Italian resistance movement
It was formed by pro-Allied Italians, following the Allied invasion of the country, the armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces, and German military occupation of northern Italy. The movement is known as the Italian resistance and the Italian partisans. The brutal conflict they took part in is referred to as the Italian Liberation War or as the Italian Civil War, the modern Italian Republic was declared to be founded on the struggle of the resistance. The periods best-known battle broke out in Rome the day the armistice was announced, outnumbered German Fallschirmjäger and Panzergrenadiere were initially repelled and endured heavy losses, but slowly gained the upper hand, aided by their experience and superior Panzer component. The Italian Centauro II Divisions absence from the battle contributed to the German defeat given its German-made tanks and it was composed primarily of ex-Blackshirts and was not trusted. By 10 September, the Germans had penetrated downtown Rome and the Granatieri made their last stand at Porta San Paolo, at 4 pm, General Giorgio Carlo Calvi di Bergolo signed the order of surrender, the Italian divisions were disbanded, and their members taken prisoner.
Generals Raffaele Cadorna, Jr. and Giuseppe Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo joined the underground, one of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed forces after the armistice was the battle of Piombino, Tuscany. Battle broke out at 21,15 on 10 September, between the German landing forces and the Italian coastal batteries and civilian population and Carbet were scuttled because of the damage they had suffered. The German attack was repelled, by the dawn of 11 September,120 Germans had been killed, Italian casualties had been 4 killed and a dozen wounded, four Italian submarine chasers were sunk during the fightning. Later in the morning, however, De Vecchi ordered the prisoners to be released, many of the sailors and citizens who had fought in the battle of Piombino retreated to the surrounding woods and formed the first partisan formations in the area. In the days following 8 September 1943 most servicemen, left without orders from higher echelons, were disarmed and shipped to POW camps in the Third Reich, some garrisons stationed in occupied Greece, Albania and Italy fought the Germans.
Admirals Inigo Campioni and Luigi Mascherpa led an attempt to defend Rhodes, Leros, with reinforcements from SAS, SBS and British Army troops under the command of Generals Francis Gerrard, Russell Brittorous and Robert Tilney, the defenders held on for a month. However, the Wehrmacht took the islands air and sea landings by infantry. Both Campioni and Mascherpa were captured and executed at Verona for high treason, on 13 September 1943, the Acqui Division stationed in Cefalonia was ordered by Italian High Command to attack the Germans, despite ongoing negotiations. After a ten-day battle, the Germans executed thousands of officers and those killed in the massacre of the Acqui Division included division commander General Antonio Gandin. Other Italian forces remained trapped in Yugoslavia following the armistice and some decided to fight alongside the local resistance, when the unit finally returned to Italy at the end of the war, half its members had been killed or were listed as missing in action.
Bastia, in Corsica, was the setting of a battle between Italian torpedo boats and an attacking German flotilla. Italian soldiers captured by the Germans numbered around 650, 000-700,000, most refused cooperation with the Third Reich despite hardship, chiefly to maintain their oath of fidelity to the King
It was carried out in two phases within eastern Bosnia from 20 April to 13 May 1942, with Ustaše militia and Croatian Home Guard forces taking part on the Axis side. The aim of the operation was to all insurgents between Sarajevo and the Drina river in eastern Bosnia. These included groups led by communists and Serb nationalist Chetniks, Operation Trio consisted of two parts, Trio I and Trio II. Together they comprised one element of the Axis effort known as the Third Enemy Offensive in post-war Yugoslav historiography, the joint Italian-Chetnik offensive in Montenegro and eastern Herzegovina formed the other element. The Third Enemy Offensive forms part of the Seven Enemy Offensives framework in Yugoslav historiography, the operation was of limited effectiveness due to several factors, including preemptive action by the Ustaše militia and Italian delays. The area of operations straddled the line between the German and Italian zones of occupation within the NDH, which led to mutual suspicion.
Both insurgent factions avoided fighting the Axis and NDH forces, instead focusing on fighting each other, after briefly reorganising around Zelengora mountain south-east of Foča, they moved their operations to western Bosnia for the remainder of 1942. Violent coups occurred against the communist leadership of all but one of the Partisan detachments in eastern Bosnia, most of the surviving communist fighters from these detachments joined the Partisan forces, and many withdrew with Tito to western Bosnia during the Partisan Long March. Within a few weeks of the end of Operation Trio only 600 Partisan fighters were left in eastern Bosnia, comprising the Group of Shock Battalions, all these forces sought refuge in the Birač region. The Chetnik movement in eastern Bosnia, at best a confederacy of local warlords, was strengthened by mass defections from the Partisans, for a time they ruled large parts of the region, after making accommodations with the Ustaše regime in May and June 1942. With the help of Montenegrin Partisans, they established a liberated area around Foča and this area, known as the Foča Republic, was expanded by subsequent military operations.
