Cult of personality
Sociologist Max Weber developed a tripartite classification of authority, the cult of personality holds parallels with what Weber defined as charismatic authority. A cult of personality is similar to divinization, except that it is established by media and propaganda usually by the state. The term cult of personality probably appeared in English around 1800–1850, along with the French, at first it had no political connotations but was instead closely related to the Romantic cult of genius. The political use of the phrase came first in a letter from Karl Marx to German political worker, Wilhelm Blos,10 November 1877, robert Service notes that a more accurate translation of the Russian культ личности is the cult of the individual. Throughout history and other heads of state were almost always held in enormous reverence, through the principle of the divine right of kings, in medieval Europe for example, rulers were said to hold office by the will of God. Ancient Egypt, the Inca, the Aztecs, Siam, the spread of democratic and secular ideas in Europe and North America in the 18th and 19th centuries made it increasingly difficult for monarchs to preserve this aura.
It was from these circumstances in the 20th century that the personality cults arose. Often these cults are a form of political religion, personality cults were first described in relation to Totalitarianism regimes that sought to alter or transform society according to radical ideas. Not all dictatorships foster personality cults, while not all personality cults are practiced in dictatorships, for example, during the Cambodian Khmer Rouge regime, images of dictator Pol Pot were rarely seen in public, and his identity was under dispute abroad until after his fall from power. The same applied to numerous Eastern European communist regimes following World War II
Molotov served as Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars from 1930 to 1941, and as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1939 to 1949 and from 1953 to 1956. He served as First Deputy Premier from 1942 to 1957, when he was dismissed from the Presidium of the Central Committee by Nikita Khrushchev, Molotov retired in 1961 after several years of obscurity. He was aware of the Katyn massacre committed by the Soviet authorities during this period, after World War II, Molotov was involved in negotiations with the Western allies, in which he became noted for his diplomatic skills. He retained his place as a leading Soviet diplomat and politician until March 1949, Molotovs relationship with Stalin deteriorated further, with Stalin criticising Molotov in a speech to the 19th Party Congress. However, after Stalins death in 1953, Molotov was staunchly opposed to Khrushchevs de-Stalinisation policy, Molotov defended Stalins policies and legacy until his death in 1986, and harshly criticised Stalins successors, especially Khrushchev.
Molotov was born Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin in the village of Kukarka, Yaransk Uyezd, Vyatka Governorate, contrary to a commonly repeated error, he was not related to the composer Alexander Scriabin. Throughout his teen years, he was described as shy and quiet and he was educated at a secondary school in Kazan, and joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1906, soon gravitating toward that organisations radical Bolshevik faction, headed by V. I. Skryabin took the pseudonym Molotov, derived from the Russian word молот molot for his political work owing to the names vaguely industrial ring and he was arrested in 1909 and spent two years in exile in Vologda. In 1911 he enrolled at St Petersburg Polytechnic, Molotov joined the editorial staff of a new underground Bolshevik newspaper called Pravda, meeting Joseph Stalin for the first time in association with the project. This first association between the two future Soviet leaders proved to be brief and did not lead to a close political association.
Molotov worked as a professional revolutionary for the next several years, writing for the party press. He moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow in 1914 at the time of the outbreak of World War I and it was in Moscow the following year that Molotov was again arrested for his party activity, this time being deported to Irkutsk in eastern Siberia. In 1916 he escaped from his Siberian exile and returned to the city, now called Petrograd by the Tsarist regime. Molotov became a member of the Bolshevik Partys committee in Petrograd in 1916, when the February Revolution occurred in 1917, he was one of the few Bolsheviks of any standing in the capital. Under his direction Pravda took to the left to oppose the Provisional Government formed after the revolution, when Joseph Stalin returned to the capital, he reversed Molotovs line, but when the party leader Lenin arrived, he overruled Stalin. Despite this, Molotov became a protégé of and close adherent to Stalin, Molotov became a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee which planned the October Revolution, which effectively brought the Bolsheviks to power.
