Carl Zeiss AG
Carl Zeiss is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott they built a base for modern optics, there are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen and Munich, and Carl Zeiss GmbH located in Jena. Carl Zeiss AG is the company of the Zeiss Gruppe. The Zeiss Gruppe is located in Heidenheim and Jena, controlled by the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung are the glass manufacturers Schott AG and Jenaer Glas, located in Mainz and Jena respectively. Carl Zeiss is one of the oldest existing optics manufacturers in the world, Carl Zeiss opened an optics workshop in Jena in 1846. By 1847 he was making microscopes full-time, by 1861 Zeiss was considered to be among the best scientific instrument makers in Germany with about 20 people working under him with his business still growing. By 1866 the Zeiss workshop sold their 1, 000th microscope, in 1872 physicist Ernst Abbe joined Zeiss and along with Otto Schott designed greatly improved lenses for the optical instruments they were producing.
After Carl Zeisss death in 1888, the business was incorporated as the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung in 1889, by World War I, Zeiss was the worlds largest location of camera production. Zeiss Ikon represented a significant part of the production along with dozens of brands and factories. The Hensoldt System Technology division was continued by Zeiss under the Hensoldt name until 2006, as part of Nazi Germany Zwangsarbeiter program, Zeiss used forced labour during the Second World War. The destruction of the war caused many companies to divide into smaller subcompanies, at the end of the war Jena was occupied by the US Army. As part of the World War II reparations, the Soviet army took most of the existing Zeiss factories and tooling back to the Soviet Union as the Kiev camera works. The western business was restarted in Oberkochen as Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1946, which became Zeiss-Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1947, but was soon renamed to Carl Zeiss. West German Zeiss products were labelled Opton for sale in the Eastern bloc and this collaboration continued under Yashicas successor, until the latter ceased all camera production in 2005.
Zeiss produced lenses for the industry and, more recently, has again produced high-quality 35 mm camera lenses. Jenoptik GmbH was split off as a specialty company in the areas of photonics, the Hensoldt AG was renamed Carl Zeiss Sports Optics GmbH on 1 October 2006. The companies of the Zeiss Gruppe in and around Dresden have branched into new technologies and products for the automotive industry, there are arguably three companies with primarily Zeiss Ikon heritage, Zeiss Germany, the Finnish/Swedish Ikon, and the independent eastern Zeiss Ikon. On 28 June 2013, Carl Zeiss officially announced its plan to rename the brand from Carl Zeiss to simply Zeiss, all the products will be standardized under the Zeiss brand
The V-2, technical name Aggregat 4, was the worlds first long-range guided ballistic missile. The V-2 rocket became the first artificial object to cross the boundary of space with the launch of MW18014 on 20 June 1944. Research into military use of long range rockets began when the studies of graduate student Wernher von Braun attracted the attention of the German Army, a series of prototypes culminated in the A-4, which went to war as the V-2. Beginning in September 1944, over 3,000 V-2s were launched by the German Wehrmacht against Allied targets during the war, first London and Antwerp and Liège. As Germany collapsed, teams from the Allied forces—the United States, the United Kingdom, Wernher von Braun and over 100 key V-2 personnel surrendered to the Americans. Eventually, many of the original V-2 team ended up working at the Redstone Arsenal, the US captured enough V-2 hardware to build approximately 80 of the missiles. The Soviets gained possession of the V-2 manufacturing facilities after the war, re-established V-2 production, in the late 1920s, a young Wernher von Braun bought a copy of Hermann Oberths book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen.
Starting in 1930, he attended the Technical University of Berlin, von Braun was working on his doctorate when the Nazi Party gained power in Germany. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger, arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, von Brauns thesis, Construction and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket, was kept classified by the German Army and was not published until 1960. By the end of 1934, his group had launched two rockets that reached heights of 2.2 and 3.5 km. At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddards research, before 1939, German engineers and scientists occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Von Braun used Goddards plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat series of rockets, during 28–30 September 1939, Der Tag der Weisheit conference met at Peenemünde to initiate the funding of university research to solve rocket problems.
By late 1941, the Army Research Center at Peenemünde possessed the essential to the success of the A-4. The four key technologies for the A-4 were large liquid-fuel rocket engines, supersonic aerodynamics, gyroscopic guidance, at the time, Adolf Hitler was not particularly impressed by the V-2, he pointed out that it was merely an artillery shell with a longer range and much higher cost. Hitler was sufficiently impressed by the enthusiasm of its developers, and needed a weapon to maintain German morale. The V-2s were constructed at the Mittelwerk site by prisoners from Mittelbau-Dora, the A-4 used a 74% ethanol/water mixture for fuel and liquid oxygen for oxidizer. The rocket reached a height of 80 km after shutting off the engine, the fuel and oxidizer pumps were driven by a steam turbine, and the steam was produced by concentrated hydrogen peroxide with sodium permanganate catalyst. Both the alcohol and oxygen tanks were an aluminium-magnesium alloy, the combustion burner reached a temperature of 2,500 to 2,700 °C
The Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was a joint law enforcement agency of the whole Soviet Union that directly executed the will of the All-Union Communist Party. It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, the NKVD was headed by Soviet secret police officials. The NKVD contained the regular, public police force of the USSR, including police, border guards. It is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security and it was tasked with protection of Soviet borders and espionage, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy within communist movements in other countries. After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsars police, realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of Peoples Commissars of the RSFSR created a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, the Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR.
In 1922, the USSR was formed with the RSFSR as its largest member, the GPU became the OGPU, under the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, as a result, the NKVD became responsible for all detention facilities as well as for the regular police. Since its creation in 1934, the NKVD of the USSR underwent many organizational changes, on February 3,1941, the Special Sections of the NKVD responsible for military counterintelligence became part of the Army and Navy. The GUGB was separated from the NKVD and renamed the Peoples Commissariat for State Security, after the German invasion, the NKVD and NKGB were reunited on July 20,1941. The CI sections were returned to the NKVD in January 1942, in April 1943, the CI sections were again transferred to the Peoples Commissariats of Defense and the Navy, becoming SMERSH, at the same time, the NKVD was again separated from the NKGB. In 1946, all Soviet Commissariats were renamed ministries, the NKVD of the USSR was renamed as the Ministry of Internal Affairs, while the NKGB was renamed as the Ministry of State Security.
In 1953, after the arrest of Lavrenty Beria, the MGB was merged back into the MVD, the police and security services were finally split in 1954 to become, The USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, responsible for the criminal militia and correctional facilities. The USSR Committee for State Security, responsible for the police, counter-intelligence, personal protection. In implementing Soviet internal policy towards perceived enemies of the Soviet state, untold multitudes of people were sent to GULAG camps, most of these people were convicted by NKVD troikas – special courts martial. Evidential standards were low, a tip-off by an anonymous informer was considered sufficient grounds for arrest. Use of physical means of persuasion was sanctioned by a decree of the state. Hundreds of mass graves resulting from operations were discovered throughout the country
The primary purpose for Operation Paperclip was for the U. S. to gain a military advantage in the burgeoning Cold War, and Space Race, between the U. S. and Soviet Union. The term “Overcast” was the name first given by the German scientists’ family members for the camp where they were held in Bavaria. In September 1945, the JCS established the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency to directly oversee Operation Overcast, president Truman formally approved Operation Paperclip in a secret directive, circulated on September 3,1946. Architecture Heinz Hilten and Hannes Luehrsen, material Science Claus Scheufelen and Rudolf Schlidt. Physics Gunter Guttein, Gerhard Schwesinger, Helmut Weickmann, and Friedwardt Winterberg, Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage, having failed to conquer the USSR with Operation Barbarossa, the Siege of Leningrad, Operation Nordlicht, and the Battle of Stalingrad. The failed conquest had depleted German resources, and its complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich against the Red Armys westward counterattack.
