Medan is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia. Located along the northeastern coast of Sumatra Island, Medan is the third biggest city in Indonesia, behind Jakarta, with 2,097,610 inhabitants at the 2010 census, Medan remains the largest settlement outside of Java Island. Bordered by the Strait of Malacca, Medan is a trading city as the strait is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. Medan is the gateway to the part of Indonesia, accessible via the Port of Belawan. Both the seaport and the airport are connected to the city center via toll road, Medan became the first city in Indonesia to have an airport supported with train service. The city was founded by Guru Patimpus, a Karonese man who named a swampy land in confluence of Deli River, in 1632, the Deli Sultanate was established by Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan, who became its first king. In the 18th century, the king, Sultan Mahmud Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam. Jacob Nienhuys, a Dutch tobacco merchant, pioneered the opening of plantations in Deli Land.
The areas name changed to Medan-Deli when it was established by Dutch tobacco commerce after the formation of the Deli Company. The Deli Railway was established for shipping rubber, timber, palm oil, and sugar industries from the city to Belawan, following the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, Medan became the capital of North Sumatra in mid-1950. Medan was dubbed by the Dutch Parijs van Sumatra due to the resemblance to Paris. Residential property prices in Medan have trended upward over the period from 2013 to the first quarter of 2015, according to Bank Indonesia. According to BI, Medan’s residential property price index rose from 205.24 in the quarter of 2013 to 212.17 in the fourth quarter of 2014. One of the Karo-Indonesia dictionaries written by Darwin Prinst SH published in 2002 stated that Medan could be defined as recover or be better, in ancient times the city of Medan was known as Kampung Medan. It was a piece of land with an area of approximately 4000 ha. Some of the crossing the city of Medan drain into the Straits of Malacca.
These rivers are Sei Deli, Sei Babura, Sei Sikambing, Sei Denai, Sei Putih, Sei Percut, Medan started as a village called Kampung Medan. Kampung Medan was founded by Guru Patimpus Sembiring Pelawi, a Karonese man who came from the Karo Land, before he became a Muslim, he was a Pemena follower
Nīas is an island off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Nias is the name of the archipelago, including the small Hinako Islands, Nias Island covers an area of 5,121.3 km2. It is mostly a lowland area rising to around 800 m above sea level, there were 756,338 inhabitants on the island at the 2010 Census. The latest estimate for January 2014 is 788,132 and it is located in a chain of islands parallel to the west coast of Sumatra, Simeulue is about 140 km northwest, and the Batu Islands are located about 80 km southeast. This chain, which resurfaces in Nusa Tenggara in the islands of Sumba. At Nias the oceanic plate is being subducted under the Asian Plate at the rapid rate of 52 mm a year. Nias is the largest of the islands off Sumatra that are part of North Sumatra province and this archipelago consists of 131 islands, of which Nias Island is the biggest. The population in area was 756,762 inhabitants at the 2010 Census, including Ono Niha, Batak. Until 2003 Nias was an administrative regency covering the entire island, in 2003 it was split into two regencies and Nias Selatan.
Gunungsitoli remains the city of Nias regency and it is the center of administration. Teluk Dalam is the capital of Nias Selatan, all parties in the North Sumatra Legislative Council have agreed to the formation of a Nias Island province. It has been approved at a plenary session on 2 May 2011, but still awaits approval from Central government. The new province will thus cover an identical to the original Nias Regency prior to the latters division in 2003. Apart from Nias Island itself, the province include the smaller Batu Islands to the south. # the area of West Nias Regency is included in the figure for Nias Regency, the first ancestors of Nias were Austromelanesoid race from Hoabinth at 10,000 B. C. and came more advance Austronesians from Taiwan which shifted the existence of the Austromelanesoids. The name of the island derives from the used by the islanders to describe themselves. The isolated Nias Island chain has been trading since prehistory with other cultures, other islands, some historians and archaeologists have cited the local culture as one of the few remaining Megalithic cultures in existence today.
