International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967 and its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in touch with 10 Downing Street. In these countries, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope, in November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern.
The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, the Sunday Times remains a broadsheet. The Times had a daily circulation of 446,164 in December 2016, in the same period. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006 and it has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning. The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a Jamaican hurricane. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up and it was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise. Walter bought the patent and to use it, he decided to open a printing house. The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785, unhappy because people always omitted the word Universal, Ellias changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times.
In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name, the Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its life, the profits of The Times were very large. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig, in 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed editor in 1817
Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages. It is collaboratively edited via a wiki, and its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and it is available in 172 languages and in Simple English. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation and its wiki software, MediaWiki, allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. The English Wiktionary includes a Wikisaurus of synonyms of various words, Wiktionary data are frequently used in various natural language processing tasks. Wiktionary was brought online on December 12,2002, following a proposal by Daniel Alston, on March 28,2004, the first non-English Wiktionaries were initiated in French and Polish. Wiktionaries in numerous other languages have since been started, Wiktionary was hosted on a temporary domain name until May 1,2004, when it switched to the current domain name. As of November 2016, Wiktionary features over 25.9 million entries across its editions, forty-one Wiktionary language editions now contain over 100,000 entries each.
Seven of the 18 bots registered at the English Wiktionary created 163,000 of the entries there, of the 648,970 definitions the English Wiktionary provides for 501,171 English words,217,850 are form of definitions of this kind. This means its coverage of English is slightly smaller than that of major monolingual print dictionaries, the Oxford English Dictionary, for instance, has 615,000 headwords, while Merriam-Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged has 475,000 entries. Detailed statistics exist to show how many entries of various kinds exist, the English Wiktionary does not rely on bots to the extent that some other editions do. The French and Vietnamese Wiktionaries, for example, imported large sections of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project and these imported entries make up virtually all of the Vietnamese editions contents. Almost all non-Malagasy-language entries of the Malagasy Wiktionary were copied by bot from other Wiktionaries, like the English edition, the French Wiktionary has imported the approximately 20,000 entries from the Unihan database of Chinese and Korean characters.
The Russian edition grew by nearly 80,000 entries as LXbot added boilerplate entries for words in English, in 2017 English part of en. wikitionary had over 500,000 gloss definitions and over 900,000 definitions. Wiktionary has historically lacked a uniform logo across its numerous language editions, some editions use logos that depict a dictionary entry about the term Wiktionary, based on the previous English Wiktionary logo, which was designed by Brion Vibber, a MediaWiki developer. Because a purely textual logo must vary considerably from language to language, some communities adopted the winning entry by Smurrayinchester, a 3×3 grid of wooden tiles, each bearing a character from a different writing system. However, the poll did not see as much participation from the Wiktionary community as some community members had hoped, in April 2009, the issue was resurrected with a new contest. This time, a depiction by AAEngelman of an open hardbound dictionary won a vote against the 2006 logo. In the following years, some wikis replaced their logos with one of the two newer logos
The Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its sixteen editions have prescribed writing and citation styles used in publishing. It is one of the most widely used and respected style guides in the United States, CMOS deals with aspects of editorial practice, from American English grammar and use for document preparation. The Chicago Manual of Style is published in hardcover and online, the Chicago Manual of Style discusses the parts of a book and the editing process. An annual subscription is required for access to the content of the Manual. The Chicago Manual of Style is used in social science publications. It remains the basis for the Style Guide of the American Anthropological Association, many small publishers throughout the world adopt it as their style. The Chicago Manual of Style includes chapters relevant to publishers of books and it is used widely by academic and some trade publishers, as well as editors and authors who are required by those publishers to follow it.
Kate L. Turabians A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Chicago style offers writers a choice of several different formats. It allows the mixing of formats, provided that the result is clear, two types of citation styles are provided. In both cases, two parts are needed, notation in the text, which indicates that the information immediately preceding was from another source, and second, the full citation, which is placed at another location. Using author-date style, the text is indicated parenthetically with the last name of the author. Research has found that students do not always cite their work properly, when page numbers are used, they are placed along with the authors last name and date of publication after an interposed comma. Research has found that students do not always cite their work properly, if the authors name is used in the text, only the date of publication need be cited parenthetically. Research done by Smith found that students do not always cite their work properly, in-text citations are usually placed just inside a mark of punctuation.
An exception to rule is for block quotations, where the citation is placed outside the punctuation. The full citation for the source is included in a references section at the end of the material. As publication dates are prominent in this style, the reference entry places the publication following the author name
Sic transit gloria mundi
Sic transit gloria mundi is a Latin phrase that means Thus passes the glory of the world. It has been interpreted as Worldly things are fleeting, the phrase was used in the ritual of papal coronation ceremonies between 1409 and 1963. As the newly chosen pope proceeded from the sacristy of St. Peters Basilica in his sedia gestatoria, on each occasion a papal master of ceremonies would fall to his knees before the pope, holding a silver or brass reed, bearing a tow of smoldering flax. For three times in succession, as the cloth burned away, he would say in a loud and mournful voice, Pater Sancte and these words, thus addressed to the pope, served as a reminder of the transitory nature of life and earthly honors. The stafflike instrument used in the ceremony is known as a sic transit gloria mundi. A form of the phrase appeared in Thomas à Kempiss 1418 work The Imitation of Christ, the phrase continues to be used in analyses of history and politics, such as those considering the end of the American Century.
A slightly truncated version, sic transit gloria, appears in the Wes Anderson movie Rushmore, the phrase illustrates a central theme of the film. This phrase was used by the American rock band Brand New for the title of a song on their album Deja Entendu. Glory Fades, about the loss of sexual innocence, in the movie Foul Play, starring Chevy Chase and Goldie Hawn, Hawns character is named Gloria Mundy. A New York Daily News story about the 1980 state transit bailout was published under the headline Sick Transits Glorious Monday, the Australian singer Nick Cave uses a colloquial version of the phrase in the title of his song There She Goes My Beautiful World from the album Abbatoir Blues. In Carry on Cleo, during a sea journey to Egypt and he replies Just a little sick transit Gloria, Gloria being the slave girls name. In A Canticle for Leibowitz, a monk utters the variant Sic transit mundus as a scene of destruction begins. The closing monologue in Patton concludes with the line A slave stood behind the conqueror, holding a crown, and whispering in his ear a warning.
In the Monster Hunter series by Larry Correia, the phrase is used on the wall of the company Monster Hunter International. In the drama War Book the phrase is spoken at the end of the civil service war-game, in the movie The Masque of the Red Death, the man in red departs and says to the angels Sic transit Gloria mundi. Swedish artist Frida Hyvönen recorded a song titled Sic Transit Gloria on her 2008 album Silence is Wild. In the 2012 videogame Crusader Kings II, the line is used as text on a button the player gets in a pop-up window for the event Fall of the Kingdom of the Avars. This happens when the area the Avars historically ruled is conquered by characters belonging to another culture, a deliberately misspelled Sick Transit Gloria Mundi is the title of the 6th studio album by Norwegian industrial metal band Red Harvest
In the context of publication in print, copy editing is done before typesetting and again before proofreading, the final step in the editorial cycle. In the United States and Canada, an editor who does this work is called a copy editor, an organisations highest-ranking copy editor, or the supervising editor of a group of copy editors, may be known as the copy chief, copy desk chief, or news editor. The senior subeditor of a publication is called the chief subeditor. As the prefix sub suggests, copy editors typically have less authority than regular editors, in the context of the internet, online copy refers to the text content of web pages. Similar to print, online copy editing is the process of revising the raw or draft text of web pages, copy editing has three levels, light and heavy. Depending on the budget and scheduling of the publication, the publisher will let the copy editor know what level of editing to employ, the type of editing one chooses, will help the copy editor prioritize their efforts.
