Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Polands Defence Minister. Rokossovsky was born in Warsaw, part of Congress Poland under Russian rule and his family had moved to Warsaw following the appointment of his father as the inspector of the Warsaw Railways. The Rokossovsky family were members of the Polish nobility, and over generations had produced many cavalry officers, Konstantins father, Ksawery Wojciech Rokossowski, was a railway official in the Russian empire and his Belarusian mother Antonina Ovsyannikova was a teacher. Orphaned at 14, Rokossovsky earned a living by working in a stocking factory, in 1911, he became an apprentice stonemason. Much in his life, the government of Peoples Republic of Poland used this fact for propaganda and he was wounded twice during the war and awarded the Cross of St George. In 1917, he joined the Bolshevik Party and soon thereafter, Rokossovsky received Soviet Russias highest military decoration at the time, the Order of the Red Banner.
In 1921 he commanded the 35th Independent Cavalry Regiment stationed in Irkutsk and played an important role in bringing Damdin Sükhbaatar, Rokossovsky was again wounded, this time in the leg. The combined Mongol and Soviet forces soon thereafter captured Ulaanbaatar and it was in Mongolia that he met his wife Julia Barminan, a high school teacher who was fluent in four languages and who had studied Greek mythology, whom he married in 1923. Their daughter Ariadna was born in 1925, in 1924 and 1925 he attended the Leningrad Higher Cavalry School, where he first met Georgy Zhukov. He returned to Mongolia, where he was a trainer for the Mongolian Peoples Army, both became principal actors in his life during World War II, where he served directly under both at different times. Often demonstrates initiative and skillfully applies it, demanding and persistent in his demands. A somewhat ungracious and not sufficiently sympathetic person, broadly experienced as a military leader. Absolutely cannot be used in staff or teaching jobs because constitutionally he hates them, Rokossovsky was among the first to realize the potential of armoured assault.
He was a supporter of the creation of a strong armoured corps for the Red Army. Rokossovsky held senior commands until August 1937 when he caught up in Joseph Stalins Great Purge. Tchaikovsky who, like Rokossovsky, served in the far east in the early 1930s and he described Rokossovskys refusal to sign a false confession, Those who refused to sign a false statement were beaten up, as long as the false statement was not signed. There were steadfast people who stubbornly did not sign, K. K. Rokossovsky, as he sat with me in the same cell did not sign a false statement. But he was a brave and strong man and broad-shouldered, but my grandfather knew very well that Yushkevich died in Perekop
The Leningrad Front was formed during the 1941 German approach on Leningrad by dividing the Northern Front into the Leningrad Front and Karelian Front on August 27,1941. The Leningrad Front was immediately given the task of containing the German drive towards Leningrad, by September 1941, German forces to the south were effectively stopped on the outskirts of Leningrad, initiating the two-and-a-half-year-long Siege of Leningrad. Although Finnish forces to the north stopped at the old Finnish–Soviet border, from September 8, soldiers of the front were forced to conduct operations under the conditions of a blockade, with very little supply. Some supplies did reach the city however via the lake Road of Life, during the blockade, the front executed various offensive and defensive operations, until finally with the help of the Baltic and Volkhov Front, the blockade was lifted. From June 1942, Leonid Govorov had been the commander of the front, in mid and late-January 1944 the Leningrad front, along with the Volkhov Front, the 1st Baltic Front and the 2nd Baltic Front, pushed back Army Group North and broke the 28-month-long blockade.
Several days later, these forces would completely liberate all of the Leningrad Oblast, six months later, the Leningrad Front took over the town of Narva. On April 21,1944, parts of the Leningrad front were broken off to create the 3rd Baltic Front, in June 1944, the Leningrad front, along with the Baltic fleet had successfully carried out the Vyborg operation. As a result of which, Finland would leave the German side of the war, from September–November 1944, the front participated in the Baltic Offensive, it advanced in the Narva-Tartu direction, and towards Tallinn. Following the capture of continental Estonia, elements of the front, along with the Baltic fleet and these were the last offensive operations of the front. Forces of the Leningrad Front were stationed on the Soviet-Finnish border, the Leningrad front was reinforced with elements of the recently disbanded 2nd Baltic Front. On June 24,1945, the Leningrad front was reorganized into the Leningrad Military District, continuation War#Trench warfare 1942-1943 Любанская операция
51st Army (Russia)
The 51st Army was a field army of the Red Army that saw action against the Germans in World War II on both the southern and northern sectors of the front. The army fought in the Battle of Stalingrad during the winter of 1942–43, from late 1944 to the end of the war, the army fought in the final cutting-off of German forces in the Courland area next to the Baltic. Inactivated in 1945, the army was activated again in 1977 to secure Sakhalin, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the army continued in existence as a component of the Russian Ground Forces. The army was active during two periods from 1941 until 1997, the Army was ordered formed on 14 August 1941 in the Crimea based on the 9th Rifle Corps and other units as the 51st Independent Army under Colonel General F. I. Kuznetsov, with the task of guarding the Crimean Peninsula, pavel Batov was appointed as his deputy. Thus Kuznetsov was summoned, and after a discussion, he was sent south to take up his new command, the Stavka ordered that the army command be handed over to Batov.
In November the army was evacuated from the Taman Peninsula and it joined the Transcaucasian Front, the army participated in the Kerch-Feodosiya landing operation in December 1941 – January 1942 alongside the 44th Army. The 44th and 51st Armies formed the Crimean Front under General Dmitri T. Kozlov, formally established on 28 January 1942, a German offensive was launched against the Front on 8 May 1942. Army commander Lieutenant General Vladimir Nikolayevich Lvov was killed by bomb fragments on 11 May while changing his command post, three armies,21 divisions,176,000 men,347 tanks, and nearly 3,500 guns were lost. The remains of the force were evacuated, after the evacuation 51st Army joined the North Caucasian Front at Kuban. On 22 July, army commander Major general Nikolai Trufanov was relieved of command, as part of the Stalingrad Front, briefly with the Southeast Front, and back with the Stalingrad Front it took part in the Battle of Stalingrad. On 31 July when it came under Stalingrad Front control it was so worn down by its previous rough handling that it was only 3,000 men strong and it was attacked on the same day by the 4th Panzer Army, which was able to break through.
During Operation Uranus, the counterattack from Stalingrad, the 4th Mechanized Corps began its attack from the 51st Armys sector, in early December, 51st Army was deployed to cover the Kotelnikovo approaches against German relief attempts by the LVII. On 24–25 December 1942, the commander of 51st Army, Major-General N. I, on 30 January 1943, the Luftwaffes Kampfgeschwader 51 destroyed the 51st Armys Headquarters, near Salsk. Up to 20 buildings and personnel billets were destroyed, casualties among personnel were very high. On 1 April 1944, 51st Army included the 1st Guards Rifle Corps, 10th Rifle Corps, 63rd Rifle Corps, the 77th Rifle Division, during these operations, the 51st Armys attacks trapped the German XXIX. Armeekorps against the Sea of Azov, the army was withdrawn to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command on 20 May and relocated to the area of Polotsk and Vitebsk in Belarus. As part of the 1st Baltic Front it participated in operations clearing Latvia and Lithuania – the Baltic Offensive
Volgograd, formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometers long, north to south and is situated on the bank of the Volga River, after which the city was named. The city became famous for its resistance during the Battle of Stalingrad against the German Army in World War II and it is often regarded as the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn located at the confluence of the Tsaritsa, grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su as part of the defences of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia. The structure stood slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank and it soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement. In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky for six months, in 1608 the city acquired its first stone church, St.
John the Baptist. At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people, in 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress, they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin held the fortress, in 1717 in the Kuban pogrom, raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city, in 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate, in 1719 to the Astrakhan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people, in 1773 the city became the provincial and district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty, in 1780 the city came under the newly established Saratov Governorate. In the 19th century Tsaritsyn became an important river-port and commercial center, the population expanded rapidly, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900.
The first railroad reached the town in 1862, the first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, and the citys first electric lights were installed in the city center, during the Russian Civil War of 1917-1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White troops under the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, Pyotr Krasnov, the Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia under the command of General Denikin captured Tsaritsyn, the fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn. The city was renamed Stalingrad after Joseph Stalin on April 10,1925 and this was officially to recognize the citys and Stalins role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920. In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta became a district of Stalingrad, renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon, it became the largest area of the city
Front (military formation)
A front is a military formation in some countries. Originating in the Russian Empire, it has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army and Soviet Army and it is roughly equivalent to an army group in the military of most other countries. It varies in size but in general contains three to five armies and it should not be confused with the more general usage of military front, describing a geographic area in wartime. In August 1915, Northwestern Front was split into Northern Front, at the end of 1916 Romanian Front was established, which included remnants of the Romanian army. In April 1917, Caucasus Front was established by the reorganization of the Caucasus Army, the Soviet fronts were first raised during the Russian Civil War. They were wartime only, in the peacetime the fronts were normally disbanded. Usually a single district formed a front at the start of the hostilities. Some military districts could not form a front, Fronts were formed during the Polish-Soviet War of 1920. An interesting and important distinction between groups and fronts is that a Soviet front typically had its own army-sized tactical fixed-wing air organization.
