The Daily Telegraph
It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as The Daily Telegraph and Courier, the papers motto, Was, is, and will be, appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since April 19,1858. The paper had a circulation of 460,054 in December 2016 and its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 359,287 as of December 2016. The Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a newspaper in the UK. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories, articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Groups www. telegraph. co. uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. However, including an editor, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers. The Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B, Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge.
Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the paper cost 2d and was four pages long. Nevertheless, the first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists, the paper was not a success, and Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a newspaper than his main competitors in London. The same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, in 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which espoused a conservative position. Originally William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, for some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. As an result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5, in 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworths scoop that Germany was to invade Poland.
In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to almost daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, Manchester quite often printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat. The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959, in 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park, the ability to solve The Telegraphs crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The competition itself was won by F. H. W. Hawes of Dagenham who finished the crossword in less than eight minutes, both the Camrose and Burnham families remained involved in management until Conrad Black took control in 1986
The Sun (United Kingdom)
The Sun is a tabloid published in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Since The Sun on Sunday was launched in February 2012, the paper has been a seven-day operation, as a broadsheet, it was founded in 1964 as a successor to the Daily Herald, it became a tabloid in 1969 after it was purchased by its current owners. It is published by the News Group Newspapers division of News UK, the Sun had the largest circulation of any daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, but in late 2013 slipped to second largest Saturday newspaper behind the Daily Mail. It had a daily circulation of 2.2 million copies in March 2014. Approximately 41% of readers are women and 59% are men, the Sun has been involved in many controversies in its history, including its coverage of the 1989 Hillsborough football stadium disaster. Regional editions of the newspaper for Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are published in Glasgow, Belfast, on 26 February 2012, The Sun on Sunday was launched to replace the closed News of the World, employing some of its former journalists.
Roy Greenslade issued some caveats over the May 2015 figures, the Sun was first published as a broadsheet on 15 September 1964, with a logo featuring a glowing orange disc. It was launched by owners IPC to replace the failing Daily Herald, the new paper was intended to add a readership of social radicals to the Heralds political radicals. Supposedly there was an immense and superior class, hitherto undetected and yearning for its own newspaper. As delusions go, this was in the El Dorado class, launched with an advertising budget of £400,000, the brash new paper burst forth with tremendous energy, according to The Times. Its initial print run of 3.5 million was attributed to curiosity and the advantage of novelty, by 1969, according to Hugh Cudlipp, The Sun was losing about £2m a year and had a circulation of 800,000. Seizing the opportunity to increase his presence on Fleet Street, he made an agreement with the print unions and he assured IPC that he would publish a straightforward, honest newspaper which would continue to support Labour.
IPC, under pressure from the unions, rejected Maxwells offer and he would remark, I am constantly amazed at the ease with which I entered British newspapers. Murdoch found he had such a rapport with Larry Lamb over lunch that other potential recruits as editor were not interviewed, Lamb wanted Bernard Shrimsley to be his deputy, which Murdoch accepted as Shrimsley had been the second name on his list of preferences. Lamb hastily recruited a staff of about 125 reporters, who were selected for their availability rather than their ability. This was about a quarter of what the Mirror employed, Murdoch immediately relaunched The Sun as a tabloid, and ran it as a sister paper to the News of the World. The Sun used the printing presses, and the two papers were managed together at senior executive levels. The new tabloid Sun was first published on 17 November 1969, with a front page headlined HORSE DOPE SENSATION, an editorial on page 2 announced, Todays Sun is a new newspaper
A missing person is a person who has disappeared and whose status as alive or dead cannot be confirmed as his or her location and fate are not known. The situation and lack of closure or a funeral resulting when a person goes missing may be extremely painful with long-lasting effects on family and friends. A person may go missing due to accident, death in a location where they cannot be found, or many other reasons, in some countries, missing persons photographs are posted on bulletin boards, milk cartons and websites, to publicize their description. A child may go missing for several different reasons, when trying to understand how to find and protect missing children, it is important to analyse the causes and effects of a childs disappearance. While criminal abductions are often the most commonly publicised cases of missing children, many categories of missing children end up in the hands of traffickers forced into sexual or commercial exploitation and abuse. Some individuals choose to disappear alone, reasons for non-identification may include, To escape domestic abuse by a parent/guardian/sibling/spouse.
