Plovdiv Roman theatre
The Roman theatre of Plovdiv is one of the worlds best-preserved ancient theatres, located in the city center of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. It was constructed in the 90s of I century AD, probably under the rulership of Emperor Domitian, the theatre can host between 5000 and 7000 spectators and it is currently in use. The theatre is located in the Old town of Plovdiv, in the saddle between Dzhambaz and Taksim hills, the spectator seats are orientated to the south, towards the ancient city in the lowland and the Rhodope Mountains. In outline, the theatre is a semi-circle with a diameter of 82 meters. The theatre itself is divided into the section and the stage. The auditorium, the area in which people gathered, is hollowed out of a hill or slope, while the outer radian seats required structural support and solid retaining walls. The spectator seats surround the stage – the orchestra – which has the shape of a horseshoe,26.64 meters long, includes 28 concentric rows of marble seats, divided into two tiers by an aisle.
The upper part of the tiers is interrupted by radial stairways. The theatre has a podium, which supports the columns of the scaenae frons, the stage building – the scaenae frons – is south of the orchestra. It has three floors and is a wall of the stage floor, supported by columns. The proscenium is a wall supports the front edge of the stage with ornately decorated niches off to the sides. The proscaenium, which is 3.16 meters high, the facade of the scenae, which overlooks the spectators area, consists of two two-storey porticos, the first in the Roman Ionic order and the second in the Roman-Corinthian order. The facade is cut through by three symmetrically located gates, the entrances to the orchestra, which are uncovered and vaulted, connect the cavea with the stage building. An underground vaulted passage begins from the centre of the orchestra, goes under the stage building, another vaulted passage, passing under the central bank of seats of the top tier, connects the cavea with the Three Hills area.
Similar to all the theatres on the territory of the Roman Empire, there were inscriptions not only for the representatives of the city council but for magistrates, friends of the Emperor, etc. Some honorary inscriptions show that the building was used as the seat of the Thracian provincial assembly, built with around 7,000 seats, each section of seating had the names of the city quarters engraved on the benches so the citizens knew where they were to sit. Whereas Greeks preferred the exercises of gymnasium and stadium, Roman interest in sport went to the events at the theatre, presumably, gladiatorial fights with animals were held in the theatre, as remains of safety facilities in front of the first row have been uncovered. These additions were set because of the visit of Emperor Caracalla to Trimontium in 214 AD, the theater was damaged in the 5th century AD by Attila the Hun
In Roman times the cavea referred to the seating sections of Roman theatres and amphitheatres. It was usually preserved for the upper echelons of society, the media cavea directly follows the ima cavea and was open to the general public, though mostly reserved for men. The summa cavea is the highest section and was open to women and children. Similarly the front row was called the cavea and the last row was called the cavea ultima. The cavea was further divided vertically into cunei, a cuneus was a wedge-shaped division separated by the scalae or stairways
Theatre of Pompey
The Theatre of Pompey was a structure in Ancient Rome built during the part of the Roman Republican era. Enclosed by the large columned porticos was a garden complex of fountains. Along the stretch of covered arcade were rooms dedicated to the exposition of art, on the opposite end of the garden complex was a curia for political meetings. The senate would often use this building along with a number of temples, the curia in the theatre is infamous as the place where Julius Caesar was murdered by the Liberatores of the Roman Senate and elite. The structures last recorded repairs were carried out in 507–511, following Romes populational decline during and after the Roman-Gothic wars of 535–554 there was no need for a large theater. The marble covering material was used to other buildings. Being located near the Tiber, the building was regularly flooded. The buildings concrete core remained standing in the 9th century, in the 11th century the ruins were converted into two churches and houses, with the theaters old plan remaining visible.
Around 1150 the powerful Orsini family bought all buildings on the site of the theater, in the Middle Ages the Campo de Fiori square was built and the remaining parts of the theater were quarried to supply stone for many newer buildings which still exist in modern Rome. Pompey paid for this theatre to gain popularity during his second consulship. The theatre was inspired by Pompeys visit in 62 BC to a Greek theatre in Mytilene, construction began around 61 BC and the theatre was dedicated in 55 BC. The theatre was dedicated in 52 BC, and during this event, clodius Aesopus, a renowned tragic actor, was brought out of retirement in order to act in the theatres opening show. The show was accompanied by gladiatorial matches featuring exotic animals. For forty years, the theatre was the permanent theatre located in Rome. Regardless, the Theatre of Pompey continued to be the location for plays. In fact, the site was considered the premiere theatre throughout its entire life. Seeking association with the theatre, many well-to-dos constructed their own versions in.
This led to the establishment of a theatre district, in the most literal sense
Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southeastern France, about 21 km north of Avignon. It has an agricultural economy. The name was unrelated to that of the orange fruit. Arausio covered an area of some 170 acres and was endowed with civic monuments, in addition to the theatre and arch, it had a monumental temple complex. It was the capital of an area of northern Provence. It is found in both the Tabula Peutingeriana and Le cadastre dOrange maps, the town prospered, but was sacked by the Visigoths in 412. It had, by then, become largely Christianized, and from the end of the third century constituted the Ancient Diocese of Orange, no longer a residential bishopric, Arausio, as it is called in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. It hosted two important synods, in 441 and 529, the Second Council of Orange was of importance in condemning what came to be called Semipelagianism. The sovereign Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the eighth century, from the 12th century, Orange was raised to a minor principality, the Principality of Orange, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire.
During this period, the town and the principality of Orange belonged to the administration and this pitched it into the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568, the Eighty Years War began with William as stadtholder leading the bid for independence from Spain, William the Silent was assassinated in Delft in 1584. His son, Maurice of Nassau, with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the United Provinces survived to become the Netherlands, which is still ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau. William, Prince of Orange, ruled England as William III of England, Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Oranges in New Jersey, USA, and the Orange Free State in South Africa. Following the French Revolution of 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme, Bouches-du-Rhône, the title remained with the Dutch princes of Orange. Orange attracted international attention in 1995, when it elected a member of Front National, Jacques Bompard, Bompard left the FN in 2005 and became a member of the conservative Movement for France until 2010.
Orange was home to the French Foreign Legions armored First Foreign Cavalry Regiment, the regiment officially moved to Carpiagne on July 10,2014. The city of Orange is the 3rd largest town of Vaucluse by population after Avignon, in 2013, the municipality had 29,193 residents. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known throughout the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793, the fine Triumphal Arch of Orange is often said to date from the time of Augustus or Tiberius, but is probably much later, perhaps Severan
A gladiator was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals. Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their lives and their legal and social standing by appearing in the arena, most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death. Irrespective of their origin, gladiators offered spectators an example of Romes martial ethics and, in fighting or dying well, they could inspire admiration and popular acclaim. They were celebrated in high and low art, and their value as entertainers was commemorated in precious, the origin of gladiatorial combat is open to debate. There is evidence of it in funeral rites during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century BC and its popularity led to its use in ever more lavish and costly games. The gladiator games lasted for nearly a thousand years, reaching their peak between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD.
The games finally declined during the early 5th century after the adoption of Christianity as state church of the Roman Empire in 380, early literary sources seldom agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games. In the late 1st century BC, Nicolaus of Damascus believed they were Etruscan, a generation later, Livy wrote that they were first held in 310 BC by the Campanians in celebration of their victory over the Samnites. This was accepted and repeated in most early modern, standard histories of the games, reappraisal of pictorial evidence supports a Campanian origin, or at least a borrowing, for the games and gladiators. Campania hosted the earliest known gladiator schools, tomb frescoes from the Campanian city of Paestum show paired fighters, with helmets and shields, in a propitiatory funeral blood-rite that anticipates early Roman gladiator games. Compared to these images, supporting evidence from Etruscan tomb-paintings is tentative, the Paestum frescoes may represent the continuation of a much older tradition, acquired or inherited from Greek colonists of the 8th century BC.