Within copy editing, there is mechanical editing and substantive editing and it refers to editing in terms of spelling, correct usage of grammatical symbols, along with reviewing special elements like tables, formatting footnotes, and endnotes. Substantive editing, known as content editing, is the editing of material, including its structure, in this type of editing, internal inconsistencies and discrepancies can be dealt with. Substantive editing oftentimes can require heavy editing or rewriting as compared to mechanical editing, Mechanical editing is the process of proofreading a piece of writing for consistency, either internally or in accordance with the publishers house style. Most publishing firms use a widely recognized style manual such as The Chicago Manual of Style or The Associated Press Stylebook. Companies that produce documents and reports but do not consider themselves publishers in the usual sense, the goal of the copyeditor is to enforce inviolable rules while respecting personal stylistic preferences.
This can be difficult, as some writers view grammatical revisions of the manuscript as a challenge to their intellectual ability or professional identity. For this reason, copy editors are encouraged to side with the author, if the authors preference is acceptable, it should be respected. This practice is complicated further by constantly evolving language conventions as recorded by books on grammar, the authors of such books often disagree. Content editing consists of reorganizing or restructuring the content of a document and this involves any inconsistent parts of the content as well as any variances. Copyeditors can either fix the content by rewriting it or heavily editing it, the copyeditor will often point out any difficult passages for the author to resolve on his or her own time. This type of fact checking is acceptable for copyeditors that know the subject matter. The copyeditor must point out any biased language without infringing on the authors meaning and this includes material that might form the basis for a lawsuit alleging libel, invasion of privacy, or obscenity
Word play or wordplay is a literary technique and a form of wit in which the words that are used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement. Word play is common in oral cultures as a method of reinforcing meaning. Examples of text-based word play are found in languages with or without alphabet-based scripts, for example, linguistic fossils and set phrases are often manipulated for word play, as in Wellerisms, Well have to rehearse that, said the undertaker as the coffin fell out of the car. Another use of fossils is in using antonyms of unpaired words – I was well-coiffed and sheveled, most writers engage in word play to some extent, but certain writers are particularly committed to, or adept at, word play as a major feature of their work. Shakespeares quibbles have made him a noted punster, wodehouse was hailed by The Times as a comic genius recognized in his lifetime as a classic and an old master of farce for his own acclaimed wordplay.
James Joyce, author of Ulysses, is another noted word-player, an epitaph, probably unassigned to any grave, demonstrates use in rhyme. Here lie the bones of one Bun He was killed with a gun and his name was not Bun but Wood But Wood would not rhyme with gun But Bun would. Crossword puzzles often employ wordplay to challenge solvers, cryptic crosswords especially are based on elaborate systems of wordplay. Young Thug used a play on words in his verse on Sacrifices by Drake featuring 2 Chainz, Ima use her name, Who is he. I said Ima username, Who is he, word play can enter common usage as neologisms. Word play is closely related to games, that is. See language game for a linguists variation, etymology Figure of speech List of forms of word play Metaphor Simile A categorized taxonomy of word play composed of record-holding words
Westlaw is one of the primary online legal research services for lawyers and legal professionals in the United States and is a part of West. In addition, it provides proprietary database services, most legal documents on Westlaw are indexed to the West Key Number System, which is Wests master classification system of U. S. law. Westlaw supports natural language and Boolean searches, other tabs organize Westlaw content around the specific work needs of litigators, in-house corporate practitioners, and lawyers who specialize in any of over 150 legal topics. Most customers are attorneys or law students, but other individuals can obtain accounts, Westlaw was originated by West Publishing, a company whose headquarters have been in Eagan, Minnesota since 1992, West was acquired by The Thomson Corporation in 1996. Several of Thomsons law-related businesses outside the United States have their own Westlaw sites, more recently, Westlaw China was introduced, with laws and regulations, cases and status icons, for the law of the Peoples Republic of China.
In total, Westlaw is used in over 68 countries, Wests chief competitor in the legal information retrieval market is LexisNexis. Both Westlaw and LexisNexis started in the 1970s as dial-up services with dedicated terminals, the earliest versions used acoustic couplers or key phones, smaller terminals with internal modems. Westlaws terminal was known as WALT, for West Automatic Law Terminal, Wests program was known as Westmate. It was based on Borland C++ around 1997, and changed to a program compiled on a Microsoft platform that incorporated portions of Internet Explorer and this was the first program to incorporate HTML, prior to that, Westmate had jumps indicated by triangles instead of links. Shortly after that, both publishers started developing web browser interfaces, with Westlaws being notable for the use of web dialogs, Westmate was discontinued on June 30,2007. West introduced WestlawNext on February 8,2010, a new search algorithm, referred to as WestSearch, claimed to be the worlds most advanced legal research engine, executes a federated search across multiple content types.
Users can either enter descriptive terms or Boolean connectors and select a jurisdiction, WestlawNext supports retrieving documents by citation, party name or KeyCite reference. An overview page enables users to see the top results per content type, filters can be applied to refine the result list even further. On the results page, users can see links to related secondary sources relevant to their research, WestlawNext provides folders for storing portions of the research selected by the user. The classic Westlaw. com platform was retired in August 2015, WestlawNext was renamed Thomson Reuters Westlaw, effective in February 2016. KeyCite is a case used in United States legal research that provides a list of all the authorities citing a particular case, statute. Verification of citations is necessary, because lawyers must determine whether a case has reversed, overruled. Further, when interpreting a statute it is necessary to examine previous judicial interpretations, as such, legal professionals must be certain that the legal citations they use to reinforce their arguments are accurate and still “good law
In another words it is interpretation of speech sound into writing. Spelling is one of the elements of orthography, and highly standardized spelling is a prescriptive element, spellings originated as transcriptions of the sounds of spoken language according to the alphabetic principle. They remain largely reflective of the sounds, although fully phonemic spelling is an ideal that most languages orthographies only approximate and this is true for various reasons, including that pronunciation changes over time in all languages, yet spellings as visual norms may resist change. Uniformity in the spelling of words is one of the features of a language in modern times. In countries where there is a language academy, such as France, the Netherlands. Examples include, German orthography reform of 1996 Portuguese spelling reform French rectifications orthographiques of 1990, Spelling tests are commonly used to assess a students mastery over the words in the spelling lessons the student has received so far.
They can be a practice method. Spelling bees are competitions to determine the best speller of a group, prominent spelling bees are even televised, such as the National Spelling Bee in the United States. Divergent spelling is an advertising technique, used to attract attention or to render a trademark suggestive rather than merely descriptive. The pastry chains Dunkin Donuts and Krispy Kreme, for example, while some words admit multiple spellings, some spellings are not considered standard, and thus labeled as misspellings. A misspelled word can be a series of letters that represents no correctly spelled word of the language at all or a correct spelling of another word. Misspellings of the type can easily make their way into printed material because they are not caught by simple computerized spell checkers. Misspellings may be due to either typing errors, or lack of knowledge of the correct spelling, whether or not a word is misspelled may depend on context, as is the case with American / British English distinctions.
Misspelling can be a matter of opinion when variant spellings are accepted by some, for example, miniscule is a misspelling to many, and yet it is listed as an acceptable variant in some dictionaries. A well-known Internet scam involves the registration of names that are deliberate misspellings of well-known corporate names in order to mislead or defraud. The practice is known as typosquatting. Google – accidental misspelling of googol and its possible Google took this spelling from Steve Martins Googlephonics track from his 1979 album Comedy Is Not Pretty. In it, he described Googlephonic as being. the highest number of speakers before infinity, ovaltine, a popular bedtime drink in the UK and Australia, came about because someone misspelled the original name Ovomaltine on the trademark documentation