In 1918, Molotov was sent to Ukraine to take part in the war breaking out. Since he was not a man, he took no part in the fighting
Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov was a Soviet military leader, chief marshal of the artillery, and Hero of the Soviet Union. He was commander of forces of the Red Army from 1941 until 1950. Voronov commanded the Soviet artillery during the Battle of Stalingrad and was the Stavka representative to various fronts during the Siege of Leningrad and the Battle of Kursk. He fought in the Russian Civil War, the Polish-Soviet War, nikolay Voronov was born on 5 May 1899 in Saint Petersburg to Nikolai Terentyvich Voronov, a clerk, and Valentina Voronov. After the Revolution of 1905, Voronovs father became unemployed due to his Russian Social Democratic Labour Party sympathies, on 30 November 1908, his poverty-stricken mother committed suicide by taking cyanide. Voronov dropped out of a school in 1914 due to financial problems. In the fall of 1916, his father was drafted, in 1917, Voronov passed an external degree examination. In March 1918, Voronov joined the Red Army, in the same year, he completed the 2nd Petrograd Artillery courses, after which he was a platoon commander in a howitzer battalion in the Petrograd 2nd Battery.
As part of the 15th Army, he fought in battles with Nikolai Yudenichs forces near Pskov, in 1919, Voronov joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Beginning in April 1920, Voronov fought in the Polish–Soviet War with the 83rd Regiment of the 10th Rifle Division and his battery was armed with the 76 mm divisional gun M1902 instead of the 122 mm howitzer M1910. On 17 August, Voronov received a concussion during a battle in the village of Józefów nad Wisłą. When he regained consciousness, he found that Polish troops had captured the village, the injured Voronov attempted to escape on a horse, but was captured. During his eight months of captivity, Voronov suffered from typhus and he was repatriated at the end of the war in April 1921. In the summer of 1922, Voronov was appointed commander of the battery of the 27th Rifle Division. In fall 1923 he attended the school of higher artillery commanders, during the 1926 maneuvers, Voronov distinguished himself commanding the artillery of the Belorussian Military District.
As a reward, he was granted permission to take the examination for the Frunze Military Academy. In 1930, Voronov graduated from the academy and he became the commander of the artillery regiment of the 1st Moscow Rifle Division. In August 1932, Voronov was sent to Italy as part of the Soviet mission there, in April 1934, he was appointed chief military Commissar of the 1st Artillery School
Mosfilm is a film studio that is among the largest and oldest in the Russian Federation and in Europe. The Moscow film production unit with studio facilities was established in November 1923 by the motion picture mogul Aleksandr Khanzhonkov, ermolev as a unit of the Goskino works. The first movie filmed by Mosfilm was On the Wings Skyward, in 1927 the construction of a new film studio complex began on Mosfilmovskaya Street in Sparrow Hills of Moscow. This film studio was named after the Moscow amalgamated factory Soyuzkino the Tenth Anniversary of the October, in 1934 the film studio was renamed to Moskinokombinat, and in 1936 – to Mosfilm. During World War II the film studio personnel were evacuated to Alma-Ata, the Mosfilm personnel returned to Moscow at the end of 1943. By the time the Soviet Union was no more, Mosfilm had produced more than 3,000 films, many film classics were shot at Mosfilm throughout its history and some of these were granted international awards at various film festivals.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Mosfilm continued operations as a production company. As of 2005, the company embraced ten independent studios, located within 13 sound stages occupying an area of 13,000 sq. meters, tours through this Russian Hollywood become increasingly popular, as they allow to view Mosfilms enormous depot with 170 tanks and 50 vintage cars. The biggest sound stage is leased annually to hold the Golden Eagle Awards, in 2011 Mosfilm released a selection of its classic films online for free viewing. 1968 The Diamond Arm directed by Leonid Gaidai 1969 Liberation directed by Yuri Ozerov 1969 The Brothers Karamazov,1969 White Sun of the Desert directed by Vladimir Motyl 1971 Tchaikovsky directed by Igor Talankin, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1971 nominee. 1981 Private Life directed by Yuli Raizman, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1981 nominant,1981 Teheran 431982 Lenin in Paris 1985 Come and See directed by Elem Klimov 1986 Kin-dza-dza
Arthur Schmidt (soldier)
Arthur Schmidt was an officer in the German military from 1914 to 1943. He was a prisoner of war in the Soviet Union for twelve years, Schmidt joined the army as a one-year volunteer on 10 August 1914, attaining the rank of Leutnant on 8 May 1915. Schmidt held various positions in the Heer, including chief of operations in Fifth Army, on 25 October 1940 he served as chief of staff in 5th Army Corps, a position he held until 25 March 1942, when he moved to the Führerreserve at Oberkommando des Heeres. On 26 January 1942 he was awarded the German Cross in Gold, the British historian and author Antony Beevor offers the following description of Schmidt, a slim, sharp-featured and sharp-tongued staff officer from a Hamburg mercantile family. Schmidt, confident of his own abilities, put many backs up within Sixth Army headquarters, Paulus relied greatly on his judgement, and as a result he played a large, some say an excessive, role in determining the course of events that year. Many false reports of the massing of Soviet forces were received from the Romanian sector and Schmidt realised that Sixth Army was encircled on 21 November.
At Nizhne-Chirskaya on 22 November, Schmidt told 8th Air Corpss commander, General Martin Fiebig and he was told that The Luftwaffe doesnt have enough aircraft. Later that day and Paulus held a conference attended by General Hermann Hoth and Major-General Pickert and he re-emphasised that before Sixth Army could break out to the south, We must have fuel and ammunition delivered by the Luftwaffe. When told that this was impossible, he replied that more than 10,000 wounded and that would be a Napoleonic ending. All the while, Paulus remained silent, the time he spoke during the conference was to agree with his chief of staff. On the afternoon of 22 November, Schmidt flew with Paulus to the new Sixth Army HQ at Gumrak and that evening the Soviet encirclement of Axis forces was confirmed in a signal Paulus sent to Hitler. Schmidt contacted his corps commanders and, in defiance of Hitlers order to stand firm and Schmidt started planning for the breakout that evening, despite receiving another message from Hitler that they must stand firm and await relief.
However, on 24 November Sixth Army received a further Führer order relayed from Army Group B and we reacted to this order with astonishment, since we had expected some sort of discussion with the Army Group, and were fairly certain of the breakout. Paulus and I came separately to the same conclusion and it now seemed more impossible than ever to act against an order of the High Command or Army Group. This decision to stand firm in a hedgehog defence sealed Sixth Armys fate, interrogation of captured German officers led Soviet commanders to realise that, because of the toll of events on Pauluss nerves, Schmidt was the real commander of the defending forces. According to Beevor, were convinced that Paulus was virtually a prisoner in his own headquarters. Dyatlenko had no doubt that Schmidt was the eyes and hand of the Nazi Party in the Sixth Army, because captured officers reported that Schmidt was commanding the Army and these characteristics of Paulus and Schmidt would prove fatal to the trapped garrison of Stalingrad.
The envoys were even fired on, Paulus denied that he had ordered this, according to Pois and Langer, chief of staff, Arthur Schmidt, a committed National Socialist to the end, seemed to represent Hitler for Paulus, probably was Hitler at Stalingrad
Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich was a Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin. At his death in 1991, he was the last surviving Old Bolshevik, the Soviet Union itself outlived him by a mere five months. Kaganovich was born in 1893 to Jewish parents in the village of Kabany, Radomyshl uyezd, Kiev Governorate, early in his political career, in 1915, Kaganovich became a Communist organizer at a shoe-factory where he worked. Circa 1911 he entered the Bolshevik party, in 1915 Kaganovich was arrested and sent back to Kabany. During March–April 1917 he served as the Chairman of the Tanners Union, in May 1917 he became the leader of the military organization of Bolsheviks in Saratov, and in August 1917, he became the leader of the Polessky Committee of the Bolshevik party in Belarus. During the October Revolution of 1917 he led the revolt in Gomel, in 1918 Kaganovich acted as Commissar of the propaganda department of the Red Army. From May 1918 to August 1919 he was the Chairman of the Ispolkom of the Nizhny Novgorod gubernia, in 1919–1920, he served as governor of the Voronezh gubernia.
In May 1922, Stalin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party and this department was responsible for all assignments within the apparatus of the Communist Party. Working there, Kaganovich helped to place Stalins supporters in important jobs within the Communist Party bureaucracy, in this position he became noted for his great work capacity and for his personal loyalty to Stalin. He stated publicly that he would execute any order from Stalin. In 1924 Kaganovich became a member of the Central Committee, from 1925 to 1928, Kaganovich was the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Ukrainian SSR. He was given the task of ukrainizatsiya - meaning at that time the building up of Ukrainian communist popular cadres and he had the duty of implementing collectivization and the policy of economic suppression of the kulaks. He opposed the more moderate policy of Nikolai Bukharin, who argued in favor of the integration of kulaks into socialism. As Secretary, he endorsed Stalins struggle against the so-called Left and Right Oppositions within the Communist Party, in 1934, at the XVII Congress of the Communist Party, Kaganovich chaired the Counting Committee.
He falsified voting for positions in the Central Committee, deleting 290 votes opposing the Stalin candidacy and his actions resulted in Stalins being re-elected as the General Secretary instead of Sergey Kirov. By the rules, the candidate receiving fewer opposing votes should become the General Secretary, before Kaganovichs falsification, Stalin received 292 opposing votes and Kirov only three. However, the result saw Stalin with just two opposing votes. In 1930 Kaganovich became a member of the Soviet Politburo and the First Secretary of the Moscow Obkom of the Communist Party and he headed the Moscow Gorkom of the Communist Party
Maximilian von Weichs
Maximilian von Weichs was a field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. He commanded several armies and army groups, including the 2nd Army during Operation Barbarossa, in 1944, Weichs commanded Army Group F in the Balkans overseeing the German retreat from Greece and most of Yugoslavia. During the Nuremberg Trials, Weichs was implicated in war crimes and was scheduled to take part in the Hostages Trial and he was removed from the proceeding for medical reasons without having been judged or sentenced. Born in 1881 into a family, Maximilian von Weichs entered the Bavarian Cavalry in 1900. After the war he remained in the newly created Reichswehr where he worked at a number of General Staff positions, Weichs aristocratic and cavalry credentials demonstrated the continuing influence of these military elites in Germanys modernizing force. In October 1937 he became the commander of the 13th Army Corps, for the German invasion of Poland beginning World War II in 1939, Weichs was appointed head of his own Army Corps Weichs.
After the Polish surrender, he was made Commander-in-Chief of the 2nd Army, after the Battle of France, he was awarded the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross and promoted to colonel-general. He led the 2nd Army in 1941 through the Battle of Kiev, the Battle of Smolensk, and on to Vyazma and Bryansk. In 1942, for Fall Blau, Weichs was assigned to lead the newly created Army Group B. Army Group B was composed of Salmuths 2nd Army, Hoth’s 4th Panzer Army, and Pauluss 6th Army. In addition to the German armies, Army Group B included the 2nd Hungarian Army, 8th Italian Army, the Third, the 6th Army was assigned to take the city of Stalingrad and cover approximately 800 km of front. The Soviet Operation Uranus broke through the Romanian armies on his flanks, suggesting retreat, Weichs fell out of Hitler’s favor. Consequently, parts of Army Group B were taken away from the command of Weichs and incorporated into a new Army Group Don, in February, the remaining part merged with the Don Group into a newly reinstated Army Group South, led by Manstein.
Weichs was promoted to Field Marshal on 1 February 1943, in August 1943 Weichs was appointed Commander of Army Group F in the Balkans directing operations against local partisan groups. In late 1944, he oversaw the German retreat from Greece, Weichs was retired on 25 March 1945 and was arrested by American troops in May. During the Nuremberg Trials, Weichs was implicated in war crimes committed while suppressing the partisans and he was removed from the Hostages Trial for medical reasons without having been judged or sentenced
The Fall of Berlin (film)
The Fall of Berlin is a Soviet war film and an example of Soviet realism, in two parts separated in the manner of a serial, directed by Mikheil Chiaureli, released in 1950 by the Mosfilm Studio. The script was written by Pyotr Pavlenko, and the score composed by Dmitri Shostakovich. It starred Mikheil Gelovani as Joseph Stalin, Alexei Ivanov, a shy steel factory worker, greatly surpasses his production quota and is chosen to receive the Order of Lenin and to have a personal interview with Joseph Stalin. Alexei falls in love with the idealist teacher Natasha, but has difficulties approaching her, when he meets Stalin, who tends his garden, the leader helps him to understand his emotions and tells him to recite poetry to her. Then, they both have a luncheon with the rest of the Soviet leadership in Stalins home, after returning from Moscow, Alexei confesses his love to Natasha. While they are both having a stroll in a field, their town is attacked by the Germans. Alexei loses his consciousness and sinks into a coma, when he awakes, he is told that Natasha is missing and that the Germans are at the gates of Moscow.
In the capital, Stalin plans the defense of the city, Alexei volunteers for the Red Army, takes part in the parade in the Red Square and in the Battle of Moscow. In the meanwhile, Göring negotiates with British capitalist Bedstone, who supplies Germany with needed materials, after the Soviet victory in Stalingrad, Vasily Chuikov tells Ivanov that Stalin is always with the Red Army. The storyline leaps to the Yalta Conference, where Stalin and his Western Allies debate the future of the war, the treacherous Winston Churchill intends to deny the Soviets access to Berlin and almost manages to convince the gullible Franklin Delano Roosevelt to accept his plans. And the war rages on toward Moscow, with Alexei in the midst of battle, Stalin asks his generals who will take Berlin, they or the Western Allies. The generals answer that they capture the city. Alexeis Guards Army advances towards Berlin, while Hitler has a nervous breakdown, Natasha faints, and he does not find her. Hitler and the German leadership fall into despair and lose their grip on reality the closer the Soviets get to Berlin, Hitler orders to flood the subway stations as the Soviets approach, drowning thousands of civilians.
He marries Eva Braun and commits suicide, gen. Hans Krebs carries the news of Hitlers death to the Red Army and begs for a ceasefire. Stalin orders to only an unconditional surrender. Alexei is chosen to carry the Victory Banner, alongside Mikhail Yegorov and their division storms the Reichstag and the three hoist the banner atop of it. The Germans surrender and Red Army soldiers from throughout the USSR celebrate victory, Stalins plane lands in Berlin, and he is greeted by an enthusiastic crowd of peoples of all the nations, holding posters with his picture and waving various nations flags
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president
Wilhelm Keitel was a German field marshal who served as chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht for most of World War II. Following the war, Keitel was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and he was found guilty, sentenced to death and executed in 1946. He was the third highest-ranking German officer to be tried at Nuremberg, Keitel was born in the village of Helmscherode near Gandersheim in the Duchy of Brunswick, the eldest son of Carl Keitel, a middle class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. After he completed his education at gymnasium in Göttingen, his plan to take over his familys estates foundered on his fathers resistance, instead, he embarked on a military career in 1901, becoming an officer cadet of the Prussian Army. As a commoner he did not join the cavalry, but the mounted 46th Lower-Saxon Field Artillery Regiment in Wolfenbüttel, on 18 April 1909, Keitel married Lisa Fontaine, a wealthy landowners daughter at Wülfel near Hanover.
Together they had six children, one of whom died in infancy and his eldest son, Karl-Heinz Keitel went on to serve as a divisional commander in the Waffen-SS. During World War I, Keitel served on the Western Front with his regiment and took part in the fighting in Flanders. Elevated to the rank of a captain, Keitel quickly recovered and he went on to fight in the First Battle of the Marne, the Battle of Verdun, and in the Battle of Passchendaele, being awarded the Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class. He served as a divisional General Staff officer of the 6th Prussian Artillery Regiment, in late 1924, Keitel was transferred to the German Ministry of War in Berlin, serving with the Troop Office, the post-Versailles disguised German General Staff. Three years later, he returned to the 6th Prussian Artillery Regiment as commander of the 2nd Department, playing a vital role in the German re-armament, he at least once travelled to the Soviet Union to inspect secret Reichswehr training camps. Shortly after this, in the autumn of 1932, he suffered from a heart attack, despite being Chief of the OKW, Keitel lacked independent command authority, merely acting as Hitlers agent and issuing orders on his behalf.
In 1937, Keitel was promoted to the rank of full general, in the following year, after the Blomberg–Fritsch affair, the War Ministry was replaced by the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces, and Keitel was appointed as its chief. This effectively made him Germanys War Minister, and accordingly, he was appointed to the Hitler Cabinet, the cabinet never held a formal meeting after the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair. Soon after his appointment, he convinced Hitler to appoint his friend, Walther von Brauchitsch. For a brief period in October 1938, Keitel was Military Governor of the Sudetenland, in February 1939 Keitel again became chief of OKW, a post he held until the end of the war. During World War II, Keitel was one of the planners of the Wehrmacht campaigns and operations on the Western. He advised Hitler against invading France and opposed Operation Barbarossa, both times he backed down in the face of Hitler and tendered his resignation, which Hitler refused to accept. In 1940, after the French campaign, he was promoted to field marshal during the 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony along with other generals