The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, overnight, Ph. D. s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft, recorded the names of the cleared men to the Osenberg List. In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet, the list subsequently reached MI6, U. S. Army Major Robert B. In Operation Overcast, Major Stavers original intent was only to interview the scientists, on May 22,1945, he transmitted to U. S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmess telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most important for Pacific war effort. Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, after capturing them, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany.
Beginning on July 19,1945, the U. S, Joint Chiefs of Staff managed the captured ARC rocketeers under Operation Overcast. However, when the Camp Overcast name of the quarters became locally-known. Despite these attempts at secrecy, that year the press interviewed several of the scientists, early on, the United States created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee. This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific and industrial installations for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan, finding out what technology had passed on to Japan. Much U. S. effort was focused on Saxony and Thuringia, many German research facilities and personnel had been evacuated to these states, particularly from the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would limit U. S, there is no need to bring winter clothing
Allied Control Council
The members were the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom, France was added with a vote, but had no duties. The organization was based in Berlin-Schöneberg, the Council was convened to determine several plans for post-War Europe, including how to change borders and transfer populations in Eastern Europe and Germany. Allied preparations for the occupation of Germany began during the second half of 1944. Most of the planning was carried out by the European Advisory Commission established in early 1944, the EAC recommended the creation of a tripartite US, Soviet and British agency to conduct German affairs following the surrender of the Third Reich. The British representative at the EAC, Sir William Strang, was undecided on whether an occupation of Germany by Allied troops was the most desirable course of action. Strang believed that a full occupation would limit the reliance on former Nazis to maintain order within Germany, his final conclusion was that a total occupation would be most beneficial, at least during the initial phase.
In August 1944, the US government established the United States Group to the Control Council for Germany, the chairman of this group was Brig. Gen. Cornelius Wendell Wickersham. As the German collapse approached, Strang became convinced that Germany was about to undergo a collapse, in which case a total occupation. He even proposed a declaration to be issued by the Allied governments in case no political authority remained in Germany due to chaotic conditions. For a brief period, this prospect was feared by some Allied representatives, after the death of Adolf Hitler on 30 April 1945, Karl Dönitz assumed the title of president of Germany in accordance with Hitlers last political testament. This government was not recognised by the Allies, and Dönitz and they did not use the one which had been drafted for the surrender of Germany by the European Advisory Commission. This created a problem for the Allies, because although the German military forces had surrendered unconditionally. This was considered an important issue, inasmuch as Hitler had used the surrender of the civilian government.
The Allies understandably did not want to any future hostile German regime any kind of legal argument to resurrect an old quarrel. Eventually, and determined not to any recognition to the Flensburg administration. The assumption, for the purposes stated above, of the said authority, in reality, of course, all German central civilian authority had ceased to exist with the death of Hitler and the fall of Berlin at the latest. These parts of the Berlin declaration, merely formalised the de facto status, an additional agreement was signed on 20 September 1945 and further elaborated the powers of the Control Council. Germany was divided into three zones of occupation—American and Soviet—each being ruled by the Commander-in-Chief of the occupation forces
This saved them a year by their own admission. Near the close and after the end of World War II in Europe, the Soviet Union, for example, the United States had Operation Paperclip and the Soviet Union had trophy brigades advancing with their military forces. In the area of technology, the U. S. had Operation Alsos. This was rectified with a decree in late 1944 and the formation of specialized exploitation teams in early 1945, the Soviet “Alsos” had broader objectives, which included wholesale relocation of scientific facilities to the Soviet Union. On 18 September 1944, a decree established a task force within the 9th Chief Directorate of the NKVD to support the work of German scientists invited to the Soviet Union. The head of the Directorate was Colonel General Avram Pavlovich Zavenyagin, on 23 March 1945, in Stalins office, Lavrentiy Beria suggested that specialized teams be sent to Germany to search for atomic technology and related personnel. The next day, he instructed Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov, head of Laboratory No,2, to submit requirements on the formation of the specialized search teams to be sent to Germany and Czechoslovakia.
