This article is about the Rolls-Royce aircraft engine and power systems business and its owner since 1987. For previous owners, see Rolls-Royce Limited, for the present day manufacturers of automobiles for BMW, see Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. Rolls-Royce is the world’s second-largest maker of engines and has major businesses in the marine propulsion. All of its shares are tradeable on the London Stock Exchange, Rolls-Royce was the worlds 16th-largest defence contractor in 2011 and 2012 when measured by defence revenues. It had an order book of £71.6 billion as of January 2014. Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index, as of June 2013, it had a market capitalisation of £22.22 billion, the 24th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Rolls-Royce grew from the business of F H Royce which was established in 1884 and ten years began to manufacture dynamos. C S Rolls established a business with F H Royce in 1904 because Royce had developed a range of cars which Rolls wanted to sell.
A corporate owner was incorporated in 1906 with the name Rolls-Royce Limited and its business and assets were bought by the government using a company created for the purpose named Rolls-Royce limited. This company remains in existence today and carries on Rolls-Royce business under the name Rolls-Royce plc, Rolls-Royce plc returned to the sharemarkets in 1987 under the government of Margaret Thatcher. In 2003 ownership of Rolls-Royce plc was passed to Rolls-Royce Group plc incorporated 21 March 2003 which issued its own new shares for payment to the previous shareholders. In 2011 in the same way Rolls-Royce Group plc passed ownership on 23 May 2011 to Rolls-Royce Holdings plc a wholly new company incorporated 10 February 2011, Rolls-Royce plc remains the principal trading company. Rolls-Royce Holdings plc, like its predecessor, is merely a holding company. The group included Clarke Chapman and Parsons, the company was renamed Rolls-Royce Industrial Power Group. It was sold off piecemeal over the decade as the company re-focused on its core aero-engine operations following the recession of the early 1990s.
On 21 November 1994, Rolls-Royce announced its intention to acquire the Allison Engine Company, the two companies had a technical association dating back to the Second World War. Rolls-Royce had previously tried to buy the company when General Motors sold it in 1993, owing to Allisons involvement in classified and export restricted technology, the 1994 acquisition was subject to investigation to determine the national security implications. On 27 March 1995, the US Department of Defense announced that the deal between Allison Engine Co. and Rolls-Royce does not endanger national security, in 2000, this restriction was replaced by a more flexible Special Security Arrangement
Rolls-Royce Wraith (2013)
The Rolls-Royce Wraith is a British handmade 4 seat luxury grand tourer manufactured by Rolls-Royce Motor Cars and based on the chassis of the Rolls-Royce Ghost. The name Wraith comes from an old Scottish word meaning image of a ghost or spirit, the vehicle was announced in January 2013 and unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. It has a price of £235,416 in the United Kingdom with current economy situations as of October 2015. Its chassis was designed by Pavle Trpinac, deliveries began from the fourth quarter of 2013. Wraith Inspired By Film is the 1st Wraith Inspired by, car with Silver and Jubilee Silver body colours, solid-silver hand-cast Spirit of Ecstasy ornament, Anthracite leather interior accented with Casden Tan. The vehicle was unveiled in 2015 New York Auto Show, followed by 2015 Shanghai motor Show,2015 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance and it is the second Wraith Inspired by. The vehicle was unveiled in New Yorks PRATT Institute, followed by 2015 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance and it is the Third Wraith Inspired by.
The vehicle was unveiled in 2015 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance, followed by Auto China 2016, the vehicle was unveiled in 2015 Lancaster Insurance Classic Motor Show. The vehicle was unveiled in 2016 Goodwood Festival of Speed and it is a version of Wraith with two-tone silver exterior, Spirit of Ecstasy ornament with soft illumination, purple and black interior, ostrich leather upholstery. The vehicle was unveiled in Rolls-Royce Summer Studio in Sardinia, Rolls-Royce Ghost BMW7 Series Wraith, Rolls-Royce
Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity — at increased expense. The term is broad, highly variable and relative and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute that may be comprehended differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. Therefore, automakers differentiate among their product lines in collusion with the car-buying public, while a high price is the most frequent factor, it is styling and even public opinion which cars had the highest and lowest status associated with them. Every era in history has had a group of car marques and models that have been expensive to purchase, due to their alleged superiority of their design. Aimed at wealthy buyers, such automobiles might be generically termed luxury cars and this term is used for unique vehicles produced during an era when luxury was individualistic consideration, and coachwork could be tailored to an owner like a bespoke suit. Although there is literature about specific marques, there is a lack of systematic.
Luxury vehicle makers may either be stand-alone companies in their own right, such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz, badge engineering is often used for cost savings, for example, the Lincoln vehicles that are based on Ford platforms or Acura models derived from Honda. Though widely used, the term luxury is broad and highly variable and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. According to the European Commission, the luxury segment is classified as F-segment. However, the boundaries between the segments are increasingly becoming blurred and diluted as features once exclusive to luxury vehicles become standard equipment on even small cars. ACRISS is a system used by many car rental companies in the US for classifying vehicles. The system includes Luxury and Premium categories, Australia, In Australia, for taxation purposes a luxury car is defined as a passenger car whose value exceeds a certain threshold. France, In France the term voiture de luxe is used, Germany, In Germany the term Upper class is used.
Russia, Russian markets use the term representative class vehicle, the classification varies, for instance Consumer Guide Automotive in the U. S. The premium compact segment is targeted at a market of consumers who found the existing entry-level luxury offerings to be too expensive. By offering a smaller, more fuel-efficient, and less expensive vehicle, premium compacts introduces younger buyers to the luxury marque, in hopes of retaining the coveted customer loyalty. This includes the Acura CSX, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW2 Series, BMW i3, Cadillac ELR, Chrysler 200, Lexus CT, Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Saab 9-2X, and the Volvo V40. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped midsize cars, and with options they overlap much with compact executive cars, Premium compacts may share components with mass market cars from the marques parent company, and/or have less sophisticated platforms compared to upmarket vehicles in the lineup
Volkswagen Group, or Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft, shortly VW AG, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany. It designs and distributes passenger and commercial vehicles, engines, in 2016, it was the largest automaker in the world with sales of 10.3 million units, overtaking Toyota. It has maintained the largest market share in Europe for over two decades and it ranked seventh in the 2016 Fortune Global 500 list of the worlds largest companies. It is divided into two divisions, the Automotive Division and the Financial Services Division, and has approximately 340 subsidiary companies. VW has two major joint-ventures in China, the company has operations in approximately 150 countries and operates 100 production facilities across 27 countries. Volkswagen was founded in 1937 to manufacture the car which would become known as the Beetle, the companys production grew rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s, and in 1965 it acquired Auto Union, which subsequently produced the first post-war Audi models.
Volkswagen launched a new generation of front-wheel drive vehicles in the 1970s, including the Passat and Golf, the companys operations in China have grown rapidly in the past decade with the country becoming its largest market. It has been traded in the United States via American depositary receipts since 1988, Volkswagen delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2013. The state of Lower Saxony holds 12. 7% of the companys shares, Volkswagen held a 19. 9% non-controlling shareholding in Suzuki between 2009 and 2015. An international arbitration court ordered Volkswagen to sell the back to Suzuki. Suzuki paid $3. 8bn to complete the stock buy-back just hours prior to a scandal about emissions violations engulfing Volkswagen. Volkswagen was founded on 28 May 1937 in Berlin as the Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH by the National Socialist Deutsche Arbeitsfront. The purpose of the company was to manufacture the Volkswagen car, originally referred to as the Porsche Type 60, the Volkswagen Type 1 and this vehicle was designed by Ferdinand Porsches consulting firm, and the company was backed by the support of Adolf Hitler.
On 16 September 1938, Gezuvor was renamed Volkswagenwerk GmbH, only a small number of Type 60 Volkswagens were made during this time. The Fallersleben plant manufactured the V-1 flying bomb, making the plant a major bombing target for the Allied forces, however, no British car manufacturer was interested, the vehicle does not meet the fundamental technical requirement of a motor-car. It is quite unattractive to the average buyer, to build the car commercially would be a completely uneconomic enterprise. In 1948, the Ford Motor Company of USA was offered Volkswagen, but Ernest Breech, as part of the Industrial plans for Germany, large parts of German industry, including Volkswagen, were to be dismantled. Total German car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production numbers
A convertible or cabriolet is an automobile body style that can convert between an open-air mode and an enclosed one, varying in degree and means by model. Convertibles evolved from the phaeton, an open vehicle without glass side windows that sometimes had removable panels of fabric or other material for protection from the elements. Historically, a retractable roof consisted of a frame covered with a folding. A lesser seen detachable hardtop provided a more weatherproof and secure alternative, as technology improved, a retractable hardtop which removes and stows its own rigid roof in its trunk appeared, increasingly becoming the most popular form. A semiconvertible known as a coach has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors. A landaulet is a convertible with a fully enclosed front cabin. Other common terms include cabriolet, soft top, and drop top, and where the roof is more than emergency weather protection, open two-seater, rag top, spider. The erected top secures to the frame header with manual latches, semimanual latches.
The folded convertible top is called the stack, a tonneau cover provides a solution. A range of materials is available for soft tops, automakers had problems in securing raw materials to fulfill orders after World War II, including canvas in various shades for convertible tops and limiting their manufacture. Polyvinyl chloride material was used for many convertible tops, the material consists of two layers, a top layer made of PVC, which has a specific structure depending on the vehicle model, and a lower layer made of fabric. Side windows were not existent in open cars, which may have detachable side screens, rear windows have evolved similarly, with plastic rear windows appearing as late as the first-generation Porsche Boxster. Plastic windows can degrade, fade and crack over time, a windblocker or wind deflector minimizes noise and rushing air reaching the occupants. Mazda pioneered a version on the RX7 convertible which featured an integral rigid opaque panel that folded up from behind the front seats, current convertibles feature windblockers of various designs including detachable fold-up designs, vertically retractable glass, minimal flaps – or other integrated wind controlling systems.
According to the responsible for the 2008 Chrysler Sebring, its windblocker reduces wind noise by roughly 11 to 12 dB. Mercedes and Audi currently offer a heating duct to the area of the seat on SLK, SL. Windblockers are available on the aftermarket for use on convertibles that do not have them, the Volvo C70 retractable hardtop includes a door-mounted side-impact protection inflatable curtain which inflates upward from the interior belt-line – vs. downward like the typical curtain airbag. The curtain has an extra stiff construction with double rows of slats that are offset from each other
International Motor Show Germany
The International Motor Show Germany or simply International Motor Show, in German known as the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung, is the worlds largest motor show. It is held annually, with vehicles being displayed in odd-numbered years in Frankfurt am Main. Before 1991 the show was held solely in Frankfurt, the IAA is organized by the Verband der Automobilindustrie and is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles. Currently, the show in Frankfurt occupies twelve buildings, in 1897 the first IAA was held at the Hotel Bristol in Berlin, with a total of eight motor vehicles on display. As the automobile became more known and accepted, the IAA became an event in Germany, with at least one held every year. From 1905-1907, there were two per year, as the production had increased to an industrial level. In the next years the show was suspended due to the ongoing World War I, despite the still perceptible after-effects of the global recession, the 22nd IAA was held in Berlin in 1931, with a total of 295,000 visitors.
For the first time the exhibition included front-wheel drive vehicles, in 1939 the 29th installation of the event gathered a total of 825,000 visitors - an all-time record at that time. The new Volkswagen was presented for the first time, which came to be known as the Beetle. This was the last IAA before it was suspended during World War II. From 1947-1949, Germany’s automobile and accessories manufacturers took part in the trade fair in Hanover. The automobile industry’s hall acted like a magnet on the public, in 1951 the show was held on the Messe Frankfurt for the first time. The event, which was held in April, attracted a total of 570,000 visitors, just six months later, in September 1951, a second exhibition in Berlin was held, gathering 290,000 visitors. From on, the German automobile industry bade farewell to its exhibition site in Berlin. The IAA was rescheduled to take place every other year. In 1989 the last IAA to feature both passenger cars and commercial vehicles in one show confirmed that the site in Frankfurt was now too small for this major event.
Almost 2,000 exhibitors squeezed onto a site measuring 252,000 square metres. More than 1.2 million visitors attended the event, because of the high demand, it was no longer possible to meet exhibitors’ requirements for adequate exhibition stands
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
The Rolls-Royce Ghost is a British handmade luxury car manufactured by Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. The Ghost nameplate, named in honour of the Silver Ghost, during development, the Ghost was known as the RR04. Designed as a smaller, more measured, more realistic car than the Phantom, aiming for a lower price category for Rolls-Royce models, the production model was officially unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. The 17 cm longer option Ghost Extended Wheelbase was introduced in 2011, the official concept car, named the 200EX, was officially unveiled at the March 2009 Geneva Motor Show, indicating the styling direction of the production model Ghost. Unlike the aluminum-bodied Phantom, the 200EX was made from steel, the chassis used an intelligent four corner air suspension system and multi-link aluminium front and rear axles. Systems such as Active Roll Stabilisation, four corner air springs and Variable Damping Control operate as one, imperceptibly, to provide the best possible comfort for occupants.
Connected to the computer, the suspension is able to detect the movement of a single rear passenger from one side of the seat to the other. The official name of the Rolls-Royce Ghost was originally announced in 2009 Shanghai motor show, the vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. Production model went on sale in September 2009, delivery in the UK and Europe began late in 2009, while in other markets deliveries began from the second quarter 2010. The Ghost was designed by Andreas Thurner and engineered by Helmut Riedl, the Ghost, codenamed RR04 during its design phase, was developed to compete with vehicles significantly less expensive than the Phantom, such as the Bentley Continental Flying Spur. Also to an extent, the Mercedes Benz S class. The car is based on a modified platform shared with BMW’s latest 7-Series. This makes the Ghost an extra long wheelbase BMW7 series, the company concedes that 20% of parts are common to both cars. The Ghost has a 129. 7-inch wheelbase, roof height, bonnet height and track all of its own.
The car shares the FlexRay electronic system with its larger stablemate, the car has a kerb weight of 5,445 lb. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2011 Shanghai Motor Show, a bespoke version was unveiled at the 2012 Goodwood Festival of Speed. This is an edition of the Rolls-Royce Ghost for the Chinese market. It included red interior, gold twin-coachlines, gold-plated Spirit of Ecstasy and stainless steel pinstripes,3 body colour options, the vehicle was unveiled at the 2011 Shanghai Motor Show
Bognor Regis /ˌbɒɡnər ˈriːdʒᵻs/ is a seaside resort in West Sussex on the south coast of England,55.5 miles south-west of London,24 miles west of Brighton, and 5.81 miles south-east of Chichester. Other nearby towns include Littlehampton east-north-east and Selsey to the south-west, the nearby villages of Felpham, and Aldwick are now suburbs of Bognor Regis, along with those of North and South Bersted. A factor underpinning the growth of the resort was its station opened in 1864 on what was a sandy, small numbers of wealthy Victorian figures established large homes in the area and a seaside resort was developed by Sir Richard Hotham. It has been claimed that Hotham and his new resort are portrayed in Jane Austens unfinished novel Sanditon, in 1929 the area was chosen by advisors to King George V which led to its regal suffix, by royal consent. Butlins has been present in the town since the early 1930s when an amusement park, a holiday camp followed in 1960 and this has more recently moved towards hotel accommodation with modern amenities.
The population as of the 2011 census was 63,855, Bognor is one of the oldest recorded Anglo-Saxon place names in Sussex. In a document of 680 AD it is referred to as Bucgan ora meaning Bucges shore and it has been postulated that Hotham and his new resort are portrayed in Jane Austens unfinished novel Sanditon. Bognor was originally part of the ancient parish of Pagham in the county of Sussex, from around 1465 it was included in the parish of Bersted before attaining ecclesiastical parish status separate from South Bersted in 1873. Until 1894 it formed part of the Hundred of Aldwick, an ancient division of Chichester Rape, from 1894 to 1974 it was part of Bognor Urban District, and since 1974 it has been a part of Arun District. It was a part of the Mulberry harbour which broke free in a storm on 4 June and this particular section of Mulberry was abandoned and did not make it across the Channel. It was washed up on the beach shortly after D-Day and it is clearly visible at low tide throughout the year.
Sadly the unit still off the Pagham coast had sunk lower than anticipated and it swung around, settled again over a deep depression and was cracked beyond repair. Ultimately it was used by the RAF in 1945 for bombing practice and this harbour is still there today and used by scuba divers as a location to study the seabed and fish, which gather around the artificial reef. There is a memorial to the men who were involved in the Mulberry Harbour project. The memorial was placed there in June,1999, and states, “To mark the 55th Anniversary of D-Day in 1944. This plaque is erected as a memorial to mark the historical association that Pagham Beach had with the Mulberry Harbour Project in support of the liberation of Europe. ”The plaque continues ‘some 50 had been assembled between Pagham beach and Selsey. To hide them from enemy view they were sunk to await refloating when the invasion got under way’, finally the plaque records ‘The Mulberry Harbour project was without doubt, a great feat of British and allied engineering skills, many still remain at Arromanches in Normandy.
Bognor Regis town centre was damaged in 1994 by an IRA device left in a bicycle outside Woolworths, fifteen shops were damaged but no injuries occurred
This article covers from 1904 to 1987 when this business by owned by Rolls-Royce plc was again listed on the Stock Exchange. For the present day owners of the business enterprise, see Rolls-Royce Holdings for aero-engines etc. Rolls-Royce Limited owned a British luxury-car and aero engine manufacturing business founded in 1904 by Charles Stewart Rolls, Rolls-Royce Limited was incorporated on 15 March 1906 as a vehicle for their ownership of their Rolls-Royce business. Their business quickly developed a reputation for superior engineering quality, best car in the world, Rolls-Royce became a leading manufacturer of piston aero-engines after it was brought into building them by the First World War. In the late 1960s, Rolls-Royce Limited became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs. In 1971 their financial collapse was dealt with by sale, at a price which took years to negotiate, of the entire business to a new government-owned company.
Insolvent Rolls-Royce Limited was put into liquidation, everything that could be sold off was sold off but more than 45 years there are still assets remaining to be sold. Rolls-Royce Limited continued to trade and realise the surplus assets bought from the former company, in 1977 Rolls-Royce Limited, given the necessary consent, was re-named Rolls-Royce Limited. It remained nationalised until 1987 when, re-named Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold its shares to the public, today it owns and operates Rolls-Royces principal business though it is no longer listed on the stock exchange. Instead it has been a subsidiary of a holding company currently Rolls-Royce Holdings plc since 2003. A marketing survey in 1987 showed there was one brand name more widely known than Rolls-Royce. In 1884 Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical business and he made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904. Henry Royce was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Hotel, Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C. S.
Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three- or four-cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, the first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved model with more power than the Rolls-Royce 30 hp. Initially designated the 40/50 hp, this was Rolls-Royces first all-new model, the new 40/50 was responsible for Rolls-Royces early reputation with over 6,000 built. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in world wars Aero-engine manufacture began in 1914 because the government requested it. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce successfully avoided attempts to encourage British car manufacturers to merge, faced with falling sales of the 40/50 Rolls-Royce introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922, effectively ending the one-model policy followed since 1908