BMG, like the Barrett M82, McMillan Tac-50, and Denel NTW-20. Soviet- and Russian-derived military doctrines include squad-level snipers, snipers have increasingly been demonstrated as useful by US and UK forces in the recent Iraq campaign in a fire support role to cover the movement of infantry, especially in urban areas. Military snipers from the US, UK, and other countries that adopt their military doctrine are typically deployed in two-man sniper teams consisting of a shooter and spotter, a common practice is for a shooter and a spotter to take turns in order to avoid eye fatigue. A sniper team would be armed with its long weapon. Sniper rifles are classified as crew-served, as the term is used in the United States military, a sniper team consists of a combination of one or more shooters with force protection elements and support personnel, such as a spotter or a flanker.
Both spotter and flanker carries additional ammunition and associated equipment, the spotter detects and assigns targets and watches for the results of the shot. Using a spotting scope and/or rangefinder, the spotter will read the wind by using physical indicators and it is not unusual for the spotter to be equipped with a notepad and a laptop computer specifically for performing these calculations. Law enforcement snipers, commonly called police snipers, and military snipers differ in ways, including their areas of operation. A police sharpshooter is part of an operation and usually takes part in relatively short missions. Police forces typically deploy such sharpshooters in hostage scenarios and this differs from a military sniper, who operates as part of a larger army, engaged in warfare. Sometimes as part of a SWAT team, police snipers are deployed alongside negotiators and an assault team trained for close quarters combat
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Winged Victory of Samothrace
The Winged Victory of Samothrace, called the Nike of Samothrace, is a marble Hellenistic sculpture of Nike, that was created about the 2nd century BC. Since 1884, it has been displayed at the Louvre and is one of the most celebrated sculptures in the world. H. W. Janson described it as the greatest masterpiece of Hellenistic sculpture, datings based on stylistic evaluation have been equally variable, ranging across the same three centuries, but perhaps tending to an earlier date. The statue is 8 feet high and it was created not only to honor the goddess, but to honor a sea battle. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery, Modern excavations suggest that the Victory occupied a niche above a theater and suggest it accompanied an altar that was within view of the ship monument of Demetrius I Poliorcetes. Rendered in grey and white Thasian and Parian marble, the figure originally formed part of the Samothrace temple complex dedicated to the Great gods, Megaloi Theoi.
It stood on a pedestal of gray marble from Lartos representing the prow of a ship. Before she lost her arms, which have never been recovered, the statue’s outstretched right wing is a symmetric plaster version of the original left one. The different degree of finishing of the sides has led scholars to think that it was intended to be seen from three-quarters on the left, the sculptor is unknown, although Paul MacKendrick suggests that Pythokritos of Lindos is responsible. The Archaeological Museum of Samothrace continues to follow these originally established provenance, ceramic evidence discovered in recent excavations has revealed that the pedestal was set up about 200 BC, though some scholars still date it as early as 250 BC or as late as 180. Certainly, the parallels with figures and drapery from the Pergamon Altar seem strong, the evidence for a Rhodian commission of the statue has been questioned and the closest artistic parallel to the Nike of Samothrace are figures depicted on Macedonian coins.
Samothrace was an important sanctuary for the Hellenistic Macedonian kings, the most likely battle commemorated by this monument is, the Battle of Cos in 255 BC, in which Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia won over the fleet of Ptolemy II of Egypt. In April 1863, the Victory was discovered by the French consul and amateur archaeologist Charles Champoiseau, the statue has been reassembled in stages since its discovery. The prow was reconstructed from marble debris at the site by Champoiseau in 1879, after 1884, the statue was positioned where it would visually dominate the Daru staircase. Since 1883, the figure has been displayed in the Louvre. In the autumn of 1939, the Winged Victory was removed from her perch in anticipation of the outbreak of World War II, all the museums of Paris were closed on August 25. Artwork and objects were packed for removal to locations deemed more safe outside Paris for safekeeping, on the night of September 3, the statue descended the staircase on a wooden ramp which was constructed across the steps.
During the years of World War II, the statue sheltered in safety in the Château de Valençay along with the Venus de Milo and Michelangelos Slaves
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa