An air force, known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nations armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy, or a marine corps. Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions, Air forces typically consist of a combination of fighters, helicopters, transport planes and other aircraft. Many air forces are responsible for operations of the military space, intercontinental ballistic missiles. Some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as artillery, surface-to-air missiles, or anti-ballistic missile warning networks. In addition to pilots, air forces have ground support staff who support the aircrew, some supporting personnel such as airfield defence troops, weapons engineers and air intelligence staff do not have equivalent roles in civilian organizations.
Balloon or flying corps are not generally regarded as examples of an air force, with the invention of heavier-than-air craft in the early 20th century and navies began to take interest in this new form of aviation as a means to wage war. The first aviation force in the world was the Aviation Militaire of the French Army formed in 1910, in 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War, Italy employed aircraft for the first time ever in the world for reconnaissance and bombing missions against Turkish positions on Libyan Territory. The Italian–Turkish war of 1911–1912 was the first in history that featured air attacks by airplanes, during World War I France, Italy, the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire all possessed significant forces of bombers and fighters. World War I saw the appearance of senior commanders who directed aerial warfare, the British Royal Air Force was the first independent air force in the world. The RAF was founded on 1 April 1918 by amalgamation the British Armys Royal Flying Corps, on establishment the RAF comprised over 20,000 aircraft, was commanded by a Chief of the Air Staff who held the rank of major-general and was governed by its own government ministry.
Over the following decades most countries with any military capability established their own independent air forces. The Canadian Air Force was formed at the end of World War I and it became the permanent Royal Canadian Air Force when it received the Royal title by royal proclamation on 1 April 1924. It did not however become independent of the Canadian Army until 1938 when its head was designated as Chief of the Air Staff. Similarly, the Royal New Zealand Air Force was established in 1923 as the New Zealand Permanent Air Force, other British-influenced countries established their own independent air forces. For example, the Royal Egyptian Air Force was created in 1937 when Egyptian military aviation was separated from Army command, outside of the British Empire, the Finnish Air Force was established as a separate service on 4 May 1928 and the Brazilian Air Force was created in 1941. Both the United States Air Force and the Philippine Air Force were formed as a separate branches of their armed forces in 1947.
The Israeli Air Force came into being with the State of Israel on 18 May 1948, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force was not established until 1954, in World War II Japanese military aviation had been carried out by the Army and Navy
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners.
However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. S
Republic of Singapore Air Force
The Republic of Singapore Air Force is the air arm of the Singapore Armed Forces. It was first established in 1968 as the Singapore Air Defence Command, in 1975, it was renamed the Republic of Singapore Air Force. In January 1968, the British announced the imminent withdrawal of all their troops east of Suez by the end of 1971, the predecessor to the RSAF, the SADC, was formed in September 1968. The SADCs immediate task was to set up the Flying Training School to train pilots, qualified flying instructors were obtained through Airwork Services Limited, a UK-based company specialising in defence services. Basic training for pilots was carried out using two Cessna light aircraft hired from the Singapore Flying Club, the first batch of six pilot trainees were sent to the United Kingdom in August 1968 to undergo training in various technical disciplines. The training was based on the Hawker Hunter, the SADCs first air defence fighter, the following month, another pioneer group of technicians, this time from the rotary wing, were sent to France to begin their technical training on the Aérospatiale Alouette III helicopter.
In 1969, a number of local RAF technicians were released to join the fledging SADC, eight Cessna 172K aircraft – the SADCs first – arrived in May 1969 to be used for basic pilot training. By December, the first batch of students completed the course, of these, six were sent to the UK to receive further training. On their return to Singapore in 1970, they were ready to operate the newly acquired Hawker Hunter fighter aircraft. The pace of training pilots and ground crew picked up gradually, on 1 August 1969, Minister for the Interior and Defence, Lim Kim San, inaugurated the Flying Training School at Tengah Air Base. The inauguration of FTS brought SADC closer to its goal of fulfilling the heavy responsibility of defending Singapores airspace. The subsequent arrival of the BAC Strikemasters in 1969, used for advanced flying training. The first batch of locally trained fighter pilots were trained at the FTS, amongst this batch was 2LT Goh Yong Siang, who rose to the appointment of Chief of Air Force on 1 July 1995.
Gradually, the SADC had its own pilots, flying instructors, air traffic controllers, when Britain brought forward its plan to withdraw its forces by September 1971, the SADC was suddenly entrusted with a huge responsibility and resources. Britains former air bases – Tengah, Seletar and Changi – were handed over to the SADC, as well as its air defence radar station, in 1973, the SADC procured Shorts Skyvan search-and-locate aircraft and Douglas A-4 Skyhawk fighter-bombers. With a reliable mix of fighters, fighter-bombers and transport aircraft, on 1 April 1975, the SADC was renamed the Republic of Singapore Air Force. One of its first commanders was LTC Ee Tean Chye, wars involving Singapore Air Force, 2004-2008 Multi-National Force – Iraq. Aircraft participated in the Iraq War and returned home after two or three months deployment in the Persian Gulf without any ground troops involved, Singapores withdrawal was acknowledged on 23 December 2008
Nellis Air Force Base
Nellis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation in southern Nevada with military schools and more squadrons than any other USAF base. Nellis hosts air combat such as Exercise Red Flag and close air support exercises such as Green Flag-West flown in Military Operations Area airspace. Associated with the nearby Nevada Test and Training Range, the base has the Combined Air and Space Operations Center-Nellis. The Nellis AFB mission of advanced training for composite strike forces is commonly conducted in conjunction with air and grounds units of the Army, Marine Corps. The base supports operations at the nearby Creech Air Force Base, the Tonopah Test Range, since World War II, Nellis has had areas added, such as Area II in 1969, but still has about 7,000 acres of undeveloped space. One World War II runway has been removed, Nellis Area I has the airfield and shopping facilities, dormitories/temporary lodging, some family housing, and most of the command and support structures, e. g.
Suter Hall for Red Flag. Nellis Area III is west of the base with family housing and industrial areas. The Nellis Air Force Base CDP is a 3.1 sq mi region defined by the United States Census Bureau as of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP area includes military family housing and lodging as for aircrew temporary quarters during Red Flag exercises. The CDP residents include a portion of the Nellis work force of ~12,000 military, as of the census of 2000, there were 8,896 people,2,873 households, and 2,146 families residing in the CDP. Population density was 2,895.9 people per square mile, there were 3,040 housing units at an average density of 989. 6/sq mi. The gender ratio was 4813 males to 4083 females. The racial makeup of the base was 68. 5% White,14. 3% African American,1. 4% Native American,5. 0% Asian,0. 7% Pacific Islander,4. 9% from other races, and 5. 2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11. 7% of the population, of all households 17. 9% were made up of individuals and 1. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.91 and the family size was 3.36. 2000 census median incomes were $33,118, $34,307, $25,551, & $19,210, and per capita income was $13,601. About 10. 0% of families and 11. 1% of the population were below the poverty line, Nellis AFB leases space at the former Las Vegas AFS, and environmental sites of the Tonopah Bombing Range are monitored by the EPA. Additional Formerly Used Defense Sites associated with the military operations are the Nye County Areas A, G, H, & I, the Delamar Dry Lake Test Annex. After World War I, Nevada and other western states were surveyed by Capt. Lowell H. Smith
Royal Netherlands Air Force
The Royal Netherlands Air Force, is the military aviation branch of the Netherlands Armed Forces. It was created in 1953, though its ancestor, the Luchtvaartafdeling of the Dutch Army was founded with four pilots on 1 July 1913, the aerobatic display team of the Royal Netherlands Air Force is the Solo Display Team. The Royal Netherlands Air Force is the second youngest operational part of the Dutch Armed Forces, Dutch air power started in July 1913 with the founding of the Army Aviation Group at Soesterberg airfield. When founded, the Army Aviation Group operated one aircraft, the Brik and these aircraft were soon outdated and the Dutch government ordered several fighter/reconnaissance Nieuport and Caudron aircraft to replace them. The Netherlands maintained a position during World War I and the Army Aviation Group did not take part in any action. Pilot training was opened for ranks below officer, and technical, aerial photography, New airfields were established at Arnhem, Gilze-Rijen air base and Vlissingen.
