The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, New Hampshire is the 5th smallest by land area and the 9th least populous of the 50 United States. Concord is the capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state and in northern New England, including Vermont. It has no sales tax, nor is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle and its license plates carry the state motto, Live Free or Die. The states nickname, The Granite State, refers to its extensive granite formations, the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the New England region and it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the north and northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Massachusetts to the south, and Vermont to the west.
New Hampshires major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003. Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport and its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshires Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The northwesternmost headwaters of the Connecticut define the Canada–U. S, the Piscataqua River and its several tributaries form the states only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth.
The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine, the U. S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine. New Hampshire still claims sovereignty of the base, the largest of New Hampshires lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 71 square miles in the east-central part of New Hampshire. Umbagog Lake along the Maine border, approximately 12.3 square miles, is a distant second, Squam Lake is the second largest lake entirely in New Hampshire. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the United States, Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. It is the state with the highest percentage of area in the country. New Hampshire is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, much of the state, in particular the White Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Suede /ˈsweɪd/ is a type of leather with a napped finish, commonly used for jackets, shirts, purses and other items. The term comes from the French gants de Suède, which literally means gloves from Sweden, suede is made from the underside of the animal skin, which is softer and more pliable than though not as durable as the outer flesh layer. Suede leather is made from the underside of the skin, primarily from lamb, although goat, splits from thick hides of cow and deer are sueded, due to the fiber content, have a shaggy nap. Because suede does not include the exterior skin layer, suede is less durable. Its softness and pliability make it suitable for clothing and delicate uses, suede was originally used for womens gloves, suede leather is popular in upholstery, shoes and other accessories, and as a lining for other leather products. Due to its nature and open pores, suede may become dirty. Fabrics are often manufactured with a brushed or napped finish to resemble suede leather and these products often provide a similar look and feel to suede, but have advantages such as increased liquid or stain resistance, and may appeal to consumers who prefer a non-animal product.
Sueded silk, sueded cotton and similar sueded fabrics are brushed, sanded or chemically treated for extra softness, suede yarns are generally thick and plush. Microsuede is a microfiber knit blend fabric with a soft finish and it has a great deal of stretch, and is very popular in upholstery as well as garments. Nubuck Ultrasuede Voris, 1930s-40s American fashion designer who worked exclusively in suede, the Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. Clean It Fast, Clean It Right, The Ultimate Guide to Making Absolutely Everything You Own Sparkle & Shine, the Ultimate Guide to Skinning and Tanning, A Complete Guide to Working with Pelts and Leather. The Complete Book of Tanning Skins and Furs, goldstein-Lynch, Sarah Mullins, Nicole Malone. Making Leather Handbags and Other Stylish Accessories, conservation of Leather and Related Materials. Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library, the Chemistry and Technology of Leather. American Chemical Society, Krieger Publishing Co, Sybil P.
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, An International Reference Work
Wilton is a town in Franklin County, United States. The population was 4,116 at the 2010 census, situated beside Wilson Pond, the former mill town is today primarily a recreation area. The land replaced an invalidated 1727 grant by Massachusetts to veterans for service in the French, abraham Butterfield, a settler from Wilton, New Hampshire, paid the cost of incorporation in 1803 to have the new town named after his former residence. Wilton is known for being the location of Maines first cotton mill, in 1876, George Henry Bass founded G. H. Bass & Co. and became the businessman in Wiltons history. Bass shoes were made exclusively in Wilton for more than a century until 1998, by the Bass family had sold out, and in 1998 Bass parent company, Phillips-Van Heusen, moved operations overseas. John Russell Bass, son of G. H. Bass, was treasurer for the firm, the company built much of its success on the Bass penny weejun, introduced in 1936 and said to be based on Norwegian fishermans shoes. The style was an instant hit, and became a staple on college campuses across the nation, the shoe was renamed the Leavitt penny weejun, it is no longer made in Wilton.
Maine architect John Calvin Stevens designed the L. Brooks Leavitt home in Wilton, Stevens was the architect of many well-known Maine residences, including Winslow Homers in Prouts Neck, Maine. An early Wall Street investment banker and rare book collector, Brooks Leavitt was an overseer and financial supporter of Bowdoin College and its library, and a relation of the Bass family. Coffin dedicated his book Captain Abby and Captain John to lifelong friend Leavitt, a son of Maine. A longtime patron of the arts, Brooks Leavitt was close to many New York artists and actors, including Francis Wilson, other historic buildings in Wilton include the Goodspeed Memorial Library and the Bass Boarding House, both of which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 42.82 square miles. Home to Wilson Lake, Wilton is drained by Wilson Stream, the southwestern corner of town lies within the watershed of the Androscoggin River.
The town is crossed by U. S. Route 2 and it borders the towns of Farmington to the east, Carthage to the west, Temple to the north, and Jay to the south. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,116 people,1,708 households, the population density was 99.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,025 housing units at a density of 49.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96. 3% White,0. 6% African American,0. 4% Native American,0. 9% Asian,0. 1% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 9% of the population
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the markets of the United States as a whole. Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Wall Street area, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, the New York Board of Trade, there are varying accounts about how the Dutch-named de Walstraat got its name. A conflicting explanation is that Wall Street was named after Walloons— the Dutch name for a Walloon is Waal, among the first settlers that embarked on the ship Nieu Nederlandt in 1624 were 30 Walloon families. The Dutch word wal can be translated as rampart, even some English maps show the name as Waal Straat, and not as Wal Straat. But soon after that, the Dutch governor, sent his men out there one night, few of them escaped, but they spread the story of what had been done, and this did much to antagonize all the remaining tribes against all the white settlers.
Shortly after, Nieuw Amsterdam erected a palisade for defense against its now enraged red neighbors. The space between the walls is now called Wall Street, and its spirit is still that of a bulwark against the people. In the 1640s basic picket and plank fences denoted plots and residences in the colony, in 1685, surveyors laid out Wall Street along the lines of the original stockade. In these early days, local merchants and traders would gather at disparate spots to buy and sell shares and bonds, Wall Street was the marketplace where owners could hire out their slaves by the day or week. The rampart was removed in 1699, the slave market operated from 1711 to 1762 at the corner of Wall and Pearl Streets. It was a structure with a roof and open sides, although walls may have been added over the years. The city directly benefited from the sale of slaves by implementing taxes on every person who was bought, in the late 18th century there was a buttonwood tree at the foot of Wall Street under which traders and speculators would gather to trade securities.
The benefit was being in proximity to each other, in 1792, traders formalized their association with the Buttonwood Agreement which was the origin of the New York Stock Exchange. The idea of the agreement was to make the more structured and without the manipulative auctions. Persons signing the agreement agreed to each other a standard commission rate, persons not signing could still participate. In 1789 Wall Street was the scene of the United States first presidential inauguration when George Washington took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on April 30,1789 and this was the location of the passing of the Bill Of Rights. Alexander Hamilton, who was the first Treasury secretary and architect of the early United States financial system, is buried in the cemetery of Trinity Church, in the first few decades, both residences and businesses occupied the area, but increasingly business predominated
George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth, known as Albert until his accession, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, and was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his life in the shadow of his elder brother. He attended naval college as a teenager, and served in the Royal Navy, in 1920, he was made Duke of York. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters and Margaret, in the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never fully overcame. Georges elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936, that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman, Edward abdicated in order to marry, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.
During Georges reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated, the parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the countrys constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland, from 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1940 and 1941, though Britain and its allies were ultimately victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948. Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He was beset by problems in the years of his reign. He was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Elizabeth II, George was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria.
His father was Prince George, Duke of York, the second and eldest-surviving son of the Prince and his mother was the Duchess of York, the eldest child and only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck. His birthday was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather, uncertain of how the Prince Consorts widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been rather distressed. Two days later, he again, I really think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albert to her. Consequently, he was baptised Albert Frederick Arthur George at St. Mary Magdalenes Church near Sandringham three months later, within the family, he was known informally as Bertie
Smart casual is an ambiguously-defined dress code that is generally a neat yet casual attire. Different localities, kinds of events, contexts, or cultures can have varying interpretations of the dress code, australias national dictionary, Macquarie Dictionary, defines smart casual as well-dressed in a casual style. Oxford defines it as neat, yet relatively informal in style, Dictionary. coms 21st Century Lexicon defines it as of clothing, somewhat informal but neat. Personal judgment is required to interpret the term smart casual based on its context, people, weather. Global mens fashion magazine Topman emphasizes the flexibility of smart casual and American cruise line brand Royal Caribbean International clarifies smart casual for main dining on-board its fleet. Blazers, neckties or shirts are acceptable but shorts, casual dresses, or pantsuits are acceptable for women. Global womens magazine Cosmopolitan in South Africa interprets smart casual as the way most South African women dress for work, in addition to work, the outfit is interchangeable for use at large or small daytime parties, and wearing a dress shirt with elegant accessories is suggested.
