Provinces of the Philippines
The provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 81 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities, the National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are independent of any provincial government. Each province is governed by a legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. The provinces are grouped into 18 regions based on geographical, fifteen of these regions are designated with numbers corresponding to their geographic location in order from north to south. The Cordillera Administrative Region, National Capital Region, Negros Island Region, each province is a member of the League of Provinces of the Philippines, an organization which aims to address issues affecting provincial and metropolitan government administrations. A provincial government is autonomous of other provinces within the Republic, each province is governed by two main elected branches of the government and legislative.
Judicial affairs are separated from provincial governance and are administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines, the provincial governor is chief executive and head of each province. The vice governor acts as the president for each Sangguniáng Panlalawigan, every SP is composed of regularly elected members from provincial districts, as well as ex officio members. The number of regularly elected SP members allotted to each province is determined by its income class, first- and second-class provinces are provided ten regular SP members, third- and fourth-class provinces have eight, while fifth- and sixth-class provinces have six. Exceptions are provinces with more than five congressional districts, such as Cavite with 14 regularly elected SP members, every SP has designated seats for ex officio members, given to the respective local presidents of the Association of Barangay Captains, Philippine Councilors League, and Sangguniáng Kabataan. The vice governor and regular members of an SP are elected by the voters within the province, ex officio members are elected by members of their respective organisations.
National intrusion into the affairs of each provincial government is limited by the Philippine Constitution, the President of the Philippines however coordinates with provincial administrators through the Department of the Interior and Local Government. For purposes of representation, each province is guaranteed its own congressional district. One congressional representative represents each district in the House of Representatives, senatorial representation is elected at an at-large basis and not apportioned through territory-based districts. Those classified as highly urbanized or independent component cities are independent from the province. Local government units classified as component cities and municipalities are under the jurisdiction of the provincial government, the provincial government does not have direct relations with individual barangays. Supervision over a government is the mandate of the mayor. Provinces are classified according to annual income based on the previous 4 calendar years
Benigno Aquino Sr.
He was the Director-General of KALIBAPI, a political party established during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. His grandson Benigno S. Aquino III was the 15th President of the Philippines from 2010 to 2016 and he had two siblings, namely Gonzalo Aquino and Amando Aquino, and a half-brother, Herminio Aquino. He studied at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in Manila, Benigno Igno Aquino was first elected to the Philippine Legislature in 1919 representing the 2nd District of Tarlac. He became part of the Philippine Independence Mission in 1931, which negotiated the terms of obtaining Philippine independence from the United States, during the elections for the Commonwealth of the Philippines government in 1935 he ran again in his district in Tarlac and won. In 1937, he was appointed by Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon as Secretary of Agriculture, being among the more prominent Commonwealth officials left after the Commonwealth government went into exile in 1941, Aquino were among those recruited by the Japanese to form a government.
Aquino became the director-general of KALIBAPI and one of the two assistant chairmen of the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence, when the Second Philippine Republic was inaugurated, he was elected Speaker of the National Assembly. On August 25,1946, Aquino was flown back to the Philippines for his trial on charges by the Peoples Court. In May 1916, he married Maria Urquico, the daughter of katipunero Antonio Urquico and he had two sons and two daughters with Maria, Antonio Aquino, Servillano Aquino II, Milagros Aquino, and Erlinda Aquino. On December 20,1947, Aquino died of an attack at the Rizal Memorial Coliseum in Manila while watching a boxing match. Aquinos widow Dona Aurora died in 1998, cS1 maint, BOT, original-url status unknown. Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The President leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Filipinos refer to their President as Pangulo or Presidente. The President serves a single, six-year term without possibility of re-election, in Filipino, one of the two official languages of the Philippines, the President is referred to as Pangulo. In the other languages of the Philippines such as the Visayan languages. Depending on the chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andrés Bonifacio could be considered the first President of a united Philippines since he was the third Supreme President of the Katipunan and its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan started a revolt against the Spanish colonial government in August 1896.