While this point of view is debated, there is no doubt that Nias relative geographic isolation has created a unique culture
True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator, they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28 degree latitudes. Within the World Wildlife Funds biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest that includes the more extensive tropical seasonal forests. Tropical rainforests can be characterized in two words and wet, mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C during all months of the year. Average annual rainfall is no less than 1,680 mm and this high level of precipitation often results in poor soils due to leaching of soluble nutrients in the ground. Tropical rainforests exhibit high levels of biodiversity, around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. Rainforests are home to half of all the animal and plant species on the planet. Two-thirds of all flowering plants can be found in rainforests, a single hectare of rainforest may contain 42,000 different species of insect, up to 807 trees of 313 species and 1,500 species of higher plants.
Tropical rainforests have been called the worlds largest pharmacy, because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered within them and it is likely that there may be many millions of species of plants and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems globally due to large-scale fragmentation as a result of human activity, habitat fragmentation caused by geological processes such as volcanism and climate change occurred in the past, and have been identified as important drivers of speciation. However, fast human driven habitat destruction is suspected to be one of the causes of species extinction. Tropical rain forests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance throughout the 20th century, tropical rainforests have existed on earth for hundreds of millions of years. Most tropical rainforests today are on fragments of the Mesozoic era supercontinent of Gondwana, the separation of the landmass resulted in a great loss of amphibian diversity while at the same time the drier climate spurred the diversification of reptiles.
The division left tropical rainforests located in five regions of the world, tropical America, Southeast Asia, Madagascar. However, the specifics of the origin of rainforests remain uncertain due to a fossil record. Several biomes comprise the general term tropical forest, Lowland equatorial evergreen rain forests are forests which receive rainfall throughout the year. These true rainforests occur in a belt around the equator, with the largest areas in the Amazon basin of South America, the Congo Basin of Central Africa, Mindanao and New Guinea. Moist tropical seasonal forests receive high rainfall with a warm summer wet season. Some trees in these forests drop some or all of their leaves during the dry season
Mentawai Islands Regency
The Mentawai Islands are a chain of about seventy islands and islets off the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. Siberut at 4,030 square kilometres is the largest of the islands, the other major islands are Sipura, North Pagai and South Pagai. The islands lie approximately 150 kilometres off the Sumatran coast, across the Mentawai Strait, the indigenous inhabitants of the islands are known as the Mentawai people. The Mentawai Islands have become a destination for surfing. The Mentawai Islands have been administered as a regency within the West Sumatra province since 1999, the regency seat is Tua Pejat, on the island of Sipora. Padang, the capital of the province, lies on the Sumatran mainland opposite Siberut, the regency is divided into ten districts, tabulated below from south to north with their 2010 Census populations. This includes five endemic primates, the Mentawai or kloss gibbon, Mentawai macaque, Siberut macaque, Mentawai leaf monkey and they are highly endangered due to logging, unsustainable hunting, and conversion of rainforest to palm oil plantations.
Some areas of the Mentawai Islands rain forest ecoregion are protected, red junglefowl, the Asian palm civet and crab-eating macaque are native. The Mentawai Islands lie above the Sunda megathrust, an active zone responsible for many great earthquakes. This megathrust runs along the side of Sumatra island, forming the interface between the Eurasian Plate and Indo-Australian Plate. Earthquake and tsunami activity has been high since the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, in 1833, the region was hit with an earthquake, possibly similar in size to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, another large earthquake struck in 1797. On October 25,2010, an earthquake in southern Sumatra led to a tsunami that devastated villages in South and North Pagai. Mentawai ethnic group Anthropology of the Mentawai Islands Native Planet, The Mentawai Mentawai Islands rain forests
The Equator usually refers to an imaginary line on the Earths surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The Equator is about 40,075 kilometres long, some 78. 7% lies across water and 21. 3% over land, other planets and astronomical bodies have equators similarly defined. Generally, an equator is the intersection of the surface of a sphere with the plane that is perpendicular to the spheres axis of rotation. The latitude of the Earths equator is by definition 0° of arc, the equator is the only line of latitude which is a great circle — that is, one whose plane passes through the center of the globe. The plane of Earths equator when projected outwards to the celestial sphere defines the celestial equator, in the cycle of Earths seasons, the plane of the equator passes through the Sun twice per year, at the March and September equinoxes. To an observer on the Earth, the Sun appears to travel North or South over the equator at these times, light rays from the center of the Sun are perpendicular to the surface of the Earth at the point of solar noon on the Equator.