Australian state newspaper The Sunday Mail in Brisbane defines a mans smart casual in a workplace and event context as a look sharp without being too formal, its professional, a jacket, dress shirt and jeans are demonstrated as smart casual attire. Piping on a jacket to give it the look to downgrade formality is illustrated as a polished look. Detailing, such as a striped canvas belt and white shoes with a pair of casual trousers and a check shirt, is emphasized for a smart casual look. It is suggested men have, a pair of chinos in any color from primary shades to pastels, a short sleeve shirt in checks or a bright color. Canadian Broadcasting Corporations Steven and Chris explain smart casual is an easy, depending on the workplaces context and environment, are not recommended. For mens attire, a pair of khakis or casual pants with a collared or polo shirt, for womens attire, the stylists note the diversity of clothing options and recommend, keeping the clothing pieces easy, the fabrics not too dressy, and the accessories more casual.
British national newspaper The Guardian attempts clarifying smart casual from a recruitment perspective by questioning various recruitment consultants. g, global mens fashion magazine GQ in the United Kingdom attempts defining smart casual for a job interview. Wearing chinos, a blazer and white shirt to make an impression is suggested, carrying a necktie is advisable, the author comments, it is far more embarrassing to be under-dressed than over. Pakistani fashion magazine Fashion Central defines a womans smart casual look from an employment perspective, understanding the workplaces environment and culture is emphasized, and checking the companys dress code guideline is highly recommended. Fashion Central outlines smart casual with clothes unstained and wrinkle-free with non-loud, too fancy or too casual dresses are inadvisable as well as the use of extreme make-up, such as using dark, glossy or chalky shades, or applying too much eye shadow. Fashion Central reports black or brown heels are preferred by women and advise to correctly select appropriate shoes for a workplaces environment
Espadrilles, alpargatas or espardenyes are normally casual, but sometimes high-heeled shoes originating in the Pyrenees. They usually have a canvas or cotton fabric upper and a sole made of jute rope. The jute rope sole is the characteristic of an espadrille. In Quebec and Beirut, espadrille is the term for running shoes or sneakers. The existence of this kind of shoe in Europe is documented since at least 1322, the term espadrille is French and derives from the word in the Occitan language, which comes from espardenya, in Catalan or alpargata and esparteña in Castilian/Spanish. Both espardenya and esparteña refer to a type of shoes made with esparto and its name in the Basque region is espartina. The oldest, most primitive form of dates as far back as 4000 years ago. Traditional espadrilles have an upper with the toe and vamp cut in one piece. Often they have laces at the throat that are wrapped around the ankle to hold the shoes securely in place, traditional espadrilles are worn by both men and women.
Designer espadrilles are now widely available and they are usually manufactured in Spain and South Asia. Modern espadrilles are predominantly for women, though some mens shoes are made in this style, the soles of espadrilles may be flat, platform, or wedge shaped made of natural fiber. Uppers may be made from nearly any substance and may have open or closed toes, open or closed backs, thousands of varieties of espadrilles can be found, from inexpensive bargain brands to high priced designer brands. Espadrilles became fashionable in the USA in the 1940s, lauren Bacalls character in the 1948 movie Key Largo wore ankle-laced espadrilles. Wedge shaped espadrilles were first popularized by French fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent, at a trade fair in Paris in 1970, he came into contact with the Spanish espadrille manufacturer Castañer. Yves Saint Laurent had been looking in vain for months for someone to make him a wedge espadrille, Castañer managed to interpret Yves Saint Laurents vision and the wedge espadrilles were an instant hit, influencing fashion even today.
The espadrille style was revived in the USA in the 1980s, in 2013 at luxury shoe stores in New York City, a pair of espadrilles could cost nearly $500. Brands like Viscata, from Barcelona, continue the revival with unique designs for wedges, only second to cotton in favor as a natural fiber, jute is exclusively used in the manufacture of genuine espadrilles. The soles of espadrilles are now made with jute rope or braid