Leaving home to live somewhere else under a new identity, Abduction by a non-custodial parent or other relative. Seizure by government officials without due process of law, suicide in a remote location or under an assumed name. Death by natural causes or accident far from home without identification, disappearance to take advantage of better employment or living conditions elsewhere. Sold into slavery, sexual servitude, or other unfree labour, to avoid discovery of a crime or apprehension by law-enforcement authorities. Joining a cult or other organization that requires no contact to the outside world. To avoid war or persecution during a genocide, to escape famine or natural disaster. Death by floods, flash floods, debris flows, death in the water, with no body recovered. Runaways, Minors who run away from home, from the institution where they have been placed, Abduction by a third person, Abduction of minors by anyone other than the parents or the persons with parental authority. In most common law jurisdictions a person can be declared dead in absentia after seven years.
This time frame may be reduced in cases, such as deaths in major battles or mass disasters such as the September 11,2001 attacks. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2012 that, It is estimated that some 8 million children go missing around the world each year. The BBC News reported that of the children who go missing worldwide, while usually the child is found quickly the ordeal can sometimes last months, royal Canadian Mounted Police missing child statistics for a ten-year period show a total of 60,582 missing children in 2007
International child abduction
The term international child abduction is generally synonymous with international parental kidnapping, child snatching, and child stealing. In this context, illegal is normally taken to mean in breach of custodial rights, there is a common misconception that because the abductor in these cases is usually not a stranger the children are not in danger. The harmful consequences for children and families have been shown in studies and child abduction has been characterized as a form of parental alienation. Adding international dimensions to the effects of child abduction significantly increases the detrimental effects on children. The modern day ease of travel and corollary increase in international marriages is leading to a rapid rise in the number of international child abductions. International child abduction occurs when one parent unlawfully takes a child in a country other than the one the child has his/her habitual residence. If that country is a party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the child will usually be returned to the country of origin.
International child abduction occurs when one parent takes a child before child custody ends at age 18, to a foreign country, if that parent refuses to bring the child under the age of 16 back to the United States, it’s considered a federal crime in the United States. It does not matter if the child does not want to return to the United States, according to law, the left behind parent is legally the only victim if the child is not returned before child custody ends at age 18. This is because child custody does not have anything to do with children’s rights or welfare only parental rights. Both in common law and in law, a rebuttable presumption is an assumption made by a court, one that is taken to be true unless someone comes forward to contest it. For example, a defendant in a case is presumed innocent until proved guilty. According to law, in an International child abduction the left behind parent is legally the only victim and this is because child custody does not have anything to do with children’s rights or welfare only parental rights.
This only applies to children before they turn 18 years old and this does not apply to children after they turn 18 and are legal an adult, a custody order does not apply and they can decide where to live. This is because children are considered chattel of the parents from birth until child custody ends at age 18, none of these names achieved the modern day broad acceptance of terms like international child abduction. The response to these concerns was the coining of the international child abduction. The terms first prominent use was in the title of the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the use of the term is now widespread in international law. In all family law disputes a determination must be made as to which legal systems and this question becomes much more complicated when aspects, or parties, of the case occur in, or hail from, multiple legal jurisdictions
International child abduction in the United States
Under the Hague Abduction Convention the United States is required to fulfill many requirements designed to protect children from the harmful effects of international child abduction. The Constitution and federal law are the law of the land, thus preempting conflicting state and territorial laws in the fifty U. S. states. However, the scope of federal preemption is limited, because the scope of power is itself rather limited. In the unique system of American federalism. Most U. S. law consists primarily of state law, at both the federal and state levels, the law of the United States was originally derived largely from the common law system of English law, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. However, U. S. law has diverged greatly from its English ancestor both in terms of substance and procedure, and has incorporated a number of civil law innovations. States are separate sovereigns with their own constitutions, state governments. They retain plenary power to make laws covering anything not preempted by the federal Constitution, federal statutes, Supreme Court by way of a petition for writ of certiorari.
The Hague Abduction Convention is a multilateral treaty aimed at providing a method to return children who are victim of international child abduction. This was 5 years after the entry into force of the treaty, the United States has two separate court systems, a Federal court system and a State court system. Both types of courts have authority to hear a Hague Abduction Convention case and it is up to the parents of abducted children and their attorneys to decide whether to file a petition for return in State or Federal court. Although the exact implementation varies by state, trial courts are the court of first instance to hear a Convention case within the State court system. Accordingly, when the child was removed from Chile in violation of Mr. Abbotts ne exeat right, the US State department publishes yearly reports are known as the Hague Abduction Convention Compliance Reports in which statistics are presented on child abduction. The publication is a requirement by the US Congress and treats both compliance with the convention by member states and information on child abduction cases in non-member states, the reports highlight countries that they are non-compliant with the convention or exhibit a pattern of noncompliance.
Since 1999, Mexico has been cited every year as being non-compliant or exhibiting patterns of noncompliance, the reports form the basis for statistics on the United States and international child abduction. An overview about the number of cases involved is shown in the Table below, the table is followed by a country-specific evaluation of the abduction status in relation to the United States. Only Hong Kong, Israel and Sri Lanka, of these, Israel has been named several years as having enforcement problems in the complicance reports. Japan is -with India- one of only two non-contracting states to the convention to rank as one of the top ten destination countries for the abduction of American children, there is a year by year increase in abduction cases
Tesco PLC is a British multinational grocery and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom. It is the third largest retailer in the world measured by profits and it has stores in 12 countries across Asia and Europe and is the grocery market leader in the UK, Hungary and Thailand. Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen as a group of market stalls and his business expanded rapidly, and by 1939 he had over 100 Tesco stores across the country. This broadening of its appeal was successful, and saw the chain grow from 500 stores in the mid-1990s to 2,500 stores fifteen years later, Tesco is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It had a capitalization of approximately £18.1 billion as of 22 April 2015. Jack Cohen, the son of Jewish migrants from Poland, founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell war-surplus groceries from a stall at Well Street Market, the Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about after Jack Cohen bought a shipment of tea from Thomas Edward Stockwell and he made new labels using the initials of the suppliers name, and the first two letters of his surname, forming the word TESCO.
Tesco was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores Limited, the first self-service store opened in St Albans in 1956, and the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956. In 1961 Tesco Leicester made an appearance in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest store in Europe, during the 1950s and the 1960s Tesco grew organically, and through acquisitions, until it owned more than 800 stores. The company purchased 70 Williamsons stores,200 Harrow Stores outlets,212 Irwins stores,97 Charles Phillips stores, Jack Cohens business motto was pile it high and sell it cheap, to which he added an internal motto of YCDBSOYA which he used to motivate his sales force. In May 1987, Tesco completed its takeover of the Hillards chain of 40 supermarkets in the North of England for £220 million. In 1994, the took over the supermarket chain William Low after fighting off Sainsburys for control of the Dundee-based firm. This paved the way for Tesco to expand its presence in Scotland, Tesco introduced a loyalty card, branded Clubcard in 1995, and an Internet shopping service.
Overseas operations were introduced the same year, Terry Leahy assumed the role of Chief Executive on 21 February 1997, the appointment having been announced on 21 November 1995. The deal was approved by the European Commission on 6 May 1997, in July 2001 Tesco became involved in internet grocery retailing in the USA when it obtained a 35% stake in GroceryWorks. In 2002 Tesco purchased 13 HIT hypermarkets in Poland and it made a major move into the UK convenience store market with its purchase of T & S Stores, owner of 870 convenience stores in the One Stop and Day & Nite chains in the UK. In June 2003 Tesco purchased the C Two-Network in Japan and it acquired a majority stake in Turkish supermarket chain Kipa. In January 2004 Tesco acquired Adminstore, owner of 45 Cullens, Europa, in Thailand, Tesco Lotus was a joint venture of the Charoen Pokphand Group and Tesco, but facing criticism over the growth of hypermarkets CP Group sold its Tesco Lotus shares in 2003