Counties of Norway
Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties, until 1918, they were known as amter. The counties form the first-level subdivisions of Norway and are divided into 428 municipalities. Svalbard and Jan Mayen are outside the county division and ruled directly on national level, the capital Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality. In 2017 the government decided to abolish the current counties and to them with fewer, larger administrative regions. Below is a list of the Norwegian counties as they have been since 1919, note that the counties are administered both by appointees of the national government and to a lesser extent by their own elected bodies. The county numbers are from the numbering system ISO 3166-2, NO. The number 13 was dropped from the system when the city of Bergen was merged into Hordaland in 1972, from the consolidation to a single kingdom, Norway was divided into a number of geographic regions that had its own legislative assembly or Thing, such as Gulating and Frostating.
The second-order subdivision of these regions was into fylker, such as Egdafylke and Hordafylke, in 1914, the historical term fylke was brought into use again to replace the term amt introduced during the union with Denmark. Current day counties often, but not necessarily, correspond to the historical areas. Finnmark, the Faroe Islands, the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides, Isle of Man and Greenland were Norwegian skattland, from the end of the 12th century, Norway was divided into several syssel. The head of the various syssel was the syslemann, who represented the king locally, the following shows a reconstruction of the different syssel in Norway c. 1300, including sub-syssel where these seem established, from 1308, the term len in Norway signified an administrative region roughly equivalent to todays counties. The historic len was an important administrative entity during the period of Dano-Norwegian unification after their amalgamation as one state, which lasted for the period 1536–1814. At the beginning of the 16th century the political divisions were variable, up to 1660 the four principal len were headquartered at the major fortresses Bohus Fortress, Akershus Fortress, Bergenhus Fortress and the fortified city of Trondheim.
The sub-regions corresponded to the districts for the Lutheran church in Norway. Båhus len Akershus len Trondheim len Bergenhus len These four principal len were in the 1530s divided into approximately 30 smaller regions. From that point forward through the beginning of the 17th century the number of subsidiary len was reduced, from 1660 Norway had nine principal len comprising 17 subsidiary len, Len written as län continues to be used as the administrative equivalent of county in Sweden to this day. Each len was governed by a lenman, with the royal decree of February 19,1662, each len was designated an amt and the lenmann was titled amtmann, from German Amt, reflecting the bias of the Danish court of that period
Nordfjord is a traditional district of Norway. The region is located in the part of Sogn og Fjordane county in Western Norway. It centers on the Nordfjorden and it comprises the municipalities of Selje, Vågsøy, Eid, Hornindal, the Nordfjord region covers an area of about 4,295 square kilometres and is home to a population of approximately 32,464. The fjord is the sixth longest in Norway stretching 106 kilometres from the island of Husevågøy at the mouth to the village of Loen at the other end, the region encompasses the rough coastline of the Stadlandet peninsula to the Jostedalsbreen, Europes largest mainland glacier. The region includes the lake Hornindalsvatnet, Europes deepest lake at 514 metres below sea level, the glacier Briksdalsbreen is particularly scenic. The Stryn area provides year-round alpine skiing, and there are numerous old fishing communities along the fjord going back to pre-Viking times, Nordfjord promotional web site Nordfjord - official travel guide to Norway
Gulen is a municipality in the southwestern part of Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. It is part of the district of Sogn. The administrative center of the municipality is the village of Eivindvik, other villages in Gulen include Brekke, Dalsøyra, Instefjord, Mjømna and Ytre Oppedal. In 2016 the chief of police formally suggested that the station be closed down. Evindvig was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, the municipality of 1838 was created to be identical to the Evindvig parish that included the three sub-parishes of Eivindvik and Husøy. The sub-parish of Brekke was separated from the municipality in 1850 to form a municipality of its own, in 1858, the sub-parish of Husøy was separated from Evindvig to form its own municipality called Utvær. This left Evindvig with 3,018 inhabitants, on 1 July 1890, the name of Evindvig municipality was officially changed to Gulen. On 1 January 1964, the municipality of Brekke was merged with Gulen, on that same date, the island of Losna was transferred from Gulen to the neighboring municipality of Solund.
After these changes, Gulen had a population of 3,250, the name originally belonged to the fjord. The name is derived from the word gul which means wind. Until 1891, the name of the municipality was Evenvig or Eivindvig, the coat of arms are relatively new. They were granted on 9 February 1990, the arms show two gray crosses on a blue background. The Church of Norway has three parishes within the municipality of Gulen and it is part of the Nordhordland deanery in the Diocese of Bjørgvin. The roughly 2500 residents live scattered throughout the municipality and are divided into four districts, Eivindvik, Dalsøyra. The municipality is governed by a council of elected representatives. The municipal council of Gulen is made up of 21 representatives that are elected to four years. For 2011–2015, the party breakdown is as follows, The mayor of a municipality in Norway is usually a representative of the majority party of the council who is elected to lead the council. The mayor of Gulen for the 2011-2015 term is Hallvard S.
Oppedal of the Centre Party, Gulen has an area of about 600 square kilometres including about 1500 small islands and skerries
Districts of Norway
The country Norway is historically divided into a number of districts. Many districts have deep roots, and only partially coincide with todays administrative units of counties and municipalities. The districts are defined by geographical features, often valleys, mountain ranges, plains, or coastlines, many such regions were petty kingdoms up to the early Viking age. A high percentage of Norwegians identify themselves more by the district live in or come from. Thus and regional commonality in folk culture tended to correspond to those same geographical units, the construction of railroads between distant parts of the country. The opening of dozens of new airports all over the country through the 1960s and 1970s, the release of private cars from government rationing and import restrictions from the 1950s onwards. A concrete display of the Norwegian habit of identifying themselves by district can be seen in the many regional costumes, called bunad, the following list is non-exhaustive and partially overlapping.
The first name is the name in Bokmål, the second Nynorsk, helgeland Lofoten Ofoten Salten Vesterålen See Finnmark, Hålogaland and Troms
Solund is a municipality in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, Norway. It is located in the district of Sogn. Solund is the westernmost island municipality in Norway, and the municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county that is made up only of islands. Holmebåen on the island of Steinsøy is the westernmost point in all of Norway, the population today is around 840, with most people living on the main islands of Sula and Ytre Sula. The administrative centre of Solund is the village of Hardbakke on Sula island, some other villages in Solund include Kolgrov on Ytre Sula, Hersvikbygda on Sula, and Losnegard on Losna. Utvær was established as a municipality in 1858, the two sub-parishes, or sokn, of Solund and Husøy were separated from the Gulen parish to form the new municipality and parish of Utvær at that time. The initial population of Utvær was 1,384, on 1 July 1890, the municipal name of Utvær was changed to Sulen. The spelling was altered to Solund by royal decree on 16 November 1923. On 1 January 1964, the island of Losna was transferred from Gulen to Solund, in 2016 the chief of police formally suggested that the police station be closed down.
The name originally belonged to the island of Sula, the meaning of the name is unknown. In Old Norse times, the sea between Norway and Scotland was called Sólundirhaf which means the sea of Solund, the municipality was named Utvær from 1858 until 1 July 1890 when it was changed to Sulen. The spelling was altered to Solund on 16 November 1923, the coat-of-arms are from modern times—they were officially granted on 16 February 1990. The are, inspired by the coat-of-arms of the noble family from the island of Losna. The Church of Norway has one parish within the municipality of Solund and it is part of the Nordhordland deanery in the Diocese of Bjørgvin. The municipality is governed by a council of elected representatives. The municipal council of Solund is made up of 15 representatives that are elected to four years. For 2011–2015, the party breakdown is as follows, The mayor of a municipality in Norway is a representative of the majority party of the council who is elected to lead the council. The mayor for the 2011-2015 term is Ole Gunnar Krakhellen of the Conservative Party, Solund is one of the least populated municipalities in all of Norway
The Viking Age is the period from the late 8th century to the mid-11th century in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age. It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids and conquest. Three Viking ships had beached in Weymouth Bay four years earlier, the Viking devastation of Northumbrias Holy Island was reported by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York, who wrote, Never before in Britain has such a terror appeared. Vikings were portrayed as violent and bloodthirsty by their enemies. The chronicles of medieval England portrayed them as rapacious wolves among sheep, the first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Pioneering scholarly works on the Viking Age reached a readership in Britain. Archaeologists began to dig up Britains Viking past, linguistics traced the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs. New dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled more Victorians to read the Icelandic Sagas, the Vikings who invaded western and eastern Europe were chiefly pagans from Denmark and Sweden.
