Front (military formation)
A front is a military formation in some countries. Originating in the Russian Empire, it has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army and Soviet Army and it is roughly equivalent to an army group in the military of most other countries. It varies in size but in general contains three to five armies and it should not be confused with the more general usage of military front, describing a geographic area in wartime. In August 1915, Northwestern Front was split into Northern Front, at the end of 1916 Romanian Front was established, which included remnants of the Romanian army. In April 1917, Caucasus Front was established by the reorganization of the Caucasus Army, the Soviet fronts were first raised during the Russian Civil War. They were wartime only, in the peacetime the fronts were normally disbanded. Usually a single district formed a front at the start of the hostilities. Some military districts could not form a front, Fronts were formed during the Polish-Soviet War of 1920. An interesting and important distinction between groups and fronts is that a Soviet front typically had its own army-sized tactical fixed-wing air organization.
This air army was subordinated to the front commander. The entire front might report either to the Stavka or to a theatre of military operations, the degree of change in the structure and performance of individual fronts can only be understood when seen in the context of the strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II. Soviet fronts in the European Theatre during the Second World War from 1941 to 1945, Baltic Fronts 1st Baltic Front, 2nd Baltic Front, Formed from Bryansk Front on 10 October 1943. 3rd Baltic Front Bryansk Front - Created 18 December 1941, to take sector between the Western and Southwestern Fronts, reformed from Orel Front 28 March 1943. Renamed 1st Baltic Front Oct-Dec 1943, Karelian Front - formed from Northern Front, along with Leningrad Front, on 23 August 1941. Kursk Front Leningrad Front - formed from Northern Front, along with Karelian Front, composed of Western Fronts 61st Army, Central Fronts 3rd Army, and 15th Air Army. Redesignated Bryansk Front 28 March 1943, Army Group of Primorye Reserve Front - Front of Reserve Armies formed 14 July 1941 Southeastern Front - formed from armies on Stalingrad Fronts left wing,7 August 1942.
Redesignated Stalingrad Front 28 September 1942, Southern Front - renamed 4th Ukrainian Front 20 October 1943. Southwestern Front - Formed initially on 22 June 1941, reestablished 22 October 1942 between Don and Voronezh Fronts
Donetsk is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River. The population was estimated at 929, 063 in the city, according to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk was the fifth-largest city in Ukraine. Since April 2014, the city is controlled by separatists from self-proclaimed Donetsk Peoples Republic. Administratively, it has been the centre of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the capital and largest city of the larger economic. Donetsk is adjacent to major city of Makiivka and along with other surrounding cities forms a major urban sprawl. Donetsk has been an economic and scientific centre of Ukraine with a high concentration of companies. The original settlement in the south of the European part of the Russian Empire was first mentioned as Aleksandrovka in 1779, under the Russian Empress Catherine the Great. In 1869, Welsh businessman, John Hughes, built a plant and several coal mines in the region. During Soviet times, the steel industry was expanded. In 1924, it was renamed Stalino, and in 1932 the city became the centre of the Donetsk region, renamed Donetsk in 1961, the city today remains the centre for coal mining and steel industry.
Since April 2014, Donetsk and its surrounding areas have one of the major sites of fighting in the War in Donbass. The city was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a plant and several coal mines at Aleksandrovka. In its early period, it received immigrants from Wales, especially the town of Merthyr Tydfil, by the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzivka had approximately 50,000 inhabitants, and had attained the status of a city in 1917. The main district of Hughezovka is named English Colony, and the British origin of the city is reflected in its layout, when the Russian Civil War broke out, on 12 February 1918 Yuzovka was part of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic. The Republic was disbanded at the 2nd All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets on 20 March 1918 when the independence of the Soviet Ukraine was announced and it failed to achieve recognition, either internationally or by the Russian SFSR, and, in accordance with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was abolished. In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the name was changed to Stalin.
In that year, the population totaled 63,708. In 1929–31 the citys name was changed to Stalino, the city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km system was laid underground
A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. Some retail and wholesale nurseries sell by mail, nurseries may supply plants for gardens, for agriculture, for forestry and for conservation biology. Some nurseries specialize in one phase of the process, growing out, or retail sale, or in one type of plant, e. g. groundcovers, shade plants, or rock garden plants. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as trees for orchards. Nurseries can grow plants in open fields, on container fields, in open fields nurseries grow ornamental trees and herbaceous perennials, especially the plants meant for the wholesale trade or for amenity plantings. On a containerfield nurseries grow small trees and herbaceous plants, nurseries grow plants in greenhouses, a building of glass or in plastic tunnels, designed to protect young plants from harsh weather, while allowing access to light and ventilation. Modern greenhouses allow automated control of temperature and light, some have fold-back roofs to allow hardening-off of plants without the need for manual transfer to outdoor beds.
Although some processes have been mechanised and automated, others have not, a UK nurseryman has estimated that manpower accounts for 70% of his production costs. Picking merely requires selection of a batch and manual quality control before dispatch, in other cases, a high loss rate during maturation is accepted for the reduction in detailed plant maintenance costs. Business is highly seasonal, concentrated in spring and autumn, there is no guarantee that there will be demand for the product - this will be affected by temperature, cheaper foreign competition, among other things. Annuals are sold in trays, peat pots, or plastic pots and woody plants are sold either in pots, bare-root or balled and burlapped and in a variety of sizes, from liners to mature trees. Balled and Burlap trees are dug either by hand or by a loader that has a tree spade attachment on the front of the machine. Although container grown plants are becoming more and more popular due to the versatility. Plants may be propagated by seeds, but often desirable cultivars are propagated asexually, the most common method is by cuttings.
These can be taken from shoot tips or parts of stems with a node or from older stems, herbaceous perennials are often propagated by root cuttings or division. For plants on a rootstock grafting or budding is used, older techniques like layering are sometimes used for crops which are difficult to propagate. With the objective of fitting planting stock more ably to withstand stresses after outplanting and Day, for instance, studied the effect of conditioning of white spruce and black spruce transplants on their morphology and subsequent performance after outplanting. Root pruning and fertilization with potassium at 375 kg/ha were the treatments applied
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base, with the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was officially established on 26 February 1935. The Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a testing ground for new doctrines. By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwaders, during World War II, German pilots claimed roughly 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or significantly damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely, the Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns gradually destroyed the Luftwaffes fighter arm, in addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe.
In January 1945, during the stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946, the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history, Hermann Göring and Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim. Throughout the war, the force was responsible for war crimes, one of the forerunners of the Luftwaffe, the Imperial German Army Air Service, was founded in 1910 with the name Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, most often shortened to Fliegertruppe. It was renamed Luftstreitkräfte on 8 October 1916, after the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft. Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, to train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of its future enemy, the Soviet Union, which was isolated in Europe.
This base was known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited and were trained at Soviet air force schools in locations in Central Russia. The first steps towards the Luftwaffes formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power, in April 1933 the Reichsluftfahrtministerium was established. Görings control over all aspects of aviation became absolute, on 25 March 1933 the Deutschen Luftsportverband absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its sports title. On 15 May 1933, all military organizations in the RLM were merged, forming the Luftwaffe. The |Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps was formed in 1937 to give pre-military flying training to male youths, military-age members of the NSFK were drafted to the Luftwaffe. As all such prior NSFK members were Nazi Party members, the absence of Göring in planning and production matters was fortunate
Kostiantynivka is an industrial city in the Donetsk Oblast of eastern Ukraine, on the Kryvyi Torets River. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and it serves as the administrative center of Kostiantynivka Raion, though it does not belong to it. Its known as Kostyantynivka or Konstantinovka and it developed in the Soviet era into a major centre for the production of iron, zinc and glass. In 1870 Kostiantynivka was founded by a land owner Nomikossov who built the settlement in honor of his oldest son, in the beginning of the 20th century Kostiantynivka developed into an industrial settlement, and was raised into the rank of an urban type. In 1932 Kostyantynivka was granted municipal rights, during the Ukrainian crisis, the town was captured in mid-April 2014 by pro-Russian separatists. The city was retaken by Ukrainian forces on 7 July 2014. A Ukrainian armoured personnel carrier struck and killed a girl in the city on 16 March 2015. The incident sparked riots among residents, many of whom oppose the presence of Ukrainian troops
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Novocherkassk is a city in Rostov Oblast, located on the right bank of the Tuzlov River and on the Aksay River. Population,168,746,170,822,187, during the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922, Novocherkassk lay the heart of the Don counter-revolution and came under the command of General Alexey Kaledin. The Red Army finally ousted the Whites from Novocherkassk on January 7,1920, during World War II the German Wehrmacht occupied Novocherkassk between July 24,1942 and February 13,1943. In 1962 Soviet armed functionaries brutally suppressed local food riots in the event known as the Novocherkassk massacre, within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Novocherkassk Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this unit has urban okrug status. During the bicentenary celebrations in September 2005 another monument, dedicated to the reconciliation of White, Закон №340-ЗС от25 июля2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред, Закона №270-ЗС от27 ноября2014 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Наше время, №187–190,28 июля2005 г, Закон №237-ЗС от27 декабря2004 г. «Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования Город Новочеркасск», Закона №272-ЗС от27 ноября2014 г. Вступил в силу1 января2005 г, Опубликован, Наше время, №339,29 декабря2004 г
Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus was an officer in the German military from 1910 to 1945. The battle ended in disaster for Nazi Germany when Soviet forces encircled and defeated about 265,000 personnel of the Wehrmacht, their Axis allies, of the 107,000 Axis servicemen captured, only 6,000 survived captivity and returned home by 1955. Soviet troops took Paulus by surprise and captured him in Stalingrad on 31 January 1943, Hitler expected Paulus to commit suicide, repeating to his staff that there was no precedent of a German field marshal ever being captured alive. While in Soviet captivity during the war, Paulus became a critic of the Nazi regime. He moved to the German Democratic Republic in 1953, Paulus was born in Guxhagen and grew up in Kassel, Hesse-Nassau, the son of a treasurer. He tried, unsuccessfully, to secure a cadetship in the Imperial German Navy, after leaving the university without a degree, he joined the 111th Infantry Regiment as an officer cadet in February 1910. On 4 July 1912 he married the Romanian Elena Rosetti-Solescu, the sister of a colleague who served in the same regiment.
When World War I began, Pauluss regiment was part of the thrust into France, after a leave of absence due to illness, he joined the Alpenkorps as a staff officer, serving in Macedonia, France and Serbia. By the end of the war, he was a captain, after the Armistice, Paulus was a brigade adjutant with the Freikorps. He was chosen as one of only 4,000 officers to serve in the Reichswehr and he was assigned to the 13th Infantry Regiment at Stuttgart as a company commander. He served in staff positions for over a decade and briefly commanded a motorized battalion before being named chief of staff for the Panzer headquarters in October 1935. This was a new formation under the direction of Oswald Lutz that directed the training, in February 1938 Paulus was appointed Chef des Generalstabes to Guderians new XVI Armeekorps, which replaced Lutzs command. Guderian described him as clever, hard working and talented’ but already had doubts about his decisiveness, toughness. He remained in that post until May 1939, when he was promoted to general and became chief of staff for the German Tenth Army.
The unit was renamed the Sixth Army, and engaged in the offensives of 1940 through the Netherlands. Paulus was promoted to lieutenant general in August 1940, the following month he was named deputy chief of the German General Staff. In that role he helped draft the plans for the invasion of the Soviet Union. However, he took over his new command on 20 January
Luhansk or Lugansk, formerly known as Voroshilovgrad is a city in the easternmost Ukraine. Luhansk has been held by the group of Luhansk Peoples Republic since 2014. Luhansk is the center of the Luhansk Oblast. After the rebels captured Luhansk and the parts of the Oblast. The city traces its history to 1795 when the British industrialist Charles Gascoigne founded a factory near the Zaporizhian Cossacks settlement Kamianyi Brid. The settlement around the factory was known as Luganskiy Zavod, in 1882 the factory settlement Luganskiy Zavod was merged with the town of Kamianyi Brid into the city of Luhansk. Located in the Donets Basin, Luhansk developed into an important industrial center of Eastern Europe, the city was occupied by Nazi Germany between July 14,1942 and February 14,1943. On November 5,1935, the city was renamed Voroshilovgrad in honour of Soviet military commander, on March 5,1958, with the call of Khrushchev not to give names of living people to cities, the old name was reinstated.
On January 5,1970, after the death of Voroshilov on December 2,1969, finally, on May 4,1990, a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR gave the city back its original name. During the 2014 protests in Eastern Ukraine, separatists seized governmental buildings in the region, an independence referendum was held on May 11,2014. The legitimacy of the referendums was not recognized by most governments, the Luhansk Peoples Republic was recognized by South Ossetia. Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the polls were illegal, on 25 June 2014, Luhansk was officially pronounced as the capital of the Luhansk Peoples Republic by the government of the Luhansk Peoples Republic. In August 2014, Ukrainian government forces completely surrounded rebel-held Luhansk, heavy shelling caused civilian casualties in the city. On August 17, Ukrainian soldiers entered rebel-controlled Luhansk and gained control over a police station, after the Ilovaisk counteroffensive, LPR forces regained Lutuhyne and other Luhansk suburbs.
Ukrainian forces withdrew from the Luhansk International Airport on 1 September after heavy fighting, in the Ukrainian Census of 2001,49. 6% of the inhabitants declared themselves as ethnically Ukrainians and 47% declared themselves as ethnically Russian. The most widespread native language was Russian, at 85. 3% of the population, Ukrainian was the native language for 13. 7% of the population, and there was smaller numbers of speakers of Armenian and Belarusian. Luhansk is home to Zorya Luhansk which now plays in the Ukrainian Premier League annual football championship, the club won the 1972 Soviet Top League. The other football team was Dynamo Luhansk, the stone foundations of the structure were said to resemble Aztec and Mayan pyramids in Mesoamerica
It was established as a settlement serving Torgovaya railway station, which opened in 1899. It was granted town status and renamed Salsk in 1926, Salsk was occupied by Nazi Germany from July 31,1942 as a part of the operation known as Case Blue. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Salsk serves as the center of Salsky District. As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Salsky District as Salskoye Urban Settlement, as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Salsky Municipal District. Закон №340-ЗС от25 июля2005 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №270-ЗС от27 ноября2014 г, «О внесении изменений в областной Закон Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Наше время, №187–190,28 июля2005 г. Закон №233-ЗС от27 декабря2004 г, «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Сальский район и муниципальных образований в его составе». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Наше время, №№325–338,28 декабря2004 г
Rostov is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring. It is located on the shores of Lake Nero,202 kilometers northeast of Moscow, while the official name of the town is Rostov, it is known to Russians as Rostov Veliky, i. e. This name is used to distinguish it from Rostov-on-Don, which is now a larger city. Rostov Yaroslavsky is the name of its railway station. First mentioned in the year 862 as an important settlement. It was incorporated into Muscovy in 1474, even after it lost its independence, Rostov was still an ecclesiastic center of utmost importance. In the 14th Century, the bishops of Rostov became archbishops, one of those metropolitans, Iona Sysoyevich, commissioned the towns main landmark, the kremlin that many regard as the finest outside of Moscow. Ravaged by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries and the Poles in 1608, the metropolitan see was transferred to Yaroslavl late in the 18th century. Apart from its history, Rostov is renowned for its enamels, within the framework of administrative divisions, Rostov serves as the administrative center of Rostovsky District, even though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Rostov—an administrative unit with the equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Rostov is incorporated within Rostovsky Municipal District as Rostov Urban Settlement, the central square of Rostov is occupied by the Assumption Cathedral. It is unknown when the present building was erected, the century being the most likely date. Lower parts of the walls are dated to the 12th century. The ponderous bell-tower was constructed mostly in the 17th century and its bells are among the largest and most famous in Russia - each has its own name. The largest bell, cast in 1688, weighs 32,000 kilograms and it is named Sysoy to honor the citys founding father. An area situated between the square and the lake was chosen by Iona Sysoevich as a place for his fairy-tale residence. All the construction works were carried out between 1667 and 1694, major buildings include the ornate Savior Church-na-Senyakh, the sombre Church of St.
Gregory, and the barbican churches of St. John the Apostle and of the Resurrection of Christ. The residence, often erroneously called kremlin, includes eleven ornate tower bells, numerous palaces, several small belfries, all the churches are elaborately painted and decorated