Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and many others from 2 December 1848 until his death on 21 November 1916. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation, in December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc as part of Ministerpräsident Felix zu Schwarzenbergs plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinands nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne, largely considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains. Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign and he concluded the Ausgleich of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary, hence transforming the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Empire under his dual monarchy. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, the Bosnian crisis was a result of Franz Josephs annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which had been occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin.
On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungarys declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia and this activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for almost 68 years and he was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles. His name in German was Franz Joseph I and I and his names in other languages were and Bosnian, Franjo Josip I. Ukrainian, Фра́нц Йо́сиф I, Francisc Iosif Slovene, serbian, Фрања Јосиф Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, at the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style, Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Archduke Karl Ludwig, and Archduke Ludwig Viktor, and a sister, Maria Anna, who died at the age of four.
Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, by all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the setting of Innsbruck. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June. It was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his bride, a girl of ten. Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt safe to return to Vienna, but within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, and in September the court left again, this time for Olomouc in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, the military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne. By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, at this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
Pulevski was born in 1817 in Galičnik, under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, and died in 1895 in Sofia, Principality of Bulgaria. Trained as a stonemason, he became a writer in matters relating to Macedonian language. In Bulgaria he is regarded as a Bulgarian and early adherent to Macedonism, Pulevski was born in the Mijak tribal region. According to one source, Pulevskis ancestors settled Galičnik from Pula, Pulevski himself identified as mijak galički. As a seven-year-old, he went with his father to Romania on seasonal work, in 1875, he published in Belgrade a book called Dictionary of Three Languages. It was a conversational phrasebook composed in question-and-answer style in three columns, in Macedonian and Turkish, all three spelled in Cyrillic. Pulevski chose to write in the local Macedonian rather than the Bulgarian standard based on eastern Tarnovo dialects, in 1880, Pulevski published Slavjano-naseljenski makedonska slognica rečovska, a work that is today known as the first attempt at a grammar of Macedonian.
In it, Pulevski systematically contrasted his language, which he called našinski or slavjano-makedonski with both Serbian and Bulgarian, all records of this book were lost during the first half of 20th century and only discovered again in the 1950s in Sofia. In 1862, Pulevski fought as a member of the Bulgarian Legion against the Ottoman siege at Belgrade, after the war, he went to live in the newly liberated Bulgarian capital Sofia. He participated as a volunteer in the Kresna-Razlog Uprising, which aimed at unification of Ottoman Macedonia with Bulgaria, in an application for a veteran pension to the Bulgarian Parliament in 1882, he expressed his regret about the failure of this unification. From 1883 Pulevski finally received a government pension in recognition of his service as a Bulgarian volunteer, the definition of the ethnic Macedonian identity arose from the writings of Georgi Pulevski, who identified the existence of a distinct modern Macedonian language and nation. Pulevski summarized the folk histories of the Macedonian people and concluded that the Macedonians were descendants of the Ancient Macedonians, however his Macedonian self-identification was ambiguous.
Pulevski viewed Macedonian identity as being a phenomenon, similar to Herzegovinians and Thracians. He sometimes described himself as a Serbian patriot, but he viewed his ethnic designation as Bulgarian from the village of Galičnik. Pulevskis different identifications actually revealed the absence of an ethnic identity among part of the local Macedonian population at that time. Blaze Ristovski Georgija M. Pulevski, Odbrani stranici, gjorgji Pulevski – Rechnik od tri jazika, PDF A dictionary of three languages on Commons. A dictionary of four languages on Commons, entangled Histories of the Balkans, Volume One, National Ideologies and Language Policies. Media related to Georgi Pulevski at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Georgi Pulevski at Wikiquote
In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment, to encipher or encode is to convert information into cipher or code. In common parlance, cipher is synonymous with code, as they are both a set of steps that encrypt a message, the concepts are distinct in cryptography, especially classical cryptography. Codes generally substitute different length strings of characters in the output, there are exceptions and some cipher systems may use slightly more, or fewer, characters when output versus the number that were input. Codes operated by substituting according to a large codebook which linked a random string of characters or numbers to a word or phrase, for example, UQJHSE could be the code for Proceed to the following coordinates. When using a cipher the original information is known as plaintext, the ciphertext message contains all the information of the plaintext message, but is not in a format readable by a human or computer without the proper mechanism to decrypt it.