They settled in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, peripheral Scotland and their North Germanic language, Old Norse, became the mother-tongue of present-day Scandinavian languages. By 801, a central authority appears to have been established in Jutland. In Norway, mountainous terrain and fjords formed strong natural boundaries, communities there remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By 800, some 30 small kingdoms existed in Norway, the sea was the easiest way of communication between the Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. It was in the 8th century that Scandinavians began to build ships of war, the North Sea rovers were traders and explorers as well as plunderers. There are various theories concerning the causes of the Viking invasions, for people living along the coast, it would seem natural to seek new land by the sea. Another reason was that during this period England and Ireland, the Franks, had well-defended coasts and heavily fortified ports and harbours.
Pure thirst for adventure may have been a factor, a reason for the raids is believed by some to be over-population caused by technological advances, such as the use of iron, or a shortage of women due to selective female infanticide. Although another cause could well have been caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia. Consequently, these Vikings became raiders, in search of subsistence, There is ongoing debate among scholars as to why the Scandinavians began to expand during the 8th through 11th centuries
Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978 when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget, the name translates into English as Great Norwegian encyclopedia. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norways two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The fourth edition consists of 16 volumes, a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries, on 12 March 2010 Store Norske Leksikon announced that from 1 July 2010 there would be no new editions of Store Norske Leksikon, because of lacklustre sales. The main reason behind this decision was stated to be Wikipedia, SNL became available online since 2000 and had several hundred thousand subscribers, both private and institutional. The number of articles is about 150,000.
Since 25 February 2009, the encyclopedia has been free. The online version of the Store norske leksikon
Luster is a municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. It is located at the end of the Sognefjorden in the district of Sogn. The administrative centre is the village of Gaupne, other villages in Luster include Fortun, Indre Hafslo, Luster, Ornes, Skjolden and Veitastrond. Luster centers on the branch of the Sognefjord, which is called the Lustrafjorden. At 2, 706-square-kilometre, Luster is one of the largest municipalities by area in all of southern Norway and its landscape includes fjords, steep mountains, water-abundant waterfalls, blue glaciers, and valleys. Both Jostedalsbreen National Park and Breheimen National Park are partially located in this municipality, the Sognefjellsvegen road goes over a mountain pass in eastern Luster. In 2016 the chief of police formally suggested that the station be closed down. Lyster was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, the original municipality was identical to the Lyster parish with the sub-parishes of Fortun, Dale and Gaupne. On 1 January 1963, the municipalities of Hafslo and Jostedal were merged with Luster.
After the merger, Luster had 5,854 residents, Luster is the largest municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county. The name originally belonged to the fjord, the name is derived from the word ljóss which means light or bright - referring to the bright color of the water from the glaciers. Prior to 1918, the name was written Lyster, the coat of arms are relatively new, they were granted on 20 April 1990. They show a silver-colored rounded tilia twig on a blue background, although they are newly designed, they are inspired by an old woodcarving found in the Urnes Stave Church which is located in Luster. The Church of Norway has eight parishes within the municipality of Luster and it is part of the Indre Sogn deanery in the Diocese of Bjørgvin. The municipality is governed by a council of elected representatives. The municipal council of Luster is made up of 25 representatives that are elected to four years. For 2011–2015, the party breakdown is as follows, The mayor of a municipality in Norway is usually a representative of the majority party of the council who is elected to lead the council.
Ivar Kvalen of the Centre Party was elected mayor for the 2011-2015 term, one of the largest municipalities in southern Norway, is located in the glacial mountains where the Sognefjorden begins its path to the North Sea