While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacios government was known as the Tagalog Republic. Bonifacios revolutionary government never controlled territory for any significant period. Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay, in March 1897, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention. The new government was meant to replace the Katipunan, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899, Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Aguinaldo therefore signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and went into exile in Hong Kong at the end of 1897, in April 1898, the Spanish–American War broke out, and the Asiatic Squadron of the United States Navy sailed for the Philippines. At the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1,1898 the American Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy effectively ending Spanish rule in the Philippines, aquinaldo subsequently returned to the Philippines aboard a U. S.
Navy vessel and renewed the revolution. He formed a government on May 24,1898 and issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12,1898. On June 23,1898, Aguinaldo transformed his government into a revolutionary government. On January 23,1899, he was elected President of the First Philippine Republic, this government is called the Malolos Republic. The First Philippine Republic was short-lived and never internationally recognized, the Philippines was transferred from Spanish to American control by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed in December of that year. The Philippine–American War broke out between the United States and Aguinaldos government and his government effectively ceased to exist on April 1,1901, after he pledged allegiance to the United States following his capture by U. S. forces in March
Japanese occupation of the Philippines
The Japanese occupation of the Philippines occurred between 1942 and 1945, when Imperial Japan occupied the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II. The invasion of the Philippines started on 8 December 1941, ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, as at Pearl Harbor, American aircraft were severely damaged in the initial Japanese attack. Lacking air cover, the American Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines withdrew to Java on 12 December 1941, General Douglas MacArthur was ordered out, leaving his men at Corregidor on the night of 11 March 1942 for Australia,4,000 km away. The 13,000 survivors on Corregidor surrendered on 6 May, Japan occupied the Philippines for over three years, until the surrender of Japan. A highly effective guerilla campaign by Philippine resistance forces controlled sixty percent of the islands, mostly jungle, MacArthur supplied them by submarine, and sent reinforcements and officers. General MacArthur kept his promise to return to the Philippines on 20 October 1944, the landings on the island of Leyte were accompanied by a force of 700 vessels and 174,000 men.
Through December 1944, the islands of Leyte and Mindoro were cleared of Japanese soldiers, during the campaign, the Imperial Japanese Army conducted a suicidal defense of the islands. Cities such as Manila were reduced to rubble, between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Filipinos died during the occupation. Japan launched an attack on the Philippines on 8 December 1941, initial aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops both north and south of Manila. Under the pressure of numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula. Manila, declared a city to prevent its destruction, was occupied by the Japanese on 2 January 1942. The Philippine defense continued until the surrender of U. S. -Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. Thousands of men, weakened by disease and malnutrition and treated harshly by their captors and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and left for the United States, where they set up a government-in-exile.
MacArthur was ordered to Australia, where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines, the Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines. Most of the Philippine elite, with a few notable exceptions, the puppet republic was headed by President José P. Laurel. Philippine collaboration in puppet government began under Jorge B, who was originally appointed by Quezon as the mayor of Greater Manila before Quezon departed Manila. The only political party allowed during the occupation was the Japanese-organized KALIBAPI, during the occupation, most Filipinos remained loyal to the United States, and war crimes committed by forces of the Empire of Japan against surrendered Allied forces and civilians were documented
It is a government where the head of state is not a monarch. Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology, composition, in the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition, today referred to as humanism, is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect, Republics became more common in the Western world starting in the late 18th century, eventually displacing absolute monarchy as the most common form of government in Europe. In modern republics, the executive is legitimized both by a constitution and by popular suffrage, for instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government. The term originates as the Latin translation of Greek word politeia, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publica and it was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as republic.
The term politeia can be translated as form of government, polity, or regime, and is therefore not always a word for a specific type of regime as the modern word republic is. And amongst classical Latin, the term republic can be used in a way to refer to any regime. In medieval Northern Italy, a number of city states had commune or signoria based governments, in the late Middle Ages, such as Giovanni Villani, began writing about the nature of these states and the differences from other types of regime. They used terms such as libertas populi, a free people, the terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology. To describe non-monarchical states writers, most importantly Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin phrase res publica. While Bruni and Machiavelli used the term to describe the states of Northern Italy, which were not monarchies, the term can quite literally be translated as public matter. It was most often used by Roman writers to refer to the state and government, in subsequent centuries, the English word commonwealth came to be used as a translation of res publica, and its use in English was comparable to how the Romans used the term res publica.
Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, likewise, in Polish, the term was translated as rzeczpospolita, although the translation is now only used with respect to Poland. Presently, the term republic commonly means a system of government which derives its power from the rather than from another basis. After the classical period, during the Middle Ages, many cities developed again. The modern type of itself is different from any type of state found in the classical world. Nevertheless, there are a number of states of the era that are today still called republics
Japanese government-issued Philippine peso
During World War II in the Philippines, the occupying Japanese government-issued fiat currency in several denominations, this is known as the Japanese government-issued Philippine fiat peso. Some Filipinos called the fiat peso Mickey Mouse money, many survivors of the war tell stories of going to the market laden with suitcases or bayóng overflowing with the Japanese-issued bills. According to one witness,75 Mickey Mouse pesos, or about 35 U. S. dollars at that time, in 1944, a box of matches cost more than 100 Mickey Mouse pesos. These bills were used by American psychological warfare personnel as propaganda leaflets. Japanese occupation banknotes were overprinted with the words The Co-prosperity Sphere, in an attempt to discredit the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and dropped from Allied aircraft over the occupied territories. A new series of 1,5, and 10 peso bills was issued in 1943, hyperinflation had forced the Japanese to issue 100,500, and 1000 peso notes in 1944
Baguio, officially the City of Baguio and often referred to as Baguio City, is a highly urbanized city in northern Luzon of the Philippines, now known as Summer Capital of the Philippines. The city has become the center of business and education in northern Luzon, according to the 2015 census, Baguio has a population of 345,366. Baguio was established as a station by the Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. It was the United States only hill station in Asia, the name of the city is derived from bagiw, the Ibaloi word for moss. The city is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,500 meters in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive for the growth of mossy plants, most of the lands in Kafagway were owned by Ibaloys even prior to the appointment of Mateo Cariño as chieftain. The Spanish presidencia, which was located at Bagyiw at the vicinity of Guisad Valley was moved to Cariños house where the current City Hall stands. Bagyiw, a term for moss once abundant in the area was converted by the Spaniards into Baguio.
Baguio was converted into a town, with Mateo Cariño being the presidente, when the United States took possession of the Philippines after the Spanish–American War, Baguio was selected to become the summer capital of the Philippine Islands. Governor-General William Taft on his first visit in 1901, noted the air as bracing as Adirondacks or Murray Bay, temperature this hottest month in the Philippines on my cottage porch at three in the afternoon sixty-eight. In 1903, Filipino and Chinese workers were hired to build Kennon Road, before this, the only road to Benguet was Naguilian Road, and it was largely a horse trail at higher elevations. It was named after Roosevelts Secretary of State, John Milton Hay, the Mansion, built on 1908, served as the official residence of the American Governor-General during the summer to escape Manilas heat. In 1904 the rest of the city was planned out by the American architect Daniel Burnham, on September 1,1909 Baguio was declared as a chartered city and the Summer Capital of the Philippines.
Prior to World War II, Baguio was the capital of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Following the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, the Japanese used Camp John Hay, the nearby Philippine Constabulary base, Camp Holmes, was used as an internment camp for about 500 civilian enemy aliens, mostly Americans, between April 1942 and December 1944. By late March, Baguio City was within range of the American, president José P. Laurel of the Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state established on 1943, departed the city on March 22 and reaching Taiwan on March 30. The remainder of the Second Republic government, along with Japanese civilians, were ordered to evacuate Baguio on 30 March and his staff relocated to Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya. It is where they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High Commissioners Residence in Camp John Hay on September 3,1945, the 1990 Luzon earthquake destroyed much of the city of Baguio on July 16,1990. Some of the buildings were built on or near fault lines
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Artemio Ricarte y García was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. Ricarte is notable for never having taken an oath of allegiance to the United States government, San Francisco De Malabon- Aug. He finished his studies in his hometown and moved to Manila for his tertiary education. He enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree and he prepared for the teaching profession at the University of Santo Tomas and at the Escuela Normal. After finishing his studies, he was sent to the town of San Francisco de Malabon in Cavite province to supervise a primary school, in his new job, he met Mariano Álvarez, another school teacher and a surviving revolutionary of the 1872 Cavite mutiny. Ricarte joined the ranks of the Katipunan under the Magdiwang Council, after the start of the Philippine Revolution on August 31,1896, Ricarte led the revolutionists in attacking the Spanish garrison in San Francisco de Malabon.
