Queens' College, Cambridge
Queens College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Queens is one of the oldest and largest colleges of the university, founded in 1448 by Margaret of Anjou, the college spans both sides of the river Cam, colloquially referred to as the light side and the dark side, with the world-famous Mathematical Bridge connecting the two. Its most famous matriculant is Desiderius Erasmus, who studied at the college during his trips to England between 1506 and 1515, the college has a financial endowment of £54.9 million The current President of the college is the senior economist and Labour Party adviser, Lord Eatwell. Past Presidents of the college include Saint John Fisher, Queens College was founded in 1448 by Margaret of Anjou, and refounded in 1465 by Elizabeth Woodville. In 1446 Andrew Dokett obtained a Charter from King Henry VI to found St Bernards College, a year the charter was revoked and Dokett obtained a new charter from the king to found St Bernards College on the present site of Old Court and Cloister Court.
In 1448 King Henry VI granted Margaret of Anjou the lands of St Bernards College to build a new college to be called Queens College of St Margaret and St Bernard. On 15 April 1448, Sir John Wenlock, Chamberlain to Queen Margaret, by 1460 the library, chapel and the Presidents lodge were completed and the chapel licensed for service. Between that time and the early 1600s many improvements were made and new buildings constructed, including the Walnut Tree Building, since the college has refurbished most of its old building and steadily expanded. During the English civil war the college sent all its silver to help the King, as a result, the president and the fellows were ejected from their posts. In 1660 the president was restored, in 1777 a fire in the Walnut-Tree Building destroyed the upper floors which had to be rebuilt 1778-82. In February 1795 the College was badly flooded, reportedly waist-deep in the cloisters, in 1823 the spelling of the colleges name officially changed from Queens to Queens.
The earliest known record of the college Boat Club dates from 1831, in 1862 the St Bernard Society, the debating club of the college was founded. In 1884 the first football match was played by the college team, in 1980, the college for the first time allowed females to matriculate as members of college, with the first female members of the college graduating in 1983. These arms are those of the first foundress Queen, Margaret of Anjou, the six quarters of these arms represent the six lordships which he claimed. The green border appears to be intended as a difference for Queens College and these arms are of interest because the third quarter uses gold on silver, a combination which is extremely rare in heraldry. The cross potent is a pun on the letters H and I. These are not the arms of the College, rather. The silver boars head was the badge of King Richard III of England, richards wife Anne Neville was the third Queen consort to be patroness of the College
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, often regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Founded in 1209 and given royal status by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople, the two ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges, Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the worlds oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. The university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridges libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library.
In the year ended 31 July 2015, the university had an income of £1.64 billion. The central university and colleges have an endowment of around £5.89 billion. The university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as Silicon Fen. It is a member of associations and forms part of the golden triangle of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners. As of 2017, Cambridge is ranked the fourth best university by three ranking tables and no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects. Cambridge is consistently ranked as the top university in the United Kingdom, the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. Ninety-five Nobel laureates, fifteen British prime ministers and ten Fields medalists have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty, by the late 12th century, the Cambridge region already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, and most scholars moved to such as Paris, Reading. After the University of Oxford reformed several years later, enough remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom, the colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself, the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were institutions without endowments, called hostels, the hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridges first college, the most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Royal Historical Society
The Royal Historical Society is a learned society of the United Kingdom which advances scholarly studies of history. The society was founded and received its Royal Charter in 1868, until 1872 it was known as the Historical Society. In 1897, it merged with the Camden Society, founded in 1838 and it is now based at University College London. In its origins, and for years afterwards, the society was effectively a gentlemens club. It now exists to promote historical research worldwide, representing historians engaged in professional research, the society provides a varied programme of lectures and one-day and two-day conferences covering various kinds of historical issues. It convenes in London and from time to time throughout the United Kingdom. The societys membership comprises honorary vice-presidents, corresponding fellows and its archives at Senate House include many records of international as well as British history. The society encourages and sponsors research, academic or otherwise. The society, in consultation with the Historical Association and with the History at Universities Defence Group, liaises with HM Government, historiography of the United Kingdom Camden Society Taylor Milne, Alexander.
A Centenary Guide to the Publications of the Royal Historical Society 1868–1968, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks. Official website List of Presidents Bibliography of British and Irish History
Churchill College, Cambridge
Churchill College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It has a focus on science and technology. It is situated on the outskirts of Cambridge, away from the centre of the city. Its 16 hectares of grounds make it physically the largest of all the colleges, Churchill was the first all-male college to decide to admit women, and was among three mens colleges to admit its first women students in 1972. Within 15 years all others had followed suit, the college has a reputation for relative informality compared with other Cambridge colleges, and traditionally admits a larger proportion of its undergraduates from state schools. In 1955, on holiday in Sicily soon after his resignation as Prime Minister, Winston Churchill discussed with Sir John Colville, Churchill wanted a mix of non-scientists to ensure a well rounded education and environment for scholars and fellows. The college therefore admits students to all subjects except Land Economy. The first postgraduate students arrived in October 1960, and the first undergraduates a year later, full College status was received in 1966.
Women were not accepted as undergraduates until 1972, the bias to science and engineering remains as policy to the current day, with the statutes requiring approximately 70% science and technology students amongst its student intake each year. The college statutes stipulate that one third of the students of the college should be studying for postgraduate qualification, Cambridge University Radio broadcast from Churchill College from 1979 until 2011. In 1958, a 42-acre site was purchased to the west of the city centre, after a competition, Richard Sheppard was appointed to design the new college. Building was completed by 1968 with nine main residential courts, separate graduate flats, the dining hall is the largest in Cambridge. It measures 22m square, 9m to the base of the vault beams and it can cater for up to 430 guests in a formal dining arrangement. The main college buildings and courtyards are arranged around a central space. Only a few later, being opened in 1974, an extension to the library building was added to house the Churchill Archives Centre.
In 1992, the Møller Centre for Continuing Education was built on the Churchill site and it is a dedicated residential executive training and conference centre, aiming to bring together education and commerce. As well as the main College buildings, Sheppard designed a group of flats, known as the Sheppard flats. These are located to one side of the College grounds, a distance from the main buildings
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
King's College London
Kings College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. Kings was established in 1829 by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington, in 1836, Kings became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. It is a member of organisations such as the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association. Kings has five campuses, its main campus on the Strand in central London. In 2015/16, Kings had an income of £738.4 million, of which £193.2 million was from research grants and contracts and as of 2014/15. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, and its academic activities are organised into nine faculties which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. Kings is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a member of the Kings Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute.
Kings College London, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the controversy surrounding the founding of London University in 1826. The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated solely the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of Kings College London in response to Wellingtons support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty, the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with disgraceful and criminal motives in setting up Kings College London.
The result was a duel in Battersea Fields on 21 March 1829, Winchilsea did not fire, a plan he and his second almost certainly decided upon before the duel, Wellington took aim and fired wide to the right. Accounts differ as to whether Wellington missed on purpose, noted for his poor aim, claimed he did, other reports more sympathetic to Winchilsea claimed he had aimed to kill. Honour was saved and Winchilsea wrote Wellington an apology, duel Day is still celebrated on the first Thursday after 21 March every year, marked by various events throughout Kings, including reenactments. Kings opened in October 1831 with the cleric William Otter appointed as first principal, despite the attempts to make Kings Anglican-only, the initial prospectus permitted, nonconformists of all sorts to enter the college freely. William Howley, the governors and the professors, except the linguists, had to be members of the Church of England but the students did not, though attendance at chapel was compulsory. Kings was divided into a department and a junior department, known as Kings College School
British nationality law
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality. The law is due to the United Kingdoms historical status as an imperial power. Some thought the single Imperial status of British subject as increasingly inadequate to deal with a Commonwealth with independent member states. The British Nationality Act 1948 established the status of Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies, the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and colonies on 1 January 1949. Until the early 1960s there was little difference, if any, in UK law between the rights of CUKCs and other British subjects, all of whom had the right at any time to enter and live in the UK. Independence Acts, passed when the colonies were granted independence. In general, these provisions withdrew the status of CUKC from anyone who became citizens of the independent country. Exceptions were sometimes made in cases where the colonies did not become independent, the principal British nationality law now in force is the British Nationality Act 1981, which established the current system of multiple categories of British nationality, viz.
British citizens, British Overseas Territories citizens, British Overseas citizens, British Nationals, British subjects, only British citizens and certain Commonwealth citizens have the automatic right of abode in the UK. The 1981 Act ceased to recognise Commonwealth citizens as British subjects, British subjects connected with former British India lose British nationality if they acquire any other. There are currently six classes of British national, British citizen British citizens usually hold this status through a connection with the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. British citizenship is the most common type of British nationality, other rights can vary according to how the British citizenship was acquired. In particular there are restrictions for British citizens by descent transmitting British citizenship to children born outside the UK and these restrictions do not apply to British citizens otherwise than by descent. British Overseas Territories citizen BOTC is the form of British nationality held by connection with a British Overseas Territory and it is possible to hold BOTC and British citizenship simultaneously.
Nearly all are now British citizens as a result of the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, the four residual categories are expected to become extinct with the passage of time. They can be passed to only in exceptional circumstances, e. g. if the child would otherwise be stateless. There is consequently little provision for the acquisition of these classes of nationality by people who do not already have them, British Overseas citizen In general, most BOCs are CUKCs who did not qualify for British citizenship or British Dependent Territories citizenship. This is fairly uncommon, most CUKCs lost their CUKC status upon independence, in 1997, BDTCs with a connection to Hong Kong became BOCs after they did not register as British Nationals and would become stateless after the withdrawal of BDTC status from Hong Kong residents
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
Gonville and Caius College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college is the fourth-oldest college at the University of Cambridge, the college has been attended by many students who have gone on to significant accomplishment, including fourteen Nobel Prize winners, the second-most of any Oxbridge college. The college has long associations with medical teaching, especially due to its alumni physicians, John Caius. Other famous alumni in the sciences include Francis Crick, James Chadwick, Stephen Hawking, previously Cambridges Lucasian Chair of Mathematics Emeritus, is a current fellow of the college. The college maintains academic programmes in other disciplines, including economics, English literature. Gonville and Caius is said to own or have rights to much of the land in Cambridge, several streets in the city, such as Harvey Road, Glisson Road and Gresham Road, are named after alumni of the College. The college was first founded, as Gonville Hall, by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk in 1348, when Gonville died three years later, he left a struggling institution with almost no money.
The executor of his will, William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, stepped in and he leased himself the land close to the river to set up his own college, Trinity Hall, and renamed Gonville Hall The Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bateman appointed the first Master of the new college his former chaplain John Colton, by the sixteenth century, the college had fallen into disrepair, and in 1557 it was refounded by Royal Charter as Gonville and Caius College by the physician John Caius. John Caius was master of the college from 1559 until shortly before his death in 1573 and he provided the college with significant funds and greatly extended the buildings. During his time as Master, Caius accepted no payment but insisted on several unusual rules, Caius built a three-sided court, Caius Court, “lest the air from being confined within a narrow space should become foul”. Caius did, found the college as a centre for the study of medicine. By 1630, the college had expanded greatly, having around 25 fellows and 150 students, since the college has grown considerably and now has one of the largest undergraduate populations in the university.
The college first admitted women as fellows and students in 1979 and it now has over 110 Fellows, over 700 students and about 200 staff. Gonville and Caius is one of the wealthiest of all Cambridge colleges with net assets of £180 million in 2014, the college’s present Master, the 42nd, is Alan Fersht. The first buildings to be erected on the current site date from 1353 when Bateman built Gonville Court. The college chapel was added in 1393 with the Old Hall, most of the stone used to build the college came from Ramsey Abbey near Ramsey, Cambridgeshire. Gonville and Caius has the oldest college chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge which has been in use as such
The New York Review of Books
The New York Review of Books is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, economics and current affairs. Published in New York City, it is inspired by the idea that the discussion of important books is a literary activity. Esquire called it the premier literary-intellectual magazine in the English language, in 1970 writer Tom Wolfe described it as the chief theoretical organ of Radical Chic. The Review publishes long-form reviews and essays, often by well-known writers, original poetry, in 1979 the magazine founded the London Review of Books, which soon became independent. In 1990 it founded an Italian edition, la Rivista dei Libri, Robert B. Silvers and Barbara Epstein edited the paper together from its founding in 1963, until her death in 2006. From until his death in 2017, Silvers was the sole editor, the Review has a book publishing division, established in 1999, called New York Review Books, which publishes classics and childrens books. Since 2010, the journal has hosted a blog written by its contributors.
The Review celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2013, and a Martin Scorsese film called The 50 Year Argument documents the history, the New York Review was founded by Robert B. Silvers and Barbara Epstein, together with publisher A. Whitney Ellsworth and writer Elizabeth Hardwick. They were backed and encouraged by Epsteins husband, Jason Epstein, a president at Random House and editor of Vintage Books. In 1959 Hardwick had published an essay, The Decline of Book Reviewing, in Harpers, Jason Epstein knew that book publishers would advertise their books in the new publication, since they had no other outlet for promoting new books. The group turned to the Epsteins friend Silvers, who had been an editor at The Paris Review and was still at Harpers, to edit the publication, and Silvers asked Barbara Epstein to co-edit with him. She was known as the editor at Doubleday of Anne Franks Diary of a Young Girl, among other books and Epstein sent books to the writers we knew and admired most. We asked for three words in three weeks in order to show what a book review should be, and practically everyone came through.
The first issue of the Review was published on February 1,1963 and it prompted nearly 1,000 letters to the editors asking for the Review to continue. The New Yorker called it surely the best first issue of any magazine ever, after the success of the first issue, the editors assembled a second issue to demonstrate that the Review was not a one-shot affair. The founders collected investments from a circle of friends and acquaintances, the Review began regular biweekly publication in November 1963. Silvers said of the philosophy, that there was no subject we couldnt deal with. And if there was no book, we would deal with it anyway and we tried hard to avoid books that were simply competent rehearsals of familiar subjects, and we hoped to find books that would establish something fresh, something original
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator of the German Reich, he initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and was central to the Holocaust, Hitler was born in Austria, part of Austria-Hungary, and raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I and he joined the German Workers Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power, the failed coup resulted in Hitlers imprisonment, during which he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy, by 1933, the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, which led to Hitlers appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933.
Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain, Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in British, in June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe, failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time lover, on 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two killed themselves to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned. Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians, in addition,29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European Theatre of World War II.
The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare, Hitlers father Alois Hitler Sr. was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber. The baptismal register did not show the name of his father, in 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Aloiss mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedlers brother, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler, in 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Aloiss father. Alois assumed the surname Hitler, spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, the Hitler surname is probably based on one who lives in a hut. Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Aloiss mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, and that the familys 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenbergers existence, Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire.
He was one of six born to Alois Hitler and Klara Pölzl
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967 and its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in touch with 10 Downing Street. In these countries, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope, in November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern.
The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, the Sunday Times remains a broadsheet. The Times had a daily circulation of 446,164 in December 2016, in the same period. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006 and it has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning. The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a Jamaican hurricane. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up and it was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise. Walter bought the patent and to use it, he decided to open a printing house. The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785, unhappy because people always omitted the word Universal, Ellias changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times.
In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name, the Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its life, the profits of The Times were very large. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig, in 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed editor in 1817