After the end of World War I the Dutch government cut the defence budget, lack of standardisation and resulting maintenance issues added to the complexity of the rebuilding task. As war loomed, in July 1939 the Army Aviation Group was renamed the Army Aviation Brigade, within five days the Dutch Army Aviation Brigade was taken out by the German Luftwaffe. All of the Brigades bombers, along with 30 D. XXI and 17 G. I fighters were shot down, two G. I were captured by German forces, one of which was flown to England by a Fokker pilot. The cost was high – almost 95% of the Dutch pilots were lost, in recognition of their actions Queen Wilhelmina granted the highest Dutch military decoration, the Militaire Willemsorde, to the Army Aviation Brigade collectively. Some aircrews escaped to England and on 1 June 1940,320 Squadron and 321 Squadron were established there under RAF operational command, due to a shortage of personnel,321 Squadron was absorbed by 320 Sqn in January 1941. Although their personnel were predominantly from the Navy Air Service, Army Aviation aircrew served with 320 Sqn until the end of the war, the separate Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger continued in the Netherlands East Indies, until its occupation by Japan in 1942.
Some personnel escaped to Australia and Ceylon,321 Squadron was re-formed in Ceylon, in March 1942, from Dutch aviators. In 1942,18 Squadron, a joint Dutch-Australian unit was established, in Canberra and it saw action in the New Guinea campaign and over the Dutch East Indies. In 1943,120 Squadron was established, equipped with Kittyhawk fighters, it flew many missions under Australian command, including the recapturing of Dutch New Guinea. In June 1943, a Dutch fighter squadron was established in England,322 Squadron, equipped with the Supermarine Spitfire, saw action as part of the RAF. 322 Sqn aircraft featured the British RAF roundels as well as the Dutch orange triangle,322 Sqn was successfully deployed against incoming V-1 flying bombs. From mid-1944, during the invasion of Normandy, it executed ground attack missions over France, in July 1944, the Directorate of Netherlands Airpower was established in London
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdoms aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. The RAF describe its mission statement as, an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission. The mission statement is supported by the RAFs definition of air power, Air power is defined as the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events. Today the Royal Air Force maintains a fleet of various types of aircraft. The majority of the RAFs rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces, most of the RAFs aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. It was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time it was the largest air force in the world.
The RAFs naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924, the RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War, under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed Article XV squadrons for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from countries, and exiles from occupied Europe. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe, the largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command.
Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, during the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Before Britain developed its own nuclear weapons the RAF was provided with American nuclear weapons under Project E and these were initially armed with nuclear gravity bombs, being equipped with the Blue Steel missile. Following the development of the Royal Navys Polaris submarines, the nuclear deterrent passed to the navys submarines on 30 June 1969. With the introduction of Polaris, the RAFs strategic nuclear role was reduced to a tactical one and this tactical role was continued by the V bombers into the 1980s and until 1998 by Tornado GR1s. For much of the Cold War the primary role of the RAF was the defence of Western Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, with many squadrons based in West Germany. With the decline of the British Empire, global operations were scaled back, despite this, the RAF fought in many battles in the Cold War period
Commander (United States)
In the United States, commander is a military rank that is sometimes used as a military billet title, depending on the branch of service. It is used as a rank or title in some organizations outside the military, particularly in police, the commander rank started out as Master and Commander in 1674 within the British Navy for the officer responsible for sailing a ship under the Captain and some times second-in-command. Sub-captain, under-captain and master-commanding was used for the same position, with the Master and Commander serving as captain of smaller ships, the British Navy subsumed as the third and lowest of three grades of captain given the various sizes of ships. The American Continental Navy adopted the tri-graded captain ranks, Captain 2nd Grade, or Master Commandant, became Commander in 1838. Commander ranks above lieutenant commander and below captain, Commander is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the other uniformed services. Notably, it is the first rank at which the holder wears an embellished cap, whereas officers of the other services are entitled to embellishment at O-4 rank. A commander in the U. S.
Navy may command a frigate, submarine, aviation squadron or small shore activity, or may serve on a staff afloat or ashore, or a larger vessel afloat. An officer in the rank of commander who commands a vessel may be referred to as captain as a courtesy title, commanding officers of aviation squadrons and shore activities may be informally referred to as skipper but never as captain. Although it exists largely as a training organization, the U. S. Maritime Service has the grade of commander. The commission is appointed by the President via the Secretary of Transportation, for example, the senior officer in a U. S. Navy aviation squadron is the commanding officer because he or she is in command of that singular unit. That officers immediate superior in command will likely be an air group or air wing commander and this is in keeping with the naval tradition of commanding officers commanding single units, but commanders commanding multiple units. The Los Angeles Police Department was one of the first American police departments to use this rank, a commander is the third-highest rank in the force, above the rank of captain and below deputy chief.
Duties are as commanding officer of Community Affairs, Internal Affairs, Governmental Liaison, Organized Crime and Vice, Criminal Intelligence, Detective Services, the San Francisco Police Department has a Commander rank. Like the LAPD, it is above Captain and below Deputy Chief, the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia uses the rank of commander. The rank falls between those of inspector and assistant chief, the Rochester Police Department uses the rank of commander. Higher than captain and below deputy chief, the rank is achieved by appointment, Commander is the rank held by the two patrol division heads and other commanders fill various administrative roles. The Saint Paul Police Department is another force that uses the rank of commander. In the Saint Paul Police Department, commanders serve as the chief of the district/unit that they oversee, many police departments in the Midwest use the rank of commander
Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons
The Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons is a multivolume work published by Naval Historical Center of the U. S. Department of the Navys Naval History & Heritage Command. It covers naval aviation in much the way as the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships covers commissioned vessels. Two volumes have been published to date, Volume 1, covering the history of attack and strike fighter squadrons, DANAS volumes are available online and as PDF files on CD-ROM. A glossary and index are included, the information was compiled by Roy A. Grossnick, the head of the Naval Historical Centers Naval Aviation History Office. Volume 2 contains 154 histories covering every patrol squadron in existence between 1922 and 2000, a glossary and index are included. This book provides an opportunity to learn about the origins, achievements and it was written by professional historian and retired Navy Captain Michael D. Roberts. Subsequent volumes in the series will cover other components of U. S. naval aviation.
In 2000, the staff of the History & Heritage Commands Aviation History Branch was in the stages of work on Volume 3, containing the histories. Because the DANAS is a work of the U. S. government, its content is in the domain
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel.
According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner.
Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source
Wing (military aviation unit)
In military aviation, a wing is a unit of command. In most military services, a wing is a relatively large formation of planes. In Commonwealth countries a wing usually comprises three squadrons, with several wings forming a group, each squadron will contain around 20 planes. On its establishment in 1912, the British Royal Flying Corps was intended to be an inter-service, combined force of the British Army and Royal Navy. Given the rivalry existed between the army and navy, new terminology was used, in order to avoid marking the corps out as having an army or navy ethos. While the term wing had been used in the cavalry, its general use predominated. Accordingly, the wing, with its allusion of flight, was chosen as the term of subdivision and the corps was split into a Military Wing. Each wing consisted of a number of squadrons, by 1914, the naval wing had become the Royal Naval Air Service, and gained its independence from the Royal Flying Corps. The Royal Flying Corps was amalgamated with the Royal Naval Air Service in 1918, the RFC usage of wing was maintained in the new service.
In most Commonwealth air forces, as well as some others, in these air forces a wing is inferior to a group. Originally all wings were commanded by a wing commander. From World War II onwards, operational flying wings have usually been commanded by group captains, a wing may be used for non-flying units, such as the infantry forces of the RAF Regiment. Additionally, RAF stations are divided into wings. In 2006, expeditionary air wings were established at the RAFs main operating bases and these expeditionary air wings consist of the deployable elements of the main operating base and other supplementary forces. Expeditionary air wings may be subordinated to an air group. In the British Air Training Corps, a wing consists of a number of squadrons within a geographical area. In this context, a wing is inferior to a region which is made up of six wings, in all, there are 36 Air Training Corps wings in six regions within the United Kingdom, each of which is commanded by a RAFVR wing commander. The size of a wing follows US usage, it varies greatly, in the 1990s, the Canadian Forces Air Command altered the structure of those bases under its control, declaring them to be Wings under the overall control of 1 Canadian Air Division in Winnipeg
An army aviation unit is an aviation-related unit of a nations army, often described as an air corps. These units are separate from a nations dedicated air force. Prior to the establishment of national air forces, many armies had military aviation units. As the separation between an army and air force led to a divergence of priorities, many armies re-established their own organic aviation branches to best serve their own needs. At this point the purpose of aircraft was still to act as an adjunct to traditional armies, today a compromise fairly typical the world over is if it has wings it belongs to the air force allowing the army to operate helicopters and light fixed wing aircraft. The tasks of each armys aviation units are defined slightly different, transporting the British Army in war and peace, Cooper, ISBN 0-85052-724-4 Warner, Boyd, Army Aviation in Ulster, Newtownards, Co. Down, Colourpoint Books, ISBN 1-904242-27-8 Young, Ralph B. Army aviation in Vietnam, an illustrated history of unit insignia, aircraft camouflage and markings, Huey Co.
ISBN 0-9671980-1-1 Media related to Army aviation at Wikimedia Commons
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases. In contrast, maritime aviation is the operation of aircraft in a maritime role, an exception to this is the United States Coast Guard, which is considered part of U. S. naval aviation. S. Naval aviation, whether based afloat or ashore, Naval aviation is typically projected to a position nearer the target by way of an aircraft carrier. Carrier-based aircraft must be enough to withstand demanding carrier operations. Early experiments on the use of kites for naval reconnaissance took place in 1903 at Woolwich Common for the Admiralty, in 1908 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith approved the formation of an Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence to investigate the potential for naval aviation. This resulted in the construction of Mayfly in 1909, the first air component of the navy to become operational, and the genesis of modern naval aviation. Two hundred applications were received, and four were accepted, Lieutenant C R Samson, Lieutenant A M Longmore, Lieutenant A Gregory and Captain E L Gerrard, RMLI.
The French established an aviation capability in 1910 with the establishment of the Service Aeronautique. U. S. naval aviation began with pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss who contracted with the Navy to demonstrate that airplanes could take off from, one of his pilots, Eugene Ely, took off from the USS Birmingham anchored off the Virginia coast in November 1910. Two months Ely landed aboard another cruiser, USS Pennsylvania, in San Francisco Bay, the platforms erected on those vessels were temporary measures. The U. S. Navy and Glenn Curtiss experienced two firsts during January 1911, $25,000 was appropriated for the Bureau of Navigation to purchase three airplanes and in the spring of 1911 four additional officers were trained as pilots by the Wright brothers and Curtiss. A camp with a landing field was established on the Severn River at Greenbury Point, near Annapolis. Mustin successfully tested the concept of the launch in August 1912. The first permanent naval air station was established at Pensacola, Florida, in January 1912, the British battleship HMS Africa took part in aircraft experiments at Sheerness.
Africa transferred her flight equipment to her sister ship Hibernia, in May 1912, with Commander Samson again flying the S.38, the first ever instance of an aircraft to take off from a ship which was underway occurred. Hibernia steamed at 10.5 knots at the Royal Fleet Review in Weymouth Bay, Hibernia transferred her aviation equipment to battleship London. The first aircraft participation in naval manoeuvres took place in 1913 with the cruiser Hermes converted into a seaplane carrier, in 1914, naval aviation was split again, and became the Royal Naval Air Service. However, shipboard naval aviation had begun in the Royal Navy, other early operators of seaplanes were Germany, within its Marine-Fliegerabteiling naval aviation units within the Kaiserliche Marine, and Russia