Locations on the Equator experience the quickest sunrises and sunsets because the sun moves nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year. The Earth bulges slightly at the Equator, the diameter of the Earth is 12,750 kilometres. Because the Earth spins to the east, spacecraft must launch to the east to take advantage of this Earth-boost of speed, seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earths axis relative to the plane of revolution. During the year the northern and southern hemispheres are inclined toward or away from the sun according to Earths position in its orbit, the hemisphere inclined toward the sun receives more sunlight and is in summer, while the other hemisphere receives less sun and is in winter. At the equinoxes, the Earths axis is not tilted toward the sun, instead it is perpendicular to the sun meaning that the day is about 12 hours long, as is the night, across the whole of the Earth. Near the Equator there is distinction between summer, autumn, or spring.
The temperatures are usually high year-round—with the exception of high mountains in South America, the temperature at the Equator can plummet during rainstorms. In many tropical regions people identify two seasons, the wet season and the dry season, but many places close to the Equator are on the oceans or rainy throughout the year, the seasons can vary depending on elevation and proximity to an ocean. The Equator lies mostly on the three largest oceans, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. The highest point on the Equator is at the elevation of 4,690 metres, at 0°0′0″N 77°59′31″W and this is slightly above the snow line, and is the only place on the Equator where snow lies on the ground. At the Equator the snow line is around 1,000 metres lower than on Mount Everest, the Equator traverses the land of 11 countries, it passes through two island nations, though without making a landfall in either. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Equator passes through, Despite its name, its island of Annobón is 155 km south of the Equator, and the rest of the country lies to the north
Indian Indonesians are a group of people who live in Indonesia and whose ancestors originally came from the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, this term can be regarded as a term for not only Indonesian Indian proper. According to the Indian Ministry of External Affairs, there were about 120,000 people of Indian origin as well as 9,000 Indian nationals living and working in Indonesia as of January 2012, most of them were concentrated in North Sumatra and Jakarta. Various people from the Indian subcontinent have frequented the Indonesian archipelago since the prehistoric era, in Bali, for example, remains of pottery from the first centuries C. E. have been recovered. In fact, the name Indonesia itself comes from the Latin Indus and Greek nêsos, from the 4th and 5th centuries onwards, Indian cultural influences became more visible. The Orthodox Version of Tamil Language known as Sanskrit* language was used on inscriptions, since the 7th century onward, the Indian scripts were used more often to write down indigenous languages which by now already contained many loan words from Prakrit and Tamil.
In addition to that, indigenous Indonesians began to embrace Hinduism and Buddhism and it is believed that various Indian people settled in Indonesia and assimilated with the local population. Later, with the rise of Islam, this religion was brought to Indonesia by the Arabs from the 11th century onward, first not to replace the religious systems. Today migrations of people from India still occur, in Medan, North Sumatra, there is a large community estimated at 75,000 people. In all of Indonesia, various North Indians are found, usually their professions are connected with textile industries. Like Chinese Indonesians, many are shop owners, Indians have been living in Indonesia for centuries, from the time of the Sri Vijaya and Majapahit Empire, both of which were Hindu and heavily influenced by the subcontinent. Indians were brought to Indonesia by the Dutch in the 19th century as indentured labourers to work on plantations located around Medan in Sumatra, while the majority of these came from South India, a significant number came from the north.
The Medan Indians included Hindus and Sikhs and they have now been in Indonesia for over four generations, and hold Indonesian passports. The Indian Diaspora includes several thousand Sindhi families who constitute the second wave of Indian immigrants who made Indonesia their home in the first half of the 20th century, the Sindhi community is mainly engaged in trading and commerce. The inflow of major Indian investments in Indonesia starting in the late 1970s drew a wave of Indian investors and managers to this country. The Indian community is well regarded in Indonesia, is generally prosperous. Due to economic factors, most traders and businessmen among PIOs have, over the past decades, moved to Jakarta from outlying areas such as Medan and Surabaya. Almost half of the Indian community in Indonesia is now Jakarta-based, There are six main social or professional associations in Jakartas Indian PIO/NRI community
Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest island in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, the island is politically divided among three countries and Brunei in the north, and Indonesia to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory, in the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan is situated on an island just off the coast of Borneo. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, antipodal to an area of Amazon rainforest, Borneo is itself home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world, and to Bornean orangutans. The island is known by names, internationally it is known as Borneo, after Brunei. The name Brunei possibly was derived from the Sanskrit word váruṇa, meaning either ocean or the mythological Varuna. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, which was derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, prior to that the island was known by other names.
In 977 Chinese records began to use the term Po-ni to refer to Borneo or Brunei, in 1225 it was mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua. The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, to the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia and Sulawesi, to the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres, it is the third-largest island in the world and its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, with an elevation of 4,095 m. The largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,143 km, other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan, the Barito in South Kalimantan, and Rajang in Sarawak. Clearwater Cave, for example, has one of the worlds longest underground rivers, deer Cave is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres deep. The South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula, the Borneo rainforest is 140 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world.
There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees,221 species of mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo and it is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals. The Borneo rainforest is one of the few remaining habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca or Straits of Malacca is a narrow,550 mi stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is named after the Malacca sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1400 and 1511, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Strait of Malacca as follows, On the West. A line joining Pedropunt, the Northernmost point of Sumatra and Lem Voalan the Southern extremity of Goh Puket in Siam, a line joining Tanjong Piai, the Southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula and The Brothers and thence to Klein Karimoen. The Southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula, the Northeastern coast of Sumatra as far to the eastward as Tanjong Kedabu thence to Klein Karimoen. From an economic and strategic perspective, the Strait of Malacca is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. The strait is the shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, linking major Asian economies such as India, Japan, Taiwan.
Over 94,000 vessels pass through the strait each year, carrying about one-fourth of the traded goods, including oil, Chinese manufactured products. About a quarter of all oil carried by sea passes through the Strait, in 2007, an estimated 13.7 million barrels per day were transported through the strait, increasing to an estimated 15.2 million barrels per day in 2011. In addition, it is one of the worlds most congested shipping choke points because it narrows to only 2.8 km wide at the Phillips Channel. The maximum size of a vessel that can pass through the Strait is referred to as Malaccamax, for some of the worlds largest ships, the Straits minimum depth isnt deep enough. In addition, the next closest passageway is even more shallow and narrow than Malacca, these large ships must detour several thousand miles/kilometers and use the Lombok Strait, Makassar Strait, Sibutu Passage, or Mindoro Strait instead. Piracy has been a problem in the strait, piracy had been high in the 2000s, with additional increase after the events of September 11,2001.
After attacks rose again in the first half of 2004, regional navies stepped up their patrols of the area in July 2004, attacks on ships in the Strait of Malacca dropped, to 79 in 2005 and 50 in 2006. Recent reports indicate that attacks have dropped to levels in recent years. There are 34 shipwrecks, some dating to the 1880s, in the Traffic Separation Scheme and these pose a collision hazard in the narrow and shallow strait. Another risk is the annual haze due to raging bush fires in Sumatra and it may reduce visibility to 200 metres, forcing ships to slow down in the busy strait. The strait is used by Ships longer than 350 metres. Thailand has developed plans to diminish the economic significance of the strait
Minangkabau people, known as Minang, is an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia. This custom is called Lareh Bodi Caniago and is known as Adat perpatih in Malaysia, today 4.5 million Minangs live in the homeland of West Sumatra, while about 4.5 million more are scattered throughout many Indonesian and Malay Peninsular cities and towns. The Minangkabau are strongly Islamic, but follow their ethnic traditions, the Minangkabau adat was derived from animist and Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before the arrival of Islam, and remnants of animist beliefs still exist even among some practising Muslims. The present relationship between Islam and adat is described in the tradition founded upon Islamic law, Islamic law founded upon the Quran. As one of the worlds most populous matrilineal ethnicity, Minangkabau gender dynamics have been studied by anthropologists. With the arrival of the Dutch and other Muslim groups, the traditions have gradually influenced by both western and conservative Islamic thought.