The operation of a cipher usually depends on a piece of auxiliary information, the encrypting procedure is varied depending on the key, which changes the detailed operation of the algorithm. A key must be selected using a cipher to encrypt a message. Without knowledge of the key, it should be difficult, if not impossible. Most modern ciphers can be categorized in several ways By whether they work on blocks of symbols usually of a fixed size, by whether the same key is used for both encryption and decryption, or if a different key is used for each. If the algorithm is symmetric, the key must be known to the recipient and sender, if the algorithm is an asymmetric one, the enciphering key is different from, but closely related to, the deciphering key. If one key cannot be deduced from the other, the asymmetric key algorithm has the key property. The word cipher in former times meant zero and had the same origin, Middle French as cifre and Medieval Latin as cifra, cipher was used for any decimal digit, even any number.
There are many theories about how the word cipher may have come to mean encoding, the Roman number system was very cumbersome because there was no concept of zero. Cipher came to mean concealment of clear messages or encryption, the French formed the word chiffre and adopted the Italian word zero. The English used zero for 0, and cipher from the word ciphering as a means of computing, the Germans used the words Ziffer and Chiffre. The Dutch still use the word cijfer to refer to a numerical digit, the Serbians use the word cifra, which refers to a digit, or in some cases, any number. Besides cifra, they use word broj for a number, the Italians and the Spanish use the word cifra to refer to a number
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch was a French general and Marshal of France, Great Britain and Poland, a military theorist and the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War. Ordered west to defend Paris, Fochs prestige soared as a result of the victory at the Marne, at the end of 1916, partly owing to the disappointing results of the latter offensive and partly owing to wartime political rivalries, Foch was transferred to Italy. Foch was ultimately appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies on 26 March 1918 following being the Commander-in-Chief of Western Front with title Généralissime in 1918. He played a role in halting a renewed German advance on Paris in the Second Battle of the Marne. Addington says, to an extent the final Allied strategy which won the war on land in Western Europe in 1918 was Fochs alone. On 11 November 1918 Foch accepted the German request for an armistice, Foch advocated peace terms that would make Germany unable to pose a threat to France ever again.
Foch considered the Treaty of Versailles too lenient on Germany and as the Treaty was being signed on 28 June 1919, he declared and it is an armistice for twenty years. His words proved prophetic, the Second World War started twenty years and 64 days later, Foch was born at Tarbes, Hautes-Pyrénées, the son of a civil servant from Comminges. His German surname was of his paternal side ancestry which originally came from Alsace in the 18th century and he attended school at Tarbes and the Jesuit College at Saint-Étienne. His brother became a Jesuit priest, which may initially have hindered Fochs rise through the ranks of the French Army since the Republican government of France was anti-clerical. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Foch enlisted in the French 4th Infantry Regiment which did not take part in combat, in 1871, he entered the École Polytechnique, choosing the school of artillery. In 1876, he attended the school of Saumur to train as a mounted artillery officer. On 30 September 1878 he became a Captain and arrived in Paris on 24 September 1879 as an assistant in the Central Personnel Service Depot of the artillery, in 1885 Foch undertook a course at the Ecole Supérieur de Guerre where he was an instructor from 1895 to 1901.
He was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel in 1898, and colonel in 1903, as a colonel he became regimental commander of the 35th Artillery Regiment at Vannes. An extremely short man, Foch was known for his physical strength, Foch was a quiet man, known for saying little and when he did speak, it was a volley of words accompanied by much gesturing of his hands that required some knowledge of him to understand properly. One of Fochs favorite phrases was Pas de protocole, in 1907 Foch was promoted to Général de Brigade, and in the same year he assumed command of the French War College. He held this position until 1911, the year in which he was appointed Général de Division, Foch influenced General Joseph Joffre when he drafted the French plan of campaign in 1913. In 1913 he took command of XX Corps at Nancy, Foch was acclaimed as the most original military thinker of his generation
Leopold I of Belgium
Leopold I was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following Belgian independence in 1830. He reigned between July 1831 and December 1865, Charlotte died in 1817, but Leopold continued to enjoy considerable status in Britain. After the Greek War of Independence, LeopoId was offered the position of King of Greece but turned it down, Leopold accepted the kingship of the newly established Kingdom of Belgium in 1831. The Belgian government offered the position to Leopold because of his connections with royal houses across Europe. Leopold took his oath as King of the Belgians on 21 July 1831 and his reign was marked by attempts by the Dutch to recapture Belgium and, later, by internal political division between liberals and Catholics. As a result of the ambiguities in the Belgian Constitution, Leopold was able to expand the monarchs powers during his reign. He played an important role in stopping the spread of the Revolutions of 1848 into Belgium and he died in 1865 and was succeeded by his son, Leopold II.
Leopold was born in Coburg in the tiny German duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in modern-day Bavaria on 16 December 1790 and he was the youngest son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Countess Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf. In 1826, Saxe-Coburg acquired the city of Gotha from the neighboring Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and gave up Saalfeld to Saxe-Meiningen, becoming Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Ln 1795, at just five years old, Leopold was given a commission of the rank of colonel in the Izmaylovsky Regiment, part of the Imperial Guard. Seven years later, he received a promotion to the rank of Major General, when French troops occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars, Leopold went to Paris where he became part of the Imperial Court of Napoleon. Napoleon offered him the position of adjutant, but Leopold refused, instead, he went to Russia to take up a military career in the Imperial Russian cavalry, which was at war with France at the time. He campaigned against Napoleon and distinguished himself at the Battle of Kulm at the head of his cuirassier division, in 1815, by the time of the final defeat of Napoleon and, aged 25, reached the rank of lieutenant general.
Leopold received British citizenship in 1815, on 2 May 1816, Leopold married Princess Charlotte of Wales at Carlton House in London. Charlotte was the legitimate child of the Prince Regent George. The same year he received a commission to the rank of Field Marshal. On 5 November 1817, Princess Charlotte gave birth to a stillborn son and she herself died the next day following complications. Despite Charlottes death, the Prince Regent granted Prince Leopold the British style of Royal Highness by Order in Council on 6 April 1818, from 1828 to 1829, Leopold had several-months long affair with the actress Caroline Bauer, who bore a striking resemblance to Charlotte
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars, Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov is considered to have one of the best Russian generals. He was born in Saint Petersburg in 1745 to a family of Novgorod nobility and his father was a Russian general and senator. Kutuzov began military schooling at age 12 and joined the Imperial Russian Army in 1759, Three years Kutuzov became a company commander in the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment under Alexander Suvorov. He took part in crushing the Polish Bar Confederation rebellion, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 he served in the staff of Pyotr Rumyantsev at Moldova for the battles of Larga and Kagul. In July 1774 at Crimea, Kutuzov was severely wounded by a bullet went through his temple and out near his right eye.
He returned to Crimea in 1776 to assist Suvorov and conducted negotiations with the last Crimean khan Girey, convincing him to abdicate, after Kutuzov became Governor-General of Crimea in 1787, the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 began. He was again wounded in 1788 during the Siege of Ochakov when a bullet was shot through both of his temples. Kutuzov came back a year later, taking part in the Battle of Rymnik, near the end of the war, he led a decisive charge at the Battle of Măcin. Kutuzov was on terms with Tsar Paul, but had disputes with his successor Tsar Alexander. In 1805, he led Russian forces alongside Austria during the Napoleonic Wars, the allied Russo-Austrian army was defeated by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. Alexander blamed Kutuzov and demoted him to Moldova for the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812, Kutuzov vanquished a four-times larger Turkish army at Rousse and brought an end to the war with a decisive victory at the Battle of the Danube. For his achievements, he was awarded the titles of count, Kutuzov returned at the request of Alexander for the French invasion of Russia.
He was appointed Commander-in-Chief, succeeding Barclay de Tolly and continuing his scorched earth policy up to Moscow, under Kutuzovs command, the Russian army faced the Grande Armée at the Battle of Borodino. He allowed Napoleon to take an abandoned Moscow, which was set on fire. Kutuzov counter-attacked once Napoleon retreated from Moscow, pushing the French out of the Russian homeland, in recognition of this, Kutuzov was awarded the victory title of Prince Smolensky
Order of St. Andrew
The Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called is the highest order of the Russian Federation. Established as the first and highest order of chivalry of the Russian Empire in 1698, the Order was established in 1698 by Tsar Peter the Great, in honour of Saint Andrew, the first apostle of Jesus and patron saint of Russia. It was bestowed in a class and was only awarded for the most outstanding civilian or military merit. Peter learned of the practice of bestowing awards from his travels in the West during the Great Embassy, in the past, service to the Russian state was rewarded with money or large estates. He witnessed first hand the awards ceremonies for Englands Order of the Garter and Austrias Order of the Golden Fleece and noticed the loyalty and it saved the state land and money. Count Fyodor Golovin was the first recipient of the order, until its abolition following the Russian Revolution of 1917, just over one thousand awards had been made. Moreover, recipients of lower ranks were automatically promoted to the rank of lieutenant general or vice admiral, the Order of Saint Andrew continued to be awarded by the Russian Imperial House in exile.
The first post revolutionary presentation was to HH Prince Georgy Konstantinovich of Russia on attaining his majority in April 1923. It was worn on a blue sash over the right shoulder. Star, eight-pointed silver star bearing a miniature of the badge on a background at the center, surrounded by the motto For Faith. It was worn on the left chest, the insignia of order could be awarded with diamonds as a special distinction. Saint Andrews Cathedral in Saint Petersburg was the church of this order of chivalry. Recipient of Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called uses the post-nominal letters KA, for example, if one is awarded Order of the Garter, in that case, post-nominals of KG used before KA because the Order of the Garterr has been created in 1348. An order with the name but with different insignia and statutes was first unofficially re-established by the Orthodox Church of Russia on December 27,1988. The order was officially re-instated as the highest Russian civilian and military award by Presidential Decree №757 on June 1,1998, the Orders award criteria were modified by Presidential Decree 1099 of September 7,2010.
The Order may be awarded to heads of states for outstanding service to the Russian Federation. Unlike the original Imperial institution, the modern Order does not have special robes nor strict rules regulating its wearing, the collar of the original Order was worn across the shoulders, modern recipients tend to wear it as a chain around the neck. The design of the modern Order of St. Andrew has changed little from the imperial design
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim was a Finnish military leader and statesman. Mannerheim made a career in the Imperial Russian Army, rising to the rank of lieutenant general and he had a prominent place in the ceremonies for Tsar Nicholas IIs coronation and had several private meetings with the Russian Tsar. After the Bolshevik revolution, Finland declared its independence but was embroiled in civil war between the pro-Bolshevik Reds and the Whites, who were the troops of the Senate of Finland. Mannerheim was appointed the chief of the Whites. In 1944, when the prospect of Germanys defeat in World War II became clear, Mannerheim was elected President of Finland and oversaw peace negotiations with the Soviet Union and he resigned the presidency in 1946 and died in 1951. In a Finnish survey 53 years after his death, Mannerheim was voted the greatest Finn of all time, the Mannerheim family descends from a German businessman, Heinrich Marhein, who emigrated to the Swedish Empire. His son Augustin Marhein changed his surname to Mannerheim and was raised to the nobility by King Charles XI in 1693, Augustin Mannerheims son, Johan Augustin Mannerheim, was raised to the status of Baron in 1768.
The Mannerheim family came to Finland, a part of Sweden. Mannerheims great-grandfather, Count Carl Erik Mannerheim served as the first Prime Minister of Finland, in 1825, he was promoted to the rank of Count. Mannerheims grandfather, Count Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, was an entomologist, Mannerheims father, Carl Robert, Count Mannerheim, was a playwright who held liberal and radical political ideas, but he was an industrialist whose success varied. Mannerheims mother, Hedvig Charlotta Helena von Julin, was the daughter of a wealthy industrialist, as the third child of the family, Mannerheim inherited the title of Baron. His father went bankrupt in 1880, he was forced to sell the home and his other landed estates to his sister. Mannerheims father left his wife, Countess Hélène, and moved to Paris with his mistress and he returned to Helsinki and founded the Systema company in 1887, and was its manager until his death. Countess Hélène, shaken by the bankruptcy and her husbands desertion, Hélène died the following year from a heart attack.
Her death left the children to be brought up by relatives, making Mannerheims maternal uncle, Albert von Julin, because of the worsened family finances and Mannerheims serious discipline problems in school, Julin decided to send him to the school of the Hamina Cadet School in 1882. The Cadet Corps was a military school educating boys of aristocratic families for careers in the Military of the Grand Duchy of Finland. Besides his mother tongue, Mannerheim learned to speak Finnish, French, Mannerheim heartily disliked the school and the narrow social circles in Hamina. He rebelled by going on leave without permission in 1886, for which he was expelled from the Finnish Cadet Corps, Mannerheim next attended the Helsinki Private Lyceum, and passed his university entrance examinations in June 1887
Albert Ball, VC, DSO & Two Bars, MC was an English fighter pilot during the First World War. At the time of his death he was the United Kingdoms leading flying ace, with 44 victories, and remained its fourth-highest scorer behind Edward Mannock, James McCudden, and George McElroy. Born and raised in Nottingham, Ball joined the Sherwood Foresters at the outbreak of the First World War and was commissioned as a lieutenant in October 1914. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps the following year, joining No.13 Squadron RFC in France, he flew reconnaissance missions before being posted in May to No.11 Squadron, a fighter unit. From until his return to England on leave in October, he accrued many aerial victories and he was the first ace to become a British national hero. After a period on home establishment, Ball was posted to No.56 Squadron, the famous German flying ace Manfred von Richthofen, remarked upon hearing of Balls death that he was by far the best English flying man. Albert Ball was born on 14 August 1896 at 301 Lenton Boulevard in Lenton, after a series of moves throughout the area, his family settled at Sedgley,43 Lenton Road.