This is described as a munus, a duty owed the manes of a dead ancestor by his descendants. The war in Samnium, immediately afterwards, was attended with equal danger, the enemy, besides their other warlike preparation, had made their battle-line to glitter with new and splendid arms. There were two corps, the shields of the one were inlaid with gold, of the other with silver, the Dictator, as decreed by the senate, celebrated a triumph, in which by far the finest show was afforded by the captured armour. His plain Romans virtuously dedicate the magnificent spoils of war to the Gods and their Campanian allies stage a dinner entertainment using gladiators who may not be Samnites, but play the Samnite role. Other groups and tribes would join the cast list as Roman territories expanded, most gladiators were armed and armoured in the manner of the enemies of Rome. The munus became a morally instructive form of historic enactment in which the only option for the gladiator was to fight well. In 216 BC, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, late consul and augur, was honoured by his sons with three days of gladiatora munera in the Forum Romanum, using pairs of gladiators
A vomitorium is a passage situated below or behind a tier of seats in an amphitheatre or a stadium, through which big crowds can exit rapidly at the end of a performance. They can be pathways for actors to enter and leave stage, the Latin word vomitorium, plural vomitoria, derives from the verb vomō, vomere, to spew forth. In ancient Roman architecture, vomitoria were designed to provide rapid egress for large crowds at amphitheatres and stadiums, as they do in sports stadiums. The newly refurbished Smock Alley Theatre in Temple Bar Dublin has two vomitoria one stage left and one stage right, the Oregon Shakespeare Festival, for instance, has vomitoria in two of its theatres, the outdoor Elizabethan Stage and the Angus Bowmer Theatre. The voms, as they are called, allow actors to mount the stage from halls cut into the amphitheatre, the Guthrie Theatre in Minneapolis, Minnesota has two permanent vomitoria, one at stage left and one at stage right, of its thrust stage. The Circle in the Square Theatre, designed to reflect the theatres of ancient Greece, the vomitorium is still used in many of their productions as an entrance and exit for the actors.
In addition the Mark Taper Forum, one of the three theatres making up the Los Angeles Music Center, has two vomitoria and it has a strong thrust stage such that the audience sit in an amphitheatre-type array. There is a misconception that ancient Romans designated spaces called vomitoria for the purpose of actual vomiting. According to Cicero, Julius Caesar once escaped an assassination attempt because he felt ill after dinner, instead of going to the latrine, where his assassins were waiting for him, he went to his bedroom and avoided assassination. This may be the origin of the misconception, the actual term vomitorium does not appear until the 4th century AD, about 400 years after Caesar and Cicero. The dictionary definition of vomitorium at Wiktionary
Roman concrete, called opus caementicium, was a material used in construction during the late Roman Republic until the fading of the Roman Empire. Roman concrete was based on a hydraulic-setting cement, recently, it has been found that it materially differs in several ways from modern concrete which is based on Portland cement. Roman concrete is due to its incorporation of volcanic ash. By the middle of the 1st century, the material was used frequently, often brick-faced, Roman concrete was normally faced with stone or brick, and interiors might be further decorated by stucco, fresco paintings, or thin slabs of fancy colored marbles. Some Roman concretes were able to be set underwater, which was useful for bridges and it is uncertain when Roman concrete was developed, but it was clearly in widespread and customary use from about 150 BC, some scholars believe it was developed a century before that. Vitruvius, writing around 25 BC in his Ten Books on Architecture, for structural mortars, he recommended pozzolana, which are volcanic sands from the sandlike beds of Pozzuoli brownish-yellow-gray in color near Naples and reddish-brown at Rome.
By the middle of the 1st century, the principles of construction in concrete were well known to Roman builders. The city of Caesarea was the earliest known example to have use of underwater Roman concrete technology on such a large scale. Rebuilding Rome after the fire in 64 AD, which destroyed portions of the city. This appears to have encouraged the development of the brick and concrete industries, Roman concrete, like any concrete, consists of an aggregate and hydraulic mortar – a binder mixed with water that hardens over time. The aggregate varied, and included pieces of rock, ceramic tile, reinforcing elements, such as steel rebar, were not used. Gypsum and lime were used as binders, volcanic dusts, called pozzolana or pit sand, were favored where they could be obtained. Pozzolana makes the concrete more resistant to water than modern-day concrete. The pozzolanic mortar used had a content of alumina and silica. Tuff was often used as an aggregate, and in particular, the hydraulic mortar responsible for its cohesion, was a type of structural ceramic whose utility derived largely from its rheological plasticity in the paste state.
The setting and hardening of hydraulic cements derived from hydration of materials and this differed from the setting of slaked lime mortars, the most common cements of the pre-Roman world. Once set, Roman concrete exhibited little plasticity, although it retained some resistance to tensile stresses, the setting of pozzolanic cements has much in common with setting of their modern counterpart, Portland cement. The high silica composition of Roman pozzolana cements is very close to that of cement to which blast furnace slag, fly ash
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
The scaenae frons is the elaborately decorated permanent architectural background of a Roman theatre stage. Normally there are three entrances to the stage including a central entrance, known as the porta regia or royal door. The form may have intended to resemble the facades of imperial palaces. The scaenae frons is often two and sometimes three stories in height and was central to the visual impact for this was what was seen by a Roman audience at all times. Tiers or balconies were supported by an exuberent display of columns, normally in the Corinthian order and this form was influenced by Greek theatre, which had an equivalent but simpler skene building. This led to the stage or space before the skene being called the proscenium, in the Hellenistic period the skene became more elaborate, perhaps with columns, but used to support painted secenery. The Roman scaenae frons was used both as the backdrop to the stage and behind as the dressing room. It no longer supported painted sets in the Greek manner but relied for effect on elaborate permanent architectural decoration and this achieved a baroque effect seen in large nymphaea and library facades, often with an undulating facade, pushing forward and retreating.
All the significant examples date from the Imperial period, the Theatre of Pompey in Rome, completed in 55 BC, was the first stone theatre in Rome, and probably launched the style. An inscription in the entablature above the lowest columns often recorded the emperor and others who had helped to fund the construction. A feature often found in the Western Empire, but less so in the Greek-speaking areas, was the row of curved recesses in the face of the front of the stage, as at Sabratha and this was intended to be temporary in 1585, but remains in excellent condition
Roman Theatre of Orange
The Roman Theatre of Orange is a Roman theatre in Orange, France. It was built early in the 1st century AD, the structure is owned by the municipality of Orange and is the home of the summer opera festival, the Chorégies dOrange. It is one of the best preserved of all Roman theatres, pantomime, poetry readings and the attelana was the dominant form of entertainment, much of which lasted all day. For the common people, who were fond of spectacular effects, magnificent stage sets became very important, the entertainment offered was open to all and free of charge. After that, the theatre was abandoned completely and it was probably pillaged by the Visigoths in 412, and like most Roman buildings was certainly stripped of its better stone over the centuries for reuse. It was used as a defensive post in the Middle Ages, during the 16th-century religious wars, it became a refuge for the townspeople. Early Roman theatre were constructed from wood and meant to be temporary structures. In 55BC Pompey had a theatre built in his home city of Rome.
The Orange theatre was created under the rule of Augustus, and is believed to be one of the first of its kind in this area of modern-day France. One of the most iconic parts of structure is the grand exterior facade. Originally, there was a wooden roof across the theatre to protect the audience from unfavorable weather conditions, there is evidence on the walls that shows that, at some point, the roof was destroyed in a fire. Although it is sparse in decoration and embellishment, the three story wall gives an overwhelmingly powerful appearance to the entire building. The main three doors on the first level of the open directly onto the stage inside the theatre. The stage, which is 61 meters long and raised one meter from the ground, is backed by a 37 meter high wall whose height has been preserved completely. This wall is vital to the theatre, as it helped to project sound to the large audience, the wall, known as the scaenae frons, is the only architecturaly decorated surface throughout the entire theatre.
It originally was embellished with mosaics of many different colors, multiple columns and friezes. The central niche contains a 3.5 meter high statue of the emperor Augustus, although this was most likely a restoration of a statue of Apollo, the god of music. The central door, below the niche containing this statue, is called the Royal Door, or valva regia and this door was used only by the most important, principle actors to enter and exit the stage