Based on the Raffles vision, Minangkabau is believed to have been the cradle of the Malay race and their West Sumatran homelands was the seat of the Pagaruyung Kingdom and the location of the Padri War. The name Minangkabau is thought to be a conjunction of two words and kabau, there is a legend that the name is derived from a territorial dispute between the Minangkabau and a neighbouring prince. To avoid a battle, the local people proposed a fight to the death between two water buffalo to settle the dispute, the prince agreed and produced the largest, most aggressive buffalo. The Minangkabau produced a hungry baby buffalo with its small horns ground to be as sharp as knives, seeing the adult buffalo across the field, the baby ran forward, hoping for milk. The big buffalo saw no threat in the buffalo and paid no attention to it. But when the baby thrust his head under the big belly, looking for an udder, the sharpened horns punctured and killed the bull, and the Minangkabau won the contest.
The roofline of traditional houses in West Sumatra, called Rumah Gadang, curve upward from the middle and end in points, until the 20th century the majority of the Sumatran population lived in the highlands. The highlands are well suited for human habitation, with fresh water, fertile soil, a cool climate. It is probable that wet rice cultivation evolved in the Minangkabau Highlands long before it appeared in parts of Sumatra. By the 16th century, the time of the report after the reign of Adityawarman. They were the King of the World, the King of Adat, and the King of Religion, the Minangkabau kings were charismatic or magical figures, but did not have much authority over the conduct of village affairs. It was around the 16th century that Islam started to be adopted by the Minangkabau, the first contact between the Minangkabau and western nations occurred with the 1529 voyage of Jean Parmentier to Sumatra
South Sumatra Province is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the part of Sumatra Island, east of the Bukit Barisan Mountains. It spans 91,592.43 km2 and had a population of 7,450,394 at the 2010 Census, the capital of the province is Palembang. South Sumatra has been settled by humans since the Palaeolithic era, the evidence of those settlements is proven by some discoveries of Palaeolithic tools in the riverbed of Saling and Kikim rivers in Bungamas Village, Lahat Regency. Relics of seven stone chambers believed to be about 2,500 years old were found near a plantation in Kotaraya Lembak. Around 300 BC, the Deutero-Malay people arrived in this region, around 7th century AD, an ancient Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was established in an area known today as Palembang. It once controlled a part of what is now Indonesia and Southern Thailand, effectively ruled the Malacca Strait. In 1025, it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India, srivijayas capital eventually moved northward to Jambi.
After its eventual fall in 14th century AD, some kingdoms were established in South Sumatra. However, there was virtually a power vacuum in the region there was no prominent power to hold the region except for the waning Majapahit Empire. The vacuum allowed pirates to flourish in the region, in the 16th century AD, the Palembang Sultanate was established by Ki Gede Ing Suro, a politician who fled from Demak Sultanate. Clashes with the Dutch had occurred since the 17th century until the sultanate was abolished in 1825 when the Dutch gave a blow to the final Sultan of Palembang. Southern Sumatra was occupied by the Japanese in January 15,1942 after the Battle of Palembang in World War II, after the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, South Sumatra became a part of Sumatra Province as a residency with Adnan Kapau Gani as the resident. On January 1,1947, the Dutch tried to gain its sovereignty over South Sumatra by invading Palembang, since then, fighting ensued across South Sumatra until Indonesias independence was recognized by the Dutch on December 27,1949.
The province is located in the portion of the island of Sumatra. The majority of its area consists of low-lying plains filled with plantations, the natural environment of South Sumatra is hot and humid tropical rain forest. However, most of these forest has been cleared out to make way for oil palm plantation for palm oil production, the Bukit Barisan mountain range is located on the western edge of the province and forms the border with the neighbouring Bengkulu province. The mountains are the source of systems that drain eastward to the Bangka Strait
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, sometimes referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia. Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its size by 23%. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce and transport hub, the country has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied, 38% of Singapores 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals.
There are four languages on the island, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959, however, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama and these Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by was part of the Johor Sultanate.
The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in 1824 the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations