Lieutenant General Sir Stanley George Savige, KBE, CB, DSO, MC, ED was an Australian Army soldier and officer who served in the First World War and Second World War. In March 1915, after the outbreak of the First World War and he served in the ranks during the Gallipoli Campaign, and received a commission. He served on the Western Front, where he was recommended for the Military Cross for bravery. In 1918, he joined Dunsterforce and served in the Caucasus Campaign and he subsequently wrote a book, Stalkys Forlorn Hope, about his experiences. After the war he played a key role in the establishment of Legacy Australia, during the early years of the Second World War, Savige commanded the 17th Infantry Brigade in the North African Campaign, the Battle of Greece and Syria–Lebanon Campaign. His outspoken criticism of professional soldiers earned him their rancour and he returned to Australia in early 1942, and commanded the 3rd Division in the Salamaua–Lae campaign. He ultimately rose to the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army, in life, Savige was a director of Olympic Tyre & Rubber Ltd from 1946 to 1951 and chairman of Moran & Cato Ltd from 1950 to 1951.
He was chairman of the Central War Gratuity Board from 1946 to 1951, Stanley Savige was born on 26 June 1890, in Morwell, the eldest of eight children to Samuel Savige, a butcher, and his wife Ann Nora, née Walmsley. Stan Savige left Korumburra State School at the age of twelve to work as a blacksmiths striker, while at Korumburra, he enlisted in the school junior cadets as a bugler. The family moved to Prahran, Victoria, in 1907, where Savige worked at a variety of jobs and served in the Prahran senior cadets for 18 months and he became a scoutmaster, forming the First Yarra Troop. Savige was an member of the South Yarra Baptist Church. Through his church activities, Savige met Lilian Stockton, to whom he engaged on New Years Day,1914. Savige enlisted in the First Australian Imperial Force on 6 March 1915, and was posted to the 24th Infantry Battalion and he was passed over for a commission due to his lack of education, but was promoted to corporal on 30 April and lance sergeant on 8 May. The 24th Infantry Battalion landed at Gallipoli on 5 September 1915, Savige became company sergeant major on 20 September.
There, he was commissioned as a lieutenant on 9 November 1915. During the evacuation of Gallipoli in December 1915, Savige was one of three officers chosen to serve with the battalion rearguard, after a brief period of rest and reorganisation in Egypt, the 2nd Division—of which the 24th Infantry Battalion was part—embarked for France on 21 March 1916. Savige became commander of the scout platoon and led a number of night patrols into no mans land. On 12 April, he became battalion intelligence officer and he was promoted to lieutenant on 1 May, coming to the attention of his brigade commander, Brigadier General John Gellibrand, Savige was attached to 6th Infantry Brigade headquarters as a trainee brigade intelligence officer
Theodore Stark Wilkinson
Theodore Stark Ping Wilkinson was a Vice-Admiral of the United States Navy during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions in Veracruz, Wilkinson entered the United States Naval Academy in 1905 and graduated first in the class of 1909. He served the two years of sea duty required by law prior to commissioning, in the battleships USS Kansas and USS South Carolina, before he received his ensigns commission on June 5,1911. After instruction at George Washington University, Washington, D. C. under the auspices of the Navys Bureau of Ordnance, Wilkinson reported to the battleship USS Florida on July 25,1913 for sea duty. During his time in that dreadnought, Ens. Wilkinson led Floridas 2d Company in action during the landings on 21 and April 22,1914 at Veracruz, Mexico. For his skillful and courageous leadership of that unit of the landing force and his exhibition of eminent and conspicuous conduct. On August 4, he was transferred to the armored cruiser USS Tennessee, Tennessee and USS North Carolina were ordered to European waters to evacuate Americans trapped on the continent by the outbreak of World War I.
On September 3, he became an assistant to the naval attaché at Paris, the young officer had tours of sea duty, first as aide, to Commander, 2d Division, Atlantic Fleet, and as aide to the commander of the 7th Division. Additionally, he was deemed responsible for the successful design of a depth charge. In 1921 and 1922, Wilkinson commanded, in succession, the destroyers USS Osborne, USS Goff, after commanding the destroyer USS King from January 1925 to December 1926, Wilkinson headed the Records Section of the Bureau of Navigation Officer Personnel Division. In June 1930, he became gunnery officer and aide to Commander, Scouting Fleet. Detached from that duty in December 1931, he assumed the duties of secretary to the Navys General Board. While in that assignment, Wilkinson had additional duty during the arms limitation talks at Geneva in 1933, from September 1934 to June 1936, Wilkinson served as executive officer of USS Indianapolis. Over the next three years, he headed the Planning Division of BuNav and returned to Indianapolis, this time in a capacity, as Chief of Staff to Commander.
In January 1941, he fleeted up to command the battleship USS Mississippi, detached from that duty and promoted to Rear Admiral, Wilkinson was assigned as Director of the Office of Naval Intelligence on October 15. When asked for his opinion at the time about Japanese intentions, the congressional committee noted that he was “the only officer in Washington in the higher echelons who thought so. Halsey was designated Third Fleet Commander in March, and Wilkinson became Commander of the Third Amphibious Force in July 1943. In those positions, he is credited by naval historian Samuel Eliot Morison with developing the US “leapfrogging” strategy designed to control of the Southwest Pacific islands occupied by Japan
Chester W. Nimitz
Chester William Nimitz was a fleet admiral of the United States Navy. Nimitz was the leading U. S. Navy authority on submarines. S, the chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939, Nimitz served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1945 until 1947. He was the United States last surviving officer who served in the rank of fleet admiral and his frail, rheumatic father had died six months earlier, on August 14,1884. The best way to get along with either is to all you can, do your best. His grandfather became a Texas Ranger in the Texas Mounted Volunteers in 1851 and he served as captain of the Gillespie Rifles Company in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. Originally, Nimitz applied to West Point in hopes of becoming an Army officer and his congressman, James L. Slayden, told him that he had one appointment available for the United States Naval Academy and that he would award it to the best qualified candidate. Nimitz felt that this was his opportunity for further education. He was appointed to the United States Naval Academy from Texass 12th congressional district in 1901, Nimitz joined the battleship Ohio at San Francisco, and cruised on her to the Far East.
In September 1906, he was transferred to the cruiser Baltimore, on January 31,1907, remaining on Asiatic Station in 1907, he successively served on the gunboat Panay, destroyer Decatur, and cruiser Denver. The destroyer Decatur ran aground on a bar in the Philippines on July 7,1908 while under the command of Ensign Nimitz. The ship was pulled free the next day, and Nimitz was court-martialed, found guilty of neglect of duty, and issued a letter of reprimand. Nimitz returned to the United States on board USS Ranger when that vessel was converted to a school ship, in May of that year, he was given command of the flotilla, with additional duty in command of USS Plunger, renamed A-1. He commanded USS Snapper when that submarine was commissioned on February 2,1910, in the latter command, he had additional duty from October 10,1911 as Commander 3rd Submarine Division Atlantic Torpedo Fleet. On the monitor Tonopah on March 20,1912, he rescued Fireman Second Class W. J. Walsh from drowning, receiving a Silver Lifesaving Medal for his action.
In the summer of 1913, Nimitz studied engines at the diesel engine plants in Nuremberg, returning to the New York Navy Yard, he became executive and engineer officer of Maumee at her commissioning on October 23,1916. Under his supervision, Maumee conducted the first-ever underway refuelings, on August 10,1917, Nimitz became aide to Rear Admiral Samuel S. Robison, Submarine Force, U. S. On February 6,1918, Nimitz was appointed chief of staff and was awarded a Letter of Commendation for meritorious service as COMSUBLANTs chief of staff. On September 16, he reported to the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, from May 1919 to June 1920, he served as executive officer of the battleship South Carolina
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
General Alexander Archer Vandegrift, USMC was a general in the United States Marine Corps. He commanded the 1st Marine Division to victory in its first ground offensive of World War II, for his actions during the Solomon Islands campaign, he received the Medal of Honor. Vandegrift served as the 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps, Alexander Archer Vandegrift was born on March 13,1887 in the town of Charlottesville, Virginia where his father of Dutch descent was an architect and contractor. Young Vandegrift, known as Archer in his boyhood, had an interest in the military – both from reading military history novels and from stories of ancestors who fought in various wars. While at the Marine Corps Schools in 1909 he wrote an article entitled Aviation. As Commandant, he appointed the Hogaboom Board, named for Major General Hogaboom, the chairman, that began the USMCs development of vertical envelopment, the use of helicopters for air assault. During his early years as a lieutenant, General Vandegrift was very nearly dismissed from the Marine Corps due to disciplinary infractions.
In his first Marine Corps evaluation, dated June 30,1909, following instruction at the Marine Officers School, Port Royal, South Carolina, his first tour of duty was at the Marine Barracks, New Hampshire. In 1912, he went to shore duty in the Caribbean, first to Cuba. He participated in the bombardment and capture of Coyotepe in Nicaragua, in 1914, he participated in the engagement and occupation of Vera Cruz, Mexico. In December 1914, following his promotion to first lieutenant, he attended the Advance Base Course at the Marine Barracks, upon completion of schooling, he sailed for Haiti with the 1st Marines and participated in action against hostile Cacos bandits at Le Trou and Fort Capois, Haiti. In August 1916, he was promoted to captain and became a member of the Haitian Constabulary at Port-au-Prince and he returned to Haiti again in July 1919 to serve with the Gendarmerie dHaiti as an Inspector of Constabulary. He was promoted to major in June 1920, Major Vandegrift returned to the U. S.
in April 1923 and was assigned to the Marine Barracks, MCB Quantico, Virginia. He completed the Field Officers Course, Marine Corps Schools in May 1926 and he was transferred to the Marine Corps Base San Diego, California as Assistant Chief of Staff. In February 1927, he sailed for China where he served as operations and he was ordered to Washington, D. C. in September 1928, where he became assistant chief coordinator, Bureau of the Budget. Following duty in Washington, D. C. he joined the Marine Barracks, during this assignment, in June 1934, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. Ordered to China in June 1935, LtCol Vandegrift served successively as executive officer, promoted to colonel in September 1936, Vandegrift reported to Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington, D. C. in June 1937, where he became Military Secretary to the Major General Commandant. In March 1940, he was appointed Assistant to the Major General Commandant, brigadier General Vandegrift was ordered to the 1st Marine Division in November 1941, shortly before the United States of America entered World War II
Major General Sir Harold Eric Barrowclough KCMG, CB, DSO & Bar, MC, ED, PC was a New Zealand military leader and Chief Justice from 1953 to 1966. Born in Masterton, Barrowclough commenced legal studies in 1913 and joined the Territorial Force the same year, in 1915, partway through his law degree, he volunteered for service abroad with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force and fought on the Western Front. He finished the First World War in command of a battalion in the New Zealand Rifle Brigade, after the war he finished his law studies and became a successful lawyer. He resumed duty in the Territorial Force, serving until 1931 when he moved to Auckland to join a law firm based there, following the outbreak of the Second World War Barrowclough volunteered for service with the Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force. He commanded a brigade in the 2nd New Zealand Division during the campaign in Greece. In 1942 he was recommended for divisional command by his officer, Major General Bernard Freyberg, and was given the 3rd Division.
When the division was disbanded in late 1944, he was left without a command and was discharged from the 2NZEF. He returned to the profession and in 1953 was appointed Chief Justice of New Zealand. He established a permanent Court of Appeal for New Zealand and served on the Privy Council for a time and he retired in 1966 and died in Auckland in 1972 at the age of 77. Harold Eric Barrowclough was born at Masterton, New Zealand, on 23 June 1894, the son of an engineer, Alfred Barrowclough. In life, his father took up teaching, educated at Palmerston North Boys High School, he performed well both academically and in sports. He was prefect and won a university scholarship in 1912, the following year he began law studies at the University of Otago. He joined the Territorial Force, in the early stages of the First World War, Barrowclough volunteered for service in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, enlisting as a private in January 1915. He showed leadership potential and within four months had been commissioned as a second lieutenant and he departed for overseas service in October 1915 having been promoted to lieutenant and posted to the New Zealand Rifle Brigade.
He saw brief service during the Senussi Campaign in the Middle East with the 2nd Battalion of the brigade. In 1916, with the Rifle Brigade now serving on the Western Front as part of the New Zealand Division, Barrowclough was regarded as an outstanding officer, three months he was appointed commander of a company in the battalion. He was awarded the Croix de Guerre for the same action, wounded in the back in June 1917, he was invalided to England to convalesce. Upon recovery, he commanded reserve battalions at the NZEF bases in England and he returned to France in March 1918 as a temporary major and took up command of a company
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and East Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China. The Pacific War saw the Allied powers pitted against the Empire of Japan, the formal and official surrender of Japan took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. In Allied countries during the war, The Pacific War was not usually distinguished from World War II in general, or was known simply as the War against Japan. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a decision on 10 December 1941. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War, in Japan, the Fifteen Years War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945. The Phayap Army sent troops to invade and occupy northeastern Burma, involved were the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and Mengjiang, and the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime.
The official policy of the U. S. Government is that Thailand was not an ally of the Axis, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Korea and Formosa. To a small extent, some Vichy French, Indian National Army and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War. The German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian, the Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China, while the Germans did not. After Japans attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, Free France and many other countries took part, especially forces from other British colonies. Between 1942 and 1945, there were four main areas of conflict in the Pacific War, the Central Pacific, South East Asia, U. S. sources refer to two theaters within the Pacific War, the Pacific theater and the China Burma India Theater. However these were not operational commands, in the Pacific, the Allies divided operational control of their forces between two supreme commands, known as Pacific Ocean Areas and Southwest Pacific Area.
In 1945, for a period just before the Japanese surrender. By 1937, Japan controlled Manchuria and was ready to move deeper into China, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on 7 July 1937 provoked full-scale war between China and Japan. In August 1937, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to fight about 300,000 Japanese troops in Shanghai, the Japanese continued to push the Chinese forces back, capturing the capital Nanking in December 1937 and committed which was known as Nanking Massacre. In March 1938, Nationalist forces won their first victory at Taierzhuang, but the city of Xuzhou was taken by Japanese in May. In June 1938, Japan deployed about 350,000 troops to invade Wuhan, the Japanese achieved major military victories, but world opinion—in particular in the United States—condemned Japan, especially after the Panay incident
Dominion of New Zealand
The Dominion of New Zealand was the historical successor to the Colony of New Zealand. It was a monarchy with a high level of self-government within the British Empire. New Zealand became a separate British Crown colony in 1841 and received responsible government with the Constitution Act in 1852. New Zealand chose not to part in Australian Federation and became the Dominion of New Zealand on 26 September 1907, Dominion Day. Dominion status was a mark of the political independence that had evolved over half a century through responsible government. Just under one million lived in New Zealand in 1907 and cities such as Auckland. The Dominion of New Zealand allowed the British government to shape its foreign policy, the 1923 and 1926 Imperial Conferences decided that New Zealand should be allowed to negotiate their own political treaties and the first commercial treaty was ratified in 1928 with Japan. When the Second World War broke out in 1939 the New Zealand government made its own decision to enter the war, in the post-war period, the term ‘Dominion’ has fallen into disuse.
Full independence was granted with the Statute of Westminster in 1931, after much debate over lexicon, the term ‘Dominion’ was decided upon. Dominion status was anticipated to be a house between colonial status and full independence. The adoption of the designation of ‘Dominion’ would, raise the status of New Zealand stated Prime Minister Sir Joseph Ward, Ward had regional imperial ambitions. He hoped the new designation would remind the world that New Zealand was not part of Australia and it would dignify New Zealand, a country he thought was the natural centre for the government of the South Pacific. A royal proclamation granting New Zealand the designation of ‘Dominion’ was issued on 9 September 1907, on 26 September the Prime Minister, Sir Joseph Ward, read the proclamation from the steps of Parliament, Edward R. & I. And We hereby give Our Commands to all Public Departments accordingly, given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this ninth day of September, in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and seven, and in the seventh year of Our Reign.
God save the King Letters patent were issued to confirm New Zealands change in status, declaring that, there shall be a Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Our Dominion of New Zealand. Control over defence, constitutional amendments, and foreign affairs remained with the British government until the Statute of Westminster was adopted in 1947, Ward had thought that New Zealanders would be much gratified with the new title. However, Dominion status was received with limited enthusiasm and indifference from the general public, the shift from colony to Dominion was viewed as a change of name only. The general public were unable to discern any practical difference, Dominion status was symbolic and recognised the countrys shift to self-governance, but this change had been accomplished with the first responsible government in the 1850s
General Roy Stanley Geiger was a United States Marine Corps four-star general who served in World War I and World War II where he became the first Marine Corps general to lead an army-sized force. Geiger commanded the III Amphibious Corps in the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 before assuming the command of the U. S. Tenth Army upon the death of its commander, Lt. General Simon Bolivar Buckner. Marine Corps base Camp Geiger in North Carolina is named in his honor, Geiger was born in Middleburg, Florida. He attended Florida State Normal and Industrial College and received a law degree, LLB and he enlisted in the Marine Corps as a private on November 2,1907 in St. Paul and was sent to Naval Station Norfolk for his initial training. Geiger spent most of his time at the Marine Barracks, Washington. Following a series of examinations and the passing of a Naval Medical Board he accepted his commission as a Second Lieutenant on February 5,1909. Following attendance at the Marine Officers School at Port Royal, South Carolina, he served as a member of the Marine detachments aboard Wisconsin and Delaware.
In August 1912, he was assigned to Nicaragua, where he participated in the bombardment and capture of the hills called Coyotepe and Barranca. Further foreign shore duty followed in the Philippines and China with the First Brigade and with the Marine Detachment, American Legation, China, in March 1916, Geiger joined Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, as a student naval aviator. He successfully completed the course and was designated an aviator in June 1917. He was designated Naval Aviator #49 on June 9,1917, further training followed and in July 1918, he arrived in France. He served with 5 Group, Royal Air Force at Dunkirk and he commanded a squadron of the First Marine Aviation Force and was attached to the Day Wing, Northern Bombing Group. He was detached to the United States in January 1919, for distinguished service in leading bombing raids against the enemy, he was awarded the Navy Cross. From December 1919 to January 1921, he was a commander with the Marine Aviation Force attached to the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in Haiti.
Upon return to the United States and after duty at the Marine Flying Field, Marine Barracks, MCB Quantico, Virginia, he attended Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Again he went to shore duty, commanding Observation Squadron Two with the First Brigade in Haiti. After attending the U. S. Army War College and graduating in June 1929, he was ordered to Quantico, in June 1935, he returned to Quantico as Commanding Officer, Aircraft One, Fleet Marine Force
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government