He crushed the Spanish troops and took the guards as prisoner. On March 22,1897, during the Tejeros Convention, Ricarte was unanimously elected Captain-General and he led his men in various battles in Cavite and Batangas. The second phase of the Philippine Revolution was ushered in when the Americans brought back Aguinaldo from exile on May 19,1898, Ricarte was a minor figure at this stage. He was the commander of Sta. Ana when Manila fell to the Americans on August 13,1898 and this eventually led General Jaudenes to surrender the City of Manila to Admiral Dewey, thus the liberation of the Philippines from the Spanish colonizers. General Ricarte was jubilant over the victory, thinking it was the prelude to the attainment of complete Philippine independence, the Americans, having gotten rid of the Spaniards with the help of Filipinos, were intent on possessing the Philippines. This development saddened Ricarte, to the extent that on, when the Philippine–American War started in 1899, he was Chief of Operations of the Philippine forces in the second zone around Manila.
In July 1900, he tried to infiltrate the American lines to enter Manila, for six months, he was locked up in the Bilibid Prisons but stubbornly refused to swear allegiance to the United States. Because of this, the Americans exiled him to Guam, together with many of the rebel prisoners in the islands. The exile lasted for two years, in early 1903, both Ricarte and Mabini would be allowed back into the Philippines upon taking the oath of allegiance to America. Just as their transport USS Thomas pulled into Manila Bay, both were asked to take the oath, who was ill, took the oath but Ricarte refused. Ricarte was set free but banned from the Philippines, without setting foot on Philippine soil, he was placed on the transport Galic and sailed to Hong Kong
Demographics of the Philippines
Demographics of the Philippines records the human population, including its population density, education level, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects. The Philippines annualised population growth rate between the years 2010-2015 was 1. 72%, according to the 2015 census, the population of the Philippines is 100,981,437. The first census in the Philippines was held in the year 1591 which counted 667,612 persons, the majority of Filipinos are made up of various ethnolinguistic Austronesian groups, while the Aetas, as well as other highland groups form a minority. The indigenous population is related to the populations of the Malay Archipelago. Ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before European and American colonial rule have assimilated, such as Japanese, Han Chinese, due to Spanish colonization, some Filipinos have Spanish and Latin American ancestry. The most commonly spoken languages are Cebuano and Tagalog, each with more than 20 million native speakers.
One or more of these are spoken as a mother tongue by more than 93% of the population and English are the official languages but there are between 120 and 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages. The first census in the Philippines was founded in 1591, based on tributes collected, based on this tribute counting, there were about 666,712 people in the islands. Thus, during this era, the Philippines was among the most sparsely populated lands in Asia. In contrast, Japan during that era already had a population of 8 Million or Mexico had a population of 4 million, in 1600, the method of population counting was revamped by the Spanish officials, who based the counting of the population through church records. In 1798, the population of Luzon or Luconia was estimated to be around 600,000 with the other islands, in 1799, Friar Manuel Buzeta estimated the population count of all Philippine islands as 1,502,574. However, the first official census was conducted only in 1878 and this was followed by two more censuses, the 1887 census, and the 1898 census.
The 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727, in 1903 the population of the Philippines was recounted by American authorities to fulfill Act 467. The survey yielded 7,635,426 people, including 56,138 who were foreign-born, according to the 1920 United States Census, there were 10,314,310 people in the Philippines. 99 percent were Filipino,51,751 were either Chinese or Japanese,34,563 were of mixed race,12,577 were White, the 1939 census was undertaken in conformity with Section 1 of Commonwealth Act 170. The Philippine population figure was 16,000,303, in 1941 the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000. However, Spanish as a second language continued to be spoken and understood at varying levels of expertise, in 1936, Tagalog was selected to be the basis for a national language. In 1987, the Tagalog language was imposed as the national language, in 1960, the government of the Philippines conducted a survey on both population, and housing
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan