An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Beatrix of the Netherlands
Beatrix reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 1980 until her abdication in 2013, after a reign of exactly 33 years. Beatrix is the eldest daughter of Queen Juliana and her husband, upon her mothers accession in 1948, she became heir presumptive. Beatrix attended a primary school in Canada during World War II. In 1961, she received her law degree from Leiden University, in 1966, Beatrix married Claus von Amsberg, a German diplomat, with whom she had three children. When her mother abdicated on 30 April 1980, Beatrix succeeded her as queen, on Koninginnedag,30 April 2013, Beatrix abdicated in favour of her eldest son, Willem-Alexander, and resumed the title of princess. At the time of her abdication, Beatrix was the oldest reigning monarch of the Netherlands, Beatrix was born Princess Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, on 31 January 1938 at the Soestdijk Palace in Baarn, Netherlands. She is the first child of Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, Beatrix was baptized on 12 May 1938 in the Great Church in The Hague.
Beatrixs middle names are the first names of her grandmother, the reigning Queen Wilhelmina. When Beatrix was one old, in 1939, her younger sister Princess Irene was born. World War II broke out in the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, on 13 May, the Dutch Royal Family evacuated to London, United Kingdom. One month later, Beatrix went to Ottawa, Canada, with her mother Juliana and her sister Irene, while her father Bernhard, the family lived at the Stornoway residence. With bodyguards and ladies in waiting, the family summered at Bigwin Inn on Lake of Bays, while on Bigwin Island, the constitution of the Netherlands was stored in the cast iron safe of Bigwin Inns Rotunda building. In order to them with a greater sense of security, culinary chefs. Upon their departure, the musicians of the Bigwin Inn Orchestra assembled dockside, and at every public performance afterward through to the end of World War II. In the years following the shuttering and neglect of the island resort, the second sister of Beatrix, Princess Margriet, was born in Ottawa in 1943.
During their exile in Canada, Beatrix attended nursery and Rockcliffe Park Public School, on 5 May 1945, the German troops in the Netherlands surrendered. The family returned to the Netherlands on 2 August 1945, Beatrix went to the progressive primary school De Werkplaats in Bilthoven. Her third sister Princess Christina was born in 1947, in April 1950, Princess Beatrix entered the Incrementum, a part of Baarnsch Lyceum, where, in 1956, she passed her school-graduation examinations in the subjects of arts and classics
Frans Hals the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter who lived and worked in Haarlem. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture, Hals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck. Like many, Hals parents fled during the Fall of Antwerp from the Spanish Netherlands to Haarlem, Hals studied under Flemish émigré Karel van Mander, whose Mannerist influence, however, is barely noticeable in Hals work. In 1610, Hals became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke and he worked on their large art collection that Karel van Mander had described in his Schilderboeck published in Haarlem in 1604. The most notable of these were the works of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Jan van Scorel, the entire collection of paintings was not formally possessed by the city council until 1625, after the city fathers had decided which paintings were suitable for the city hall.
The remaining art that was considered too Roman Catholic was sold to Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen and it was in this cultural context that Hals began his career in portraiture, since the market had disappeared for religious themes. The earliest known example of Hals art is the portrait of Jacobus Zaffius and his breakthrough came with the life-sized group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616. His most noted portrait today is the one of René Descartes which he made in 1649, Frans Hals married his first wife Anneke Harmensdochter around 1610. Frans was of Catholic birth, however, so their marriage was recorded in the city hall, the exact date is unknown because the older marriage records of the Haarlem city hall before 1688 have not been preserved. Bavochurch where both are buried, though Frans took over 40 years to join his first wife there, Anneke died in 1615, shortly after the birth of their third child and, of the three, Harmen survived infancy and one had died before Hals second marriage.
As biographer Seymour Slive has pointed out, older stories of Frans Hals abusing his first wife were confused with another Haarlem resident of the same name. Indeed, at the time of charges, the artist had no wife to mistreat. After his first wife died, Hals took on the daughter of a fishmonger to look after his children and, in 1617. They married in Spaarndam, a village outside the banns of Haarlem. Frans Hals was a father, and they went on to have eight children. Contemporaries such as Rembrandt moved their households according to the caprices of their patrons, for this reason, we can be sure that all sitters were either from Haarlem or were visiting Haarlem when they had their portraits made. Hals work was in throughout his life, but he lived so long that he eventually went out of style as a painter
Amsterdam-Zuid is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The borough was formed in 2010 as a merger of the former boroughs Oud-Zuid, the borough has almost 138,000 inhabitants. With 8,500 homes per square kilometer, it is one of the most densely populated boroughs of Amsterdam and it has the highest income per household of all boroughs in Amsterdam. Amsterdam-Zuid is the borough of Amsterdam situated to the south and southwest of the Singelgracht canal, the Singelgracht canal had been Amsterdams city border since the 17th century, when the Amsterdam canal belt was constructed. The taking down of the surrounding the Singelgracht, the outer canal. South of the wall, the first neighborhoods to develop were the Oude Pijp neighborhood, the neighborhood surrounding the Rijksmuseum. This area is now known as Oud Zuid. In 1917, the area was further developed southwards on the basis of Plan Zuid, berlages plan included wide streets lined with four-story apartment blocks for the middle class. The plan included public art to be installed in the new residential areas, between 1920 and 1940, the Plan Zuid neighborhoods of Nieuwe Pijp, Rivierenbuurt and Apollobuurt were constructed, with many buildings designed in Amsterdam School style.
This area is known as Nieuw Zuid. Another neighborhood built in the 1920s is the Hoofddorppleinbuurt, west of the Schinkel river and this neighborhood is part of Plan West, another urban expansion plan by Berlage which was designed for the western area of the city on the territory of the former municipality of Sloten. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Buitenveldert neighborhood and the smaller Prinses Irenebuurt became the last major developments in the southern part of the city. In 1961, the Amsterdam RAI Exhibition and Convention Centre opened, the A10 motorway, which runs through the southern borough, was constructed in 1962. In 1978, the first section of the Weesp–Leiden railway and the Amsterdam Zuid railway station opened along the part of the A10 motorway. In the 1990s and 2000s, the surrounding the railway station became the rapidly developing business district of Zuidas. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the councils have been abolished and replaced by smaller. The district committees are elected every four years, on the day as the citys central municipal council.
Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge.
It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general.
In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents
Isaac Jan Alexander Gogel was the first minister of finance of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of Holland. He married Catharina van Hasselt in 1800, and had three children, Gogel was the son of Johan Martin Gogel, a German officer in the service of the army of the Dutch Republic, and of Alexandrina Crul. He had only a formal education and went to Amsterdam to apprentice for a career as a merchant at age 16. He started his own firm in 1791, Gogel was a typical self-made man, a product of the petty-broking and merchandising world of Amsterdam. Though one of the most prominent pioneering Dutch economists, he did not receive an education in this field. As a typical self-taught man he tended to borrow his ideas from all the texts from the day. This caused an enmity toward the rivals of the Patriot party. Even before the Batavian revolution of 1795 and the proclamation of the Batavian Republic he became involved in politics, on a local and national. After the January 22,1798 coup détat by general Herman Willem Daendels, he was appointed agent for finance and he became a member of the Uitvoerend Bewind himself for a short while, till elections had been held for a new Representative Assembly.
He was again appointed Agent, this time for Finance, by the new Uitvoerend Bewind and he now started on the reform of the Dutch system of public finance that was long overdue. He attempted to reorganize the tax system, but because this entailed abolition of the old, federal arrangements, besides, he proposed to form a new, national organisation to collect the taxes. His General-Taxation-Plan legislation was first proposed in 1799, but only enacted on March 25,1801, Gogel was working on adopting many parts of the new revolutionary infrastructure that had recently been put into place in Paris, and one of these was the Louvre. Modelled on that concept, he envisioned a National art gallery for art-lovers and artists alike and he decided on a place and two major types of art, and these were the Huis ten Bosch location with its magnificent Oranjezaal and the concepts historieele and moderne art. Oddly the Rijksmuseum which was founded with this collection at its core. In fact most Catholic or Orangist art galleries had either hidden their collections or taken them away, for his national inventory in 1799 he appointed an inspector for this job, Cornelis Sebille Roos.
Gogel was a member of the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen in Haarlem, which was allied with the Teylers Museum. By 1801 the political winds had changed again, the unitarian Constitution of 1798, on whose tenets the plan was based, was being undermined by the Uitvoerend Bewind itself. The new Constitution of 1801, that came into force after another coup in the Fall of that year, Gogel courageously fulminated against the financial chapters of that Constitution before the referendum that was set up to approve it
Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his treatment and use of light in his work. Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes and he was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. He was barely mentioned in Arnold Houbrakens major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting, since that time, Vermeers reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. Relatively little was known about Vermeers life until recently and he seems to have been devoted exclusively to his art, living out his life in the city of Delft. Until the 19th century, the sources of information were some registers, a few official documents.
John Michael Montias added details on the family from the city archives of Delft in his Artists and Artisans in Delft, Johannes Vermeer was baptized in the Reformed Church on 31 October 1632. His father Reijnier Janszoon was a worker of silk or caffa. As an apprentice in Amsterdam, Reijnier lived on fashionable Sint Antoniesbreestraat, in 1615, he married Digna Baltus. The couple moved to Delft and had a daughter named Geertruy who was baptized in 1620, in 1625, Reijnier was involved in a fight with a soldier named Willem van Bylandt who died from his wounds five months later. Around this time, Reijnier began dealing in paintings, in 1631, he leased an inn, which he called The Flying Fox. In 1635, he lived on Voldersgracht 25 or 26, in 1641, he bought a larger inn on the market square, named after the Flemish town Mechelen. The acquisition of the inn constituted a financial burden. When Vermeers father died in October 1652, Vermeer took over the operation of the art business. In April 1653, Johannes Reijniersz Vermeer married a Catholic girl, the blessing took place in the quiet nearby village of Schipluiden.
Vermeers new mother-in-law Maria Thins was significantly wealthier than he, according to art historian Walter Liedtke, Vermeers conversion seems to have been made with conviction
Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earths total land area and 8. 7% of the Earths total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its large size and population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, the western boundary with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The most commonly accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural River, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A. D. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination, the Silk Road became the main East-West trading route in the Asian hitherland while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route.
Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties, the boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, and the Suez Canal. This makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia, the border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. In Sweden, five years after Peters death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia, the Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg, the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary.
Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century, the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is usually placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, the border between Asia and the loosely defined region of Oceania is usually placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several different geographic meanings since their inception. The chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, The narrowing of Southeast Asia to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process, Asia is larger and more culturally diverse than Europe. It does not exactly correspond to the borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds there is no or is no substantial physical separation between them
The Night Watch
It is in the collection of the Amsterdam Museum but is prominently displayed in the Rijksmuseum as the best known painting in its collection. The Night Watch is one of the most famous Dutch Golden Age paintings and is window 16 in the Canon of Amsterdam, the painting was completed in 1642, at the peak of the Dutch Golden Age. It depicts the eponymous company moving out, led by Captain Frans Banning Cocq and his lieutenant, behind them, the companys colours are carried by the ensign, Jan Visscher Cornelissen. Rembrandt has displayed the emblem of the arquebusiers in a natural way. She is a kind of mascot herself, the claws of a chicken on her belt represent the clauweniers. The man in front of her is wearing a helmet with an oak leaf, the dead chicken is meant to represent a defeated adversary. The colour yellow is associated with victory. Another interpretation proposes that Rembrandt designed this painting with several layers of meaning, the Night Watch is symmetrically divided, firstly to illustrate the union between the Dutch Protestants and the Dutch Catholics, and secondly to evoke the war effort against the Spaniards.
For instance, according to Rembrandts multilayered design, the taller captain symbolizes the Dutch Protestant leadership, all characters of this painting were conceived to present double readings. One of the most important aspects of the Night Watch is that the figures are nearly human size, Rembrandt gives the illusion that the characters jump off the canvas and into real space. For much of its existence, the painting was coated with a dark varnish and this varnish was removed only in the 1940s. In 1715, upon its removal from the Kloveniersdoelen to the Amsterdam Town Hall and this was done, presumably, to fit the painting between two columns and was a common practice before the 19th century. This alteration resulted in the loss of two characters on the side of the painting, the top of the arch, the balustrade. This balustrade and step were key visual tools used by Rembrandt to give the painting a forward motion, a 17th-century copy of the painting by Gerrit Lundens at the National Gallery, London shows the original composition.
The painting was commissioned by Captain Banning Cocq and seventeen members of his Kloveniers, eighteen names appear on a shield, painted circa 1715, in the centre right background, as the hired drummer was added to the painting for free. A total of 34 characters appear in the painting, Rembrandt was paid 1,600 guilders for the painting, a large sum at the time. This was one of a series of seven paintings of the militiamen commissioned during that time from various artists. The painting was commissioned to hang in the hall of the newly built Kloveniersdoelen in Amsterdam
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
Trams in Amsterdam
The Amsterdam Tram is a tram network in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The network dates back to 1875, since 1943, it has been operated by municipal public transport operator GVB, which runs the Amsterdam metro and the city bus and ferry services. The Amsterdam Tram is the largest tram network in the Netherlands, the trams on the network run on standard gauge track. Since 1900, they have been powered by electricity, at 600 V DC, at the terminus station of almost every tram route is a turning loop, so that the route can be operated by unidirectional trams. The only exception is Amstelveen Binnenhof, one of the termini of route 5, as of 2016, there are 14 tram routes. The network comprises a total of 80.5 kilometres of route, the fleet consists of 200 trams, of which 24 are bidirectional for use on the loop-less route 5. On 3 June 1875, Amsterdams first horse-drawn tramway was opened and it linked Plantage with the Leidseplein, and was operated by AOM, which had been founded in 1872 by Karel Herman Schadd, amongst others.
By the end of the century, about 15 routes led to or from the Vondelstraat, Willemsparkweg, Linnaeusstraat, Weesperzijde and Ceintuurbaan. The routes of the horse tram lines can still clearly be recognised in the present day tram routes 1,2,3,4,7,9,10 and 13. As of 1 January 1900, the municipality of Amsterdam took over AOM, the company continued as the Gemeentetram Amsterdam. A total of 242 tramcars,758 horses and 15 buildings were acquired along with the company, between 1900 and 1906, all but one of the existing tram lines were electrified. Additionally, the AOMs unusual track gauge of 1,422 mm was converted to 1,435 mm standard gauge, by 1906, the electric tram network consisted of 12 tram routes. To operate these routes, the GTA purchased 229 new electric tramcars, the former horse-drawn trams were progressively reclassified as tram trailers. In 1906, the Amsterdamse Tramharmonie orchestra was founded and this orchestra, composed of amateur musicians from the Amsterdam region, still exists.
The last remaining Amsterdam horse tramway was route 12, which was electrified in 1916, five years later, upon Amsterdams annexation of the municipality of Sloten, a former Sloten horse tramway came under the control of the GTA. The horses of this route, which linked Overtoom with Sloten, were replaced by tram-hauling buses in 1922, between 1910 and 1930, the growth of the city generated many new extensions to the tram routes. In 1931, the network reached its greatest extent, at 25 tram routes. From that year to 1940, all the districts in the city could be reached by tram, between 1900 and 1930, the fleet grew to 445 motorised trams and approximately 350 trailers
Buitenhof (The Hague)
The Buitenhof is a square in The Hague, adjacent to the Binnenhof and the Hofvijver pond. It is listed in the Top 100 Dutch heritage sites, the square originated in the 13th century, during the construction of the Binnenhof. It was filled with houses and stables and, during the reign of Count Albert I, the zoo exhibited mostly falcons and other birds of prey that were used for hunting. Later, hounds were exhibited as well, the Buitenhof was moated for safety in the 15th century. People that did not belong to the court, lived outside of it, around the Plaats and the Korte Voorhout, the only entrance to the square was the Gevangenpoort, Prison Gate. A second entrance was introduced in 1814 with the construction of the Gravenstraat, in 1923, the houses between the gate and the Hofvijver were demolished, as was advised by architect Hendrik Petrus Berlage. This created more space for the traffic, which had had to pass the gate before. Number 19 was built in the half of the 18th century as the main office of the garrison.
It was renovated from 1897 to 1900, after which it became a police office, the building currently houses a restaurant. Number 20 was built in 1904 as a restaurant, named Entre Deux Villes, in 1935, the building became a Cineac movie theatre, which became a Pathé movie theatre. Number 22 is the Besognekamer, today a bridge society, the ground floor is occupied by a McDonalds. Number 33 is the Gevangenpoort, which was used as a prison from 1420 to 1828, number 34 was built in 1467. In the 19th century, it was used as parking place of carriages of the court, number 37 is known as Vijverhof today. It was rebuilt by De Lussanet de la Sablonière in 1972, the building is used as an annex of the House of Representatives. Number 38 is since 1872 the Cadastre, number 39-42 are three 17th century houses, today housing the four star Hotel Corona