His parents were Albert Ball, a businessman who rose from employment as a plumber to become Lord Mayor of Nottingham, and who was knighted. Young Albert had two siblings, a brother and a sister and his parents were considered loving and indulgent. In his youth, Ball had a small hut behind the house where he tinkered with engines. He was raised with a knowledge of firearms, and conducted target practice in Sedgleys gardens, possessed of keen vision, he soon became a crack shot. Ball studied at the Lenton Church School, Grantham Grammar School and Nottingham High School before transferring to Trent College in January 1911, as a student he displayed only average ability, but was able to develop his curiosity for things mechanical. His best subjects were carpentry, modelling and photography and he served in the Officers Training Corps. When Albert left school in December 1913, aged 17, his father helped him gain employment at Universal Engineering Works near the family home. Following the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Ball enlisted in the British Army, soon promoted to sergeant, he gained his commission as a second lieutenant on 29 October.
He was assigned to training recruits, but this rear-echelon role irked him, in an attempt to see action, he transferred early the following year to the North Midlands Cyclist Company, Divisional Mounted Troops, but remained confined to a posting in England. On 24 February 1915, he wrote to his parents, I have just sent five boys to France and it is just my luck to be unable to go. In March 1915, Ball began an engagement to Dot Allbourne
Ribbon of Saint George
The ribbon of Saint George is a widely recognized military symbol in Russia. The ribbon consists of a black and orange bicolour pattern, with three black and two orange stripes and it appears as a component of many high military decorations awarded by the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the current Russian Federation. During Soviet times, the ribbon held no public significance, the symbol was revived in Russia in 2005 as a response to the pro-democratic Orange Revolution in Ukraine. That year, Russian state media along with youth organizations launched the campaign ahead of World War II memorial celebrations. In Russia, the ribbon of Saint George is used by civilians as a symbol and as a symbol of public support to the Russian government. In Ukraine and the Baltic states, the symbol has become associated with Russian nationalist and separatist sentiment. The Georgian ribbon emerged as part of the Order of Saint George, when not awarded the full Order, some distinguished officers were granted ceremonial swords, adorned with the Georgian ribbon.
In 1806, distinctive Georgian banners were introduced as a battle honour awarded to meritorious Guards. The pike on which these flags were mounted was topped by the Cross of Saint George and it remained the highest collective military award in the Imperial Russian Army until the Revolution in 1917. It is worth noting that the tsarist version was yellow and black, not orange and black like the revived Soviet version. The symbolism of the orange and black is thought to represent fire and gunpowder of war, or the death and resurrection of Saint George, the 100th, 127th, 153rd and 161st Rifle Divisions were renamed into the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Guards Divisions, respectively. The units and formations nominated for the Soviet Guard title received special Guards banner in accordance with the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On 21 May 1942, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR introduced Guards ranks, both included the Georgian ribbon pattern. In June 1943, they introduced the Guards Red Banners for the land forces, Georgian ribbons adorned the banners exactly as in the 19th century.
Established on 8 November 1943, the Order of Glory was an order of the Soviet Union and it was awarded to non-commissioned officers and the rank-and-file of the armed forces, as well as to junior lieutenants of the air force, for bravery in the face of the enemy. The ribbon of the Order was orange with three black stripes - the same as that of the Cross of Saint George, one of the most honourable medals in the Soviet Union, the medal For the Victory over Germany features Saint George stripes. The ribbon – along with the Russian tricolored flag and the Russian Navy Ensign – was used by the anti-Soviet Russian Liberation Army that fought alongside Nazi Germany during World War II. Since the ribbon is worn by civilians in Russia and other republics of the Soviet Union as an act of commemoration