This air army was subordinated to the front commander. The entire front might report either to the Stavka or to a theatre of military operations, the degree of change in the structure and performance of individual fronts can only be understood when seen in the context of the strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II. Soviet fronts in the European Theatre during the Second World War from 1941 to 1945, Baltic Fronts 1st Baltic Front, 2nd Baltic Front, Formed from Bryansk Front on 10 October 1943. 3rd Baltic Front Bryansk Front - Created 18 December 1941, to take sector between the Western and Southwestern Fronts, reformed from Orel Front 28 March 1943. Renamed 1st Baltic Front Oct-Dec 1943, Karelian Front - formed from Northern Front, along with Leningrad Front, on 23 August 1941. Kursk Front Leningrad Front - formed from Northern Front, along with Karelian Front, composed of Western Fronts 61st Army, Central Fronts 3rd Army, and 15th Air Army. Redesignated Bryansk Front 28 March 1943, Army Group of Primorye Reserve Front - Front of Reserve Armies formed 14 July 1941 Southeastern Front - formed from armies on Stalingrad Fronts left wing,7 August 1942.
Redesignated Stalingrad Front 28 September 1942, Southern Front - renamed 4th Ukrainian Front 20 October 1943. Southwestern Front - Formed initially on 22 June 1941, reestablished 22 October 1942 between Don and Voronezh Fronts
Stavka is the term used to refer to the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. It was used in Imperial Russia to refer to the administrative staff, in western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase, which is incorrect since the term is not an acronym. The term may be used to refer to its members, as well as to the headquarters location, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the beginning of World War I was Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. Appointed at the last minute in August 1914, he played no part in formulating the military plans in use at the beginning of the war, Nikolai Yanushkevich was his chief of staff. In the summer of 1915 the Tsar himself took personal command, in the years 1915–1917 Stavka was based in Mogilev and the Tsar, Nicholas II, spent long periods there as Commander-in-Chief. In August 1915, after the German advance, the Stavka re-located to Mogilev, very soon afterwards the deputy defence minister army Meretskov was arrested following the false charges by Beria and Merkulov.
Meretskov was subsequently released from the jail and on the day at the end of the first week of September 1941 was called for by Stalin. Stavka of the Main Command was reorganised into the Stavka of the Supreme Command on 10 July 1941 after Stalin was named Supreme Commander, on 8 August 1941 it was again reorganised into Stavka of the Supreme Main Command. On the same day Strategic Directions commands were instituted, a 17 February 1945 decree set out the membership of Stavka as Stalin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Aleksei Antonov, Nikolai Bulganin and Kuznetsov. Creation of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of USSR
Andrey Ivanovich Yeryomenko was a Soviet general during World War II and, subsequently, a Marshal of the Soviet Union. Born in Markivka in Kharkov Governorate to a peasant family, Yeryomenko was drafted into the Imperial Army in 1913, serving on the Southwest and he joined the Red Army in 1918, where he served in the legendary Budyonny Cavalry. He attended the Leningrad Cavalry School and the Frunze Military Academy, in addition to his education, he was appointed to command of a regiment of cavalry in Dec.1929, a division in 1937, and the 6th Cavalry Corps in 1938. On Sept.17,1939, Yeryomenko led his 6th Cavalry Corps into eastern Poland as part of the agreed to between Germany and the Soviet Union under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In general, this Soviet operation was not efficiently organized, Yeryomenko was forced to request an emergency airlift of fuel so as to continue his advance. Despite these difficulties, the Corps kept moving, and Yeryomenko earned the nickname the Russian Guderian.
Yeryomenko was given command of the prestigious 1st Red Banner Far Eastern Army, deep in eastern Siberia, Yeryomenko was thrust into a very precarious position. The Nazi Blitzkrieg approach to warfare quickly dominated the Western Front, but Yeryomenko motivated the remaining troops, during this vicious defensive Battle of Smolensk, Yeryomenko was wounded. Because of his injuries, he was transferred to the newly created Bryansk Front, particularly Stalin and Shaposhnikov, seemed convinced that Yeryomenko could block or distract Guderians drive and save Kiev from encirclement. The counter-offensive failed to accomplish its objectives despite a valiant effort, in October the Germans launched Operation Typhoon, which was an offensive aimed at capturing Moscow. Most of Yeryomenkos weakened forces were encircled by Oct.8 although small units managed to escape for days or weeks following. On Oct.13, Yeryomenko was once wounded, this time severely. He was evacuated to a hospital in Moscow, where he spent several weeks recovering.
In January 1942, Yeryomenko was appointed commander of the 4th Shock Army,20,1942, Yeryomenko was again wounded, this time in one leg, when German planes bombed his headquarters. Yeryomenko refused to evacuate to a hospital until the battle surrounding him finished and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev planned the defense of Stalingrad, rallying and re-organizing men and equipment falling back to the city from the Don River and the steppes to the west. When one of his subordinates, Gen. Anton Lopatin, doubted if his 62nd Army would be able to defend Stalingrad and the 62nd Army went on to prove themselves as the defenders of the city, confirming Yeryomenkos judgement. On Sept.28, the Southeastern Front was renamed the Stalingrad Front, during Operation Uranus, November 1942, Yeryomenkos forces helped to surround the German 6th Army from the south, linking up with the northern penetration at Kalach-na-Donu. German General Erich von Manstein soon attempted to counterattack the Soviet forces, Yeryomenko successfully repelled the attack, largely with the forces of the 2nd Guards Army along their fall-back positions on the Myshkova River
1st Guards Tank Army (Russia)
The 1st Tank Army was a Soviet armoured formation that fought as part of the Red Army on the Eastern Front during World War II. The army was commanded throughout most of the war by Mikhail Katukov and it fought in the early defense during the Battle of Stalingrad, and Operation Uranus, participating at the Battle of Kursk. The 1st Tank Army was raised within the Stalingrad Front from 38th Army in July 1942 and it was disbanded in August 1942, its headquarters forming the Southeastern Front. It was commanded by Major General K. S, the 1st Tank Army was formed on 30 January 1943 on the basis of HQ 29th Army, under the command of famous armoured troops commander Lt. Gen. Tank Tr. Mikhail Katukov personally appointed by Stalin, and transferred to the North-Western Front, 3rd Mechanised Corps and 6th Tank Corps joined it on formation, and served with the army throughout the war. It was quickly transferred to Voronezh Front for the defense of the Kursk salients southern shoulder and it was awarded a Guards title and became the 1st Guards Tank Army in April 1944 and Katukov was promoted Col.
Gen. Tank Tr. On 1 January 1945, the Armys principal combat formations were, dremov 19th Guards Mechanized Brigade 20th Guards Mechanized Brigade 21st Guards Mechanized Brigade 1st Guards Tank Brigade 11th Guards Tank Corps (Col. A. Kh. In 1968, it, along with the 11th Guards Tank and 20th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, took part in the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, in the late 1980s the Army included the 20th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 9th Tank Division, and 11th Guards Tank Division. The headquarters was withdrawn to Smolensk, in the Moscow Military District in the early 1990s, 9th Red Banner order of Suvorov Babruysk-Berlin tank division, Riesa. Withdraw to Smolensk 11th Red Banner order of Suvorov Carpatian-Berlin Guard Tank Division, withdraw to Slonim 20th Red Banner order of Suvorov Carpatian-Berlin Guard Motor Rifle Division, Grimma. Withdrew to Volgograd In its last period within the Russian Army it comprised the 4th Guards Kantemir Tank Division, after a 16-year break, the Army was reconstituted in November 2014, seemingly on 13 November 2014. E.
Slaughterhouse - The Handbook of the Eastern Front, Aberjona Press,2005 Duncan, Andrew Russian Forces in Decline - Part 3, Janes Intelligence Review, November 1996. Kalashnikov, and S. A. Slugin, The Armed Forces of the USSR after World War II, David M. Companion to Colossus Reborn University Press of Kansas,2005
Kirill Semyonovich Moskalenko was a Marshal of the Soviet Union. Moskalenko was born in the village of Grishino, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Russian Empire and he attended a number of military academies and joined the Red Army in 1920 and fought on various fronts during the Russian Civil War. During the Soviet-Finnish War, he was the commander of artillery for the 51st Rifle Division, when Operation Barbarossa began in June 1941, Moskalenko was the commander of an anti-tank brigade. Between June,1941, and March,1942, Moskalenko first held command of the 1st Anti-Tank Brigade, 15th Rifle Corps, 6th Army and he was the commander of the newly reformed 38th Army from March to July,1942. Moskalenko led his troops during the winter counteroffensive and during the Battle of Kursk, because of his contributions to a large number of key battles, such as Moscow and Kursk, Moskalenko was given the rank of Hero of the Soviet Union. From October 1943 until the end of the war, Moskalenko was the commander of the 38th Army and he led his troops as they helped drive the Germans from the Ukraine and Czechoslovakia.
After the war, Moskalenko served in various capacities in the Moscow Military District, while Zhukov could not carry a gun into the Kremlin, Moskalenko sneaked into the Kremlin with a gun to arrest Beria. During the next six months, he and Rudenko investigated the Beria Case, in December,1953, the Soviet Supreme Court found Beria guilty after a five-day proceeding. On December 23, Beria was shot, another version states that Beria was shot by machine gun during the military assault on his residential compound in Moscow. As a result of operation, on March 11,1955, Moskalenko. Moskalenko remained in the Moscow Military District until 1960, when he was made Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, in 1962, he was made an Inspector General of the Ministry of Defense. He died on June 17,1985 and his body was buried in Novodevichy Cemetery. dk