It was established as a settlement serving Torgovaya railway station, which opened in 1899. It was granted town status and renamed Salsk in 1926, Salsk was occupied by Nazi Germany from July 31,1942 as a part of the operation known as Case Blue. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Salsk serves as the center of Salsky District. As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Salsky District as Salskoye Urban Settlement, as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Salsky Municipal District. Закон №340-ЗС от25 июля2005 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №270-ЗС от27 ноября2014 г, «О внесении изменений в областной Закон Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Наше время, №187–190,28 июля2005 г. Закон №233-ЗС от27 декабря2004 г, «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Сальский район и муниципальных образований в его составе». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Наше время, №№325–338,28 декабря2004 г
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Horlivka, known by its Russian name Gorlovka or Gorlowka, is a city of regional significance in the Donetsk Oblast of eastern Ukraine. In 2001, the population was 292,000, which declined to 256,714 by 2013. Economic activity is coal mining and the chemical industry. The Horlivka State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages has a two building campus in the center of town, the city was severely damaged during the War in Donbass and has since been mainly under control of pro-Russian forces. Suburbs of Horlivka stayed under Ukrainian army control, in 1779 the city was founded as Gosudarev Posad and in 1869 it was renamed after Pyotr Gorlov as Gorlovka. The workers town provided basic services to and organization of a series of mining camps, during the Russian Revolution of 1905, it was the scene of an armed uprising. Subsequently, under Soviet control, by the 1930s it had expanded considerably, the city was occupied by German troops from 1941-1943. During World War II retreating Nazis burned buildings and perpetrated mass shootings, the citys population had risen to over 400,000 by the end of the war.
In recent years many mines have closed, the population fell by more than ten percent during the 1990s. In the middle of April,2014, and shortly thereafter, a group of separatists seized the police station in Horlivka on April 14, the city hall was seized on April 30. The mayor of the city, Yevhen Klep, was detained by the separatists on June 11, local chief of police Andriy Kryschenko was captured and badly beaten by the insurgents. A Horlivka city council deputy, Volodymyr Rybak, was kidnapped by the militants on 17 April. His body was found in a river on 22 April. The city administration building was seized on 30 April, solidifying separatist control over Horlivka, self-proclaimed mayor of Horlivka Volodymyr Kolosniuk was arrested by the SBU on suspicion of participation in terrorist activities on 2 July. On July 21 and 22,2014, the city saw heavy fighting, the Ukrainian army reportedly retook parts of Horlivka on July 21. After the Ukrainian army had retaken Lysychansk on July 25,2014, as of 28 July, the city was reported to be fully surrounded by Ukrainian troops, with rebels holding their positions inside.
However, Horlivka continued to be controlled by separatist forces, as of June 2015 it was situated 10 kilometers from the war front. Suburbs of Horlivka stayed under Ukrainian army control, as reported by the city administration, from the beginning of the conflict till late January 2015274 local civilians were wounded and 92 killed, including 9 children
Luhansk or Lugansk, formerly known as Voroshilovgrad is a city in the easternmost Ukraine. Luhansk has been held by the group of Luhansk Peoples Republic since 2014. Luhansk is the center of the Luhansk Oblast. After the rebels captured Luhansk and the parts of the Oblast. The city traces its history to 1795 when the British industrialist Charles Gascoigne founded a factory near the Zaporizhian Cossacks settlement Kamianyi Brid. The settlement around the factory was known as Luganskiy Zavod, in 1882 the factory settlement Luganskiy Zavod was merged with the town of Kamianyi Brid into the city of Luhansk. Located in the Donets Basin, Luhansk developed into an important industrial center of Eastern Europe, the city was occupied by Nazi Germany between July 14,1942 and February 14,1943. On November 5,1935, the city was renamed Voroshilovgrad in honour of Soviet military commander, on March 5,1958, with the call of Khrushchev not to give names of living people to cities, the old name was reinstated.
On January 5,1970, after the death of Voroshilov on December 2,1969, finally, on May 4,1990, a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR gave the city back its original name. During the 2014 protests in Eastern Ukraine, separatists seized governmental buildings in the region, an independence referendum was held on May 11,2014. The legitimacy of the referendums was not recognized by most governments, the Luhansk Peoples Republic was recognized by South Ossetia. Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the polls were illegal, on 25 June 2014, Luhansk was officially pronounced as the capital of the Luhansk Peoples Republic by the government of the Luhansk Peoples Republic. In August 2014, Ukrainian government forces completely surrounded rebel-held Luhansk, heavy shelling caused civilian casualties in the city. On August 17, Ukrainian soldiers entered rebel-controlled Luhansk and gained control over a police station, after the Ilovaisk counteroffensive, LPR forces regained Lutuhyne and other Luhansk suburbs.
Ukrainian forces withdrew from the Luhansk International Airport on 1 September after heavy fighting, in the Ukrainian Census of 2001,49. 6% of the inhabitants declared themselves as ethnically Ukrainians and 47% declared themselves as ethnically Russian. The most widespread native language was Russian, at 85. 3% of the population, Ukrainian was the native language for 13. 7% of the population, and there was smaller numbers of speakers of Armenian and Belarusian. Luhansk is home to Zorya Luhansk which now plays in the Ukrainian Premier League annual football championship, the club won the 1972 Soviet Top League. The other football team was Dynamo Luhansk, the stone foundations of the structure were said to resemble Aztec and Mayan pyramids in Mesoamerica
Front (military formation)
A front is a military formation in some countries. Originating in the Russian Empire, it has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army and Soviet Army and it is roughly equivalent to an army group in the military of most other countries. It varies in size but in general contains three to five armies and it should not be confused with the more general usage of military front, describing a geographic area in wartime. In August 1915, Northwestern Front was split into Northern Front, at the end of 1916 Romanian Front was established, which included remnants of the Romanian army. In April 1917, Caucasus Front was established by the reorganization of the Caucasus Army, the Soviet fronts were first raised during the Russian Civil War. They were wartime only, in the peacetime the fronts were normally disbanded. Usually a single district formed a front at the start of the hostilities. Some military districts could not form a front, Fronts were formed during the Polish-Soviet War of 1920. An interesting and important distinction between groups and fronts is that a Soviet front typically had its own army-sized tactical fixed-wing air organization.
This air army was subordinated to the front commander. The entire front might report either to the Stavka or to a theatre of military operations, the degree of change in the structure and performance of individual fronts can only be understood when seen in the context of the strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II. Soviet fronts in the European Theatre during the Second World War from 1941 to 1945, Baltic Fronts 1st Baltic Front, 2nd Baltic Front, Formed from Bryansk Front on 10 October 1943. 3rd Baltic Front Bryansk Front - Created 18 December 1941, to take sector between the Western and Southwestern Fronts, reformed from Orel Front 28 March 1943. Renamed 1st Baltic Front Oct-Dec 1943, Karelian Front - formed from Northern Front, along with Leningrad Front, on 23 August 1941. Kursk Front Leningrad Front - formed from Northern Front, along with Karelian Front, composed of Western Fronts 61st Army, Central Fronts 3rd Army, and 15th Air Army. Redesignated Bryansk Front 28 March 1943, Army Group of Primorye Reserve Front - Front of Reserve Armies formed 14 July 1941 Southeastern Front - formed from armies on Stalingrad Fronts left wing,7 August 1942.
Redesignated Stalingrad Front 28 September 1942, Southern Front - renamed 4th Ukrainian Front 20 October 1943. Southwestern Front - Formed initially on 22 June 1941, reestablished 22 October 1942 between Don and Voronezh Fronts
Battle of Stalingrad
Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses, the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the German 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble, the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, the Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out, attempts were made to supply the army by air.
Heavy fighting continued for two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition, the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days, the war had been progressing well, the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not particularly threatening, neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again, with the initial operations being very successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the capacity of the city.
The river was a key route from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to central Russia and its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July, the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler personally rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign, both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union. The expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germanys failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence, the Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war, Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there
Operation Winter Storm
In late November 1942, the Red Army completed Operation Uranus, encircling some 300,000 Axis personnel in and around the city of Stalingrad. German forces within the Stalingrad pocket and directly outside were reorganized under Army Group Don, to remedy the situation, the Luftwaffe attempted to supply German forces in Stalingrad through an air bridge. Originally, Manstein was promised four panzer divisions, due to German reluctance to weaken certain sectors by redeploying German units, the task of opening a corridor to the German 6th Army fell to the 4th Panzer Army. The German force was pitted against several Soviet armies tasked with the destruction of the encircled German forces, the German offensive caught the Red Army by surprise and made large gains on the first day. The spearhead forces enjoyed air support and were able to defeat counterattacks by Soviet troops, by 13 December, Soviet resistance slowed the German advance considerably. Although German forces took the area surrounding Verkhne-Kumskiy, the Red Army launched Operation Little Saturn on 16 December, Operation Little Saturn crushed the Italian 8th Army on Army Group Dons left flank, threatening the survival of Mansteins entire group of forces.
The 4th Panzer Army continued its attempt to open a corridor to the 6th Army on 18–19 December, Manstein was forced to call off the assault on 23 December and by Christmas Eve the 4th Panzer Army began to withdraw to its starting position. Due to the failure of the 6th Army to breakout and the attempt to break the Soviet encirclement, on 23 November 1942, the Red Army closed its encirclement of Axis forces in Stalingrad. Nearly 300,000 German and Romanian soldiers, as well as Russian volunteers for the Wehrmacht, were trapped in, amidst the impending disaster, German chancellor Adolf Hitler appointed Field Marshal Erich von Manstein as commander of the newly created Army Group Don. Composed of the German 4th Panzer and 6th Armies, as well as the Third and Fourth Romanian Armies, instead of attempting an immediate breakout, German high command decided that the trapped forces would remain in Stalingrad in a bid to hold out. The encircled German forces were to be resupplied by air, requiring roughly 680 t of supplies per day, the assembled fleet of 500 transport aircraft were insufficient for the task.
Many of the aircraft were serviceable in the rough Soviet winter, in early December. The German 6th Army, for example, was getting less than 20% of its daily needs, the Germans were still threatened by Soviet forces which still held portions of the Volga Rivers west bank in Stalingrad. Given the unexpected size of German forces closed off in Stalingrad, on 23 November Stavka decided to strengthen the outer encirclement preparing to destroy Axis forces in, on 24 November, several Soviet formations began to entrench themselves to defend against possible German incursions originating from the West. The Soviets reinforced the forces in order to prevent a successful breakout operation by the German 6th Army. However, this tied down over ½ of the Red Armys strength in the area, planning began for Operation Koltso, which aimed at reducing German forces in the Stalingrad pocket. As Operation Uranus concluded, German forces inside the encirclement were too weak to attempt a breakout on their own, Manstein proposed a counterstrike to break the Soviet encirclement of Stalingrad, codenamed Operation Winter Storm.
Manstein believed that—due to the inability of the Luftwaffe to supply the Stalingrad pocket—it was becoming important to relieve them at the earliest possible date
Belaya Kalitva is a town and the administrative center of Belokalitvinsky District in Rostov Oblast, Russia. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Belaya Kalitva serves as the center of Belokalitvinsky District. As an administrative division, it is, together with three rural localities, incorporated within Belokalitvinsky District as Belokalitvinskoye Urban Settlement, as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Belokalitvinsky Municipal District. Закон №340-ЗС от25 июля2005 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №270-ЗС от27 ноября2014 г, «О внесении изменений в областной Закон Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Наше время, №187–190,28 июля2005 г. Закон №218-ЗС от14 декабря2004 г, «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Белокалитвинский район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №607-ЗС от10 мая2011 г, Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован, Наше время, №№325–338,28 декабря2004 г, pictures of Belaya Kalitva Photos at Panaramio. com
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Vickers Model 1931
The Vickers Model 1931 was a British anti-aircraft gun used during the Second World War. The design was rejected by the British and Vickers exported the gun world-wide during the 1930s, romania bought a license for 100 in 1936, although hundred more were built during the war. Belgium, the Netherlands, Lithuania and China bought numbers of guns directly from Vickers, finland bought a dozen to help reduce balance of payment problems with the British in 1936. The Finnish guns were chambered in their standard 76.2 millimetres caliber and those weapons captured after the German conquest of Europe were taken into Wehrmacht service as the 7.5 cm Flak M35 or 7.5 cm Flak M35. Similarly the Soviet Union used those guns it captured from Lithuania, supposedly it saw limited British service with Home Defense barrage units 1940—43. The cruciform carriage had two pneumatic or solid rubber wheels that were removable, two legs locked together for transport and the barrel was secured to them. The other two legs folded in half and were elevated almost vertically into the air, Mark, Cornel, Cristian.
Third Axis, Fourth Ally, Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, Weapons of the Third Reich, An Encyclopedic Survey of All Small Arms and Special Weapons of the German Land Forces 1939-1945. The Vickers in Finnish service the Vickers in Romanian service
Volgograd International Airport
Volgograd International Airport is an airport located 15 km northwest of the city of Volgograd in Russia. It comprises a civilian airport built on top of a military runway. The terminal area parks 42 medium/large aircraft and 91 small aircraft, a military training unit was present at Gumrak as late as 1994, the 706 UAP, using Aero L-39 aircraft. However a more recent report puts 706 UAP at Beketovsk until 1997, Volgograd Airport served as base for Air Volga. When the airline went bankrupt in April 2010, its aircraft, the airport, named Gumrak Airport, was used by the German 6th Army as fuel and supply depot during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942/43. After the fall of Pitomnik on 17 January 1943, Gumrak was the one of seven airfields around Stalingrad still in German hands. On 22 January, a last He 111 aircraft left the airfield with 19 wounded soldiers, Gumrak eventually was recaptured by the 293rd Rifle Division on 23 January, leaving the 6th Army without any means of direct support. Media related to Gumrak Airport at Wikimedia Commons Volgograd International Airport official website