By late March, Peoples Liberation Councils had been established to govern 10 towns and 92 villages in the liberated area, but communist organisation in the area was limited and of poor quality. At the end of 1941, there were six Partisan detachments in eastern Bosnia, with about 7,300 fighters operating in the Majevica, Birač, Romanija and Kalinovik areas. In January 1942, the Romanija detachment had borne the brunt of Operation Southeast Croatia and had effectively destroyed. Many Partisan fighters were Serb peasants who took to the forests and mountains to defend their families and villages against the Ustaše, the Chetnik forces in eastern Bosnia had not opposed the Axis offensive. Many had withdrawn across the Drina river into the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia to avoid engagement with German, in early January 1942, the Partisan Supreme Headquarters decided to permit fighters who were not willing to formally become Partisans to fight alongside Partisan units. The Krajina Volunteer Detachment consisted of refugees from that region who had fled to German-occupied Serbia to escape the Ustaše terror.
Volunteer battalions and companies were placed under the staff of the original Partisan detachments
Uprising in Serbia (1941)
At first the Yugoslav Partisans had mounted diversions and conducted sabotage and had attacked representatives of Aćimovićs quisling administration. In late August some Chetniks joined the uprising and liberated Loznica, the uprising soon reached mass proportions. Partisans and Chetniks captured towns that weak German garrisons had abandoned, the armed uprising soon engulfed great parts of the occupied territory. The largest liberated territory in occupied Europe was created by the Partisans in western Serbia, rebels shared power on the liberated territory, the center of the Partisan liberated territory was in Užice, and Chetniks had their headquarters on Ravna Gora. As the uprising progressed, the rift between the two factions became more and more obvious. On one side were the Chetnik detachments who considered themselves loyal to the government in exile. On the other side were members of the Peoples Liberation Army of Yugoslavia who favored the introduction of socialism, the Chetnik leader Dragoljub Mihailović abandoned the uprising in late October and entered into negotiations with the quisling government and the Germans in order to destroy the rival Partisans.
The Germans soon gathered a force and quelled the uprising using mass terror, but the remaining Partisan forces crossed into Bosnia. After the collapse of the uprising, Territory of the Military Commander was largely pacified until the return of the Partisans, the Chetniks became even more reluctant to fight against Germans, and engaged in anti-Partisan operations and open collaboration. Nevertheless, Mihailovic was able to establish itself as the legitimate representative of the Yugoslav government in exile. Hitler believed that with occupation of Yugoslavia, the country was liquidated as an independent state, occupiers plundered possessions and took some 350,000 Yugoslav soldiers into captivity. The largest part of Serbia was organized into the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, the Germans chose Milan Aćimović as head of the quisling Commissary Government. Preparations for the uprising by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia began after the May consultation held in Zagreb on 4 May 1941, the Military Committee of the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party for Serbia was formed in mid-May.
On 13 May 1941, Josip Broz Tito sent a message to the Comintern stating that the Yugoslav communists were preparing for an uprising that would commence when Germany attacked the Soviet Union. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia arrived in Belgrade in late May, after their arrival, the Central Committee held conferences with local party officials. The German invasion of the Soviet Union was launched on 22 June 1941, before the invasion, the Germans withdrew the majority of their troops from Serbia, leaving three weak divisions in Serbia and one weak division in the Independent State of Croatia. The majority of divisions were made up by older soldiers originating from Austria. Communist sympathisers in Srđan Budisavljevićs Ministry of Interior in Dušan Simovićs government, such as Janko Janković, so, when mass arrests of communists began after the launching of Operation Barbarosa, few records were available for the Gestapo to use
Baranya or Baranja is a geographical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers. Its territory is divided between Hungary and Croatia, in Hungary, the region is included into Baranya county, while in Croatia, it is included into Osijek-Baranja county. The name of the come from the Slavic word bara. Even today large parts of the region are swamps, such as the natural reservation Kopački Rit in its southeast, another theory states that the name of the region come from the Slavic and Hungarian word bárány, which means lamb. Since 1918/1921, the region was divided between Hungary and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, the region of Baranya was settled by the Slavs in the 6th century, and in the 9th century, it was part of the Slavic Balaton Principality. Hungarians arrived to the area in the 9th century, and Baranya county arose as one of the first comitatus of the Kingdom of Hungary, in the 11th century. This county included not only present-day region of Baranya, but one part of present-day Slavonia, in the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire captured Baranya, and included it into the sanjak of Mohács, an Ottoman administrative unit, with the seat in the town of Mohaç.
Laterly sanjak of Peçuy was created from part of Mohaç Sanjak. In the end of the 17th century, Baranya was captured by the Habsburg Monarchy, Croats moved from Bosnia into Slavonia and Baranja en masse after the Ottoman retreat, and this population is today known as the Šokci. In 1918, the region was captured by Serbian troops and was administered by the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats. For a short time, Baranya was part of Banat, Bačka and Baranja region, by the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, the Baranya region was formally divided between Hungary and the Yugoslavia, but de facto remained under the administration of the latter until 1921. On August 14,1921, the Serb-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic was proclaimed and it included northern parts of Baranya and Bačka regions, which were assigned to Hungary by the treaty. On August 21–25,1921, the Republic was abolished and its territory was included into Hungary, the northern part of Baranya in Hungary was included into Baranya county. In 1941, the Yugoslav Baranya was occupied by Hungary, in 1944-1945, Yugoslav Baranya was part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, while in 1945 it was assigned to the Peoples Republic of Croatia.
During the War in Croatia in 1991 it came under control of the SAO Eastern Slavonia and Western Srem, after the war ended, it was peacefully integrated into Croatia in 1998, by the Erdut Agreement. According to the agreement, it was administered by the administration of the United Nations from 1996 to 1998, today, it is part of that republics Osijek-Baranja county. Baranya is divided between Hungary and Croatia with the majority of the lying in Hungary. The Hungarian portion of the region coextensive with Baranya County, while in Croatia, contemporary Hungarian usage of Baranya usually refers only to the Hungarian section while the terms Drávaköz and Drávaszög are used for Croatian Baranja
Slavonia is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper, and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. The counties cover 12,556 square kilometres or 22. 2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806, the largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Brod and Vinkovci. It is located in the Pannonian Basin, largely bordered by the Danube, in the west, the region consists of the Sava and Drava valleys, and the mountains surrounding the Požega Valley, and plains in the east. Slavonia enjoys a continental climate, with relatively low precipitation. It was incorporated into the Kingdom of Croatia and, after its decline, the Ottoman conquest of Slavonia took place in 1536 to 1552. In 1699, after the Great Turkish War, Slavonia was transferred to the Habsburgs, reform of the empire through the Compromise of 1867 assigned it to the Hungarian part of the realm, and a year to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, when Austria-Hungary dissolved, Slavonia was a part of the short-lived State of Slovenes, during the Croatian War of Independence, Slavonia saw fierce fighting, including the Battle of Vukovar.
The economy of Slavonia is largely based on processing industry, transport, the gross domestic product of the five counties of Slavonia is worth 6,454 million euro or 8,005 euro per capita,27. 5% below national average. The GDP of the five counties represents 13. 6% of Croatias GDP, Slavonia contributed to the culture of Croatia, through art, writers and art patronage. The cuisine of Slavonia reflects diverse influences—a blend of traditional and foreign elements, Slavonia is one of Croatias winemaking areas, with Ilok and Kutjevo recognized as centres of wine production. The name Slavonia originated in the Early Middle Ages, the area was named after the Slavs who settled there and called themselves *Slověne. The area bounded by those rivers was called *Slověnьje in the Proto-Slavic language, the word subsequently evolved to its various present forms in the Slavic languages, and other languages adopted the term. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was found include the Starčevo culture whose finds were discovered near Slavonski Brod and dated to 6100–5200 BC, Vučedol and Baden cultures.
Most finds attributed to the Baden and Vučedol cultures are discovered in the area around Vukovar, extending to Osijek, the Baden culture sites in Slavonia are dated to 3600–3300 BC, and Vučedol culture finds are dated to 3000–2500 BC. The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture, much later, the region was settled by Illyrians and other tribes, including the Pannonians, who controlled much of present-day Slavonia. Even though archaeological finds of Illyrian settlements are much sparser than in areas closer to the Adriatic Sea, significant discoveries, the Pannonians first came into contact with the Roman Republic in 35 BC, when the Romans conquered Segestica, or modern-day Sisak. The conquest was completed in 11 BC, when the Roman province of Illyricum was established, the province was renamed Pannonia and divided within two decades. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, which included the occupied by modern-day Slavonia
The Yugoslav Resistance was led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II. Its commander was Marshal Josip Broz Tito, until British supplies began to arrive in appreciable quantities in 1944, the occupiers were the only source of arms. The other objective was to create a federal multi-ethnic communist state in Yugoslavia, to this end, the KPJ attempted to appeal to all the various ethnic groups within Yugoslavia, by preserving the rights of each group. Relations between the two movements were uneasy from the start, but from October 1941 they degenerated into full-scale conflict, to the Chetniks, Titos pan-ethnic policies seemed anti-Serbian, whereas the Chetniks royalism was anathema to the communists. In the early part of the war Partisan forces were composed of Serbs. In that period names of Muslim and Croat commanders of Partisan forces had to be changed to them from their predominantly Serb colleagues. By late 1944, the forces of the Partisans numbered 650,000 men and women organized in four field armies and 52 divisions.
By April 1945, the Partisans numbered over 800,000, the movement was consistently referred to as the Partisans throughout the war. Yugoslav Army – on 1 March 1945, the National Liberation Army was transformed into the armed forces of Yugoslavia. The movement was originally named National Liberation Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia, because of this, their short name became simply the Partisans, and stuck henceforward. Between January 1942 and November 1942, the full official name was briefly National Liberation Partisan. The changes were meant to reflect the character as a volunteer army. In November 1942 the movement was renamed into the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia, the name change reflects the fact that the latter superseded in importance the partisan detachments themselves. Shortly before the end of the war, in March 1945, all forces were reorganized into the regular armed force of Yugoslavia. It would keep this name until 1951, when it was renamed the Yugoslav Peoples Army, on 6 April 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded from all sides by the Axis powers, primarily by German forces, but including Italian and Bulgarian formations.
During the invasion, Belgrade was bombed by the Luftwaffe, the invasion lasted little more than ten days, ending with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on 17 April. Besides being hopelessly ill-equipped when compared to the Wehrmacht, the Army attempted to defend all borders, the terms of the capitulation were extremely severe, as the Axis proceeded to dismember Yugoslavia. Mussolinis Italy occupied the remainder of Slovenia and large chunks of the coastal Dalmatia region and it gained control over the newly created Montenegrin puppet state, and was granted the kingship in the Independent State of Croatia, though wielding little real power within it
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Eastern Front (World War II)
The battles on the Eastern Front constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, and immense loss of life due to combat, exposure and massacres. The Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches, ghettos, of the estimated 70 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million, many of them civilian, occurred on the Eastern Front. The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome of the European portion of World War II and it resulted in the destruction of the Third Reich, the partition of Germany for nearly half a century and the rise of the Soviet Union as a military and industrial superpower. The two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in action in the Eastern Front, the United Kingdom. The joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front, in addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front.
Despite their ideological antipathy, both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union shared a dislike for the outcome of World War I. The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was an agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union, Estonia and Lithuania would return to Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. I need the Ukraine so that they cant starve us out, the two powers invaded and partitioned Poland in 1939. The annexations were never recognized by most Western states, the annexed Romanian territory was divided between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum, acquiring new territory for Germans in Eastern Europe, Wehrmacht officers told their troops to target people who were described as Jewish Bolshevik subhumans, the Mongol hordes, the Asiatic flood and the red beast.
The vast majority of German soldiers viewed the war in Nazi terms, Hitler referred to the war in unique terms, calling it a war of annihilation which was both an ideological and racial war. In addition, the Nazis sought to wipe out the large Jewish population of Central, after Germanys initial success at the Battle of Kiev in 1941, Hitler saw the Soviet Union as militarily weak and ripe for immediate conquest. On 3 October 1941, he announced, We have only to kick in the door, Germany expected another short Blitzkrieg and made no serious preparations for prolonged warfare. Throughout the 1930s the Soviet Union underwent massive industrialization and economic growth under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, Stalins central tenet, Socialism in one country, manifested itself as a series of nationwide centralized Five-Year Plans from 1929 onwards. It served as a testing ground for both the Wehrmacht and the Red Army to experiment with equipment and tactics that they would employ on a wider scale in the Second World War