Operational issues for the teams were assigned to SMERSH military counterintelligence,2, Lev Andreevich Artsimovich and Yulij Borisovich Khariton, were assigned to provide scientific guidance to the operation. While the entire staff at Laboratory No. 2, the only atomic laboratory at that time, numbered less than 100, the Battle of Berlin proved one of the last major engagements of World War II in Europe. With a great majority of German scientific facilities in Berlin and its suburbs, haste was necessary, as the American military forces were rapidly approaching Berlin. Soviet troops broke the Berlin defense-ring on 25 April 1945, georgij Nikolaevich Flerov had arrived earlier, although Kikoin did not recall a vanguard group. Targets on the top of their list included the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik, the University of Berlin, the search teams occupied an entire building in Berlin-Friedrichshagen, which was large enough to house German scientists recovered by the team. Unfortunately for the Soviet effort, the KWIP had mostly moved in 1943 and 1944 to Hechingen, on the edge of the Black Forest.
This move and a little luck allowed the Americans to take into custody a number of German scientists associated with nuclear research. The only section of the institute which remained in Berlin was the physics section, headed by Ludwig Bewilogua. The pact was a pledge that whoever first made contact with the Russian people would speak for the rest, before the end of World War II, Thiessen, a member of the Nazi Party, nevertheless had Communist contacts. Ardenne’s institute was visited on 10 May by Colonel General Makhnjov, accompanied by Artsimovich, Kikoin, at the end of the meeting, Makhnjov suggested that Ardenne continue his work in the Soviet Union
Wernher von Braun
He was one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany, where he was a member of the Nazi Party and the SS. In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Germanys rocket development program, following the war, von Braun worked for the United States Army on an intermediate-range ballistic missile program before his group was assimilated into NASA. In 1975, he received the National Medal of Science and he continued insisting on the human mission to Mars throughout his life. Wernher von Braun was born on 23 March 1912 in the town of Wirsitz, in the Posen Province. He was the second of three sons and he belonged to a noble family, inheriting the German title of Freiherr. His father, conservative civil servant Magnus Freiherr von Braun, served as a Minister of Agriculture in the Reich Cabinet during the Weimar Republic, Von Braun had an older brother, and a younger brother, named Magnus. After Wernher von Brauns Lutheran confirmation, his mother gave him a telescope, the family moved to Berlin in 1915 where his father worked at the Ministry of the Interior.
He was taken into custody by the police until his father came to collect him. Wernher von Braun was an amateur pianist who could play Beethoven. He learned to both the cello and the piano at an early age and at one time wanted to become a composer. He took lessons from the composer Paul Hindemith, the few pieces of von Braun’s youthful compositions that exist are reminiscent of Hindemith’s style. Beginning in 1925, von Braun attended a school at Ettersburg Castle near Weimar. There he acquired a copy of By Rocket into Planetary Space by rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth, in 1928, his parents moved him to the Hermann-Lietz-Internat on the East Frisian North Sea island of Spiekeroog. Space travel had always fascinated von Braun, and from on he applied himself to physics and mathematics to pursue his interest in rocket engineering. In 1930, he attended the Technische Hochschule Berlin, where he joined the Spaceflight Society, in spring 1932, he graduated from the Technische Hochschule Berlin, with a diploma in mechanical engineering.
His early exposure to rocketry convinced him that the exploration of space would require far more applications of the current engineering technology. He studied at ETH Zürich, although he worked mainly on military rockets in his years there, space travel remained his primary interest. In 1930, von Braun attended a presentation given by Auguste Piccard, after the talk the young student approached the famous pioneer of high-altitude balloon flight, and stated to him, You know, I plan on traveling to the Moon at some time
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Nordhausen is a city in Thuringia, Germany. It is the capital of the Nordhausen district and the centre of northern Thuringia. Nordhausen is located approximately 60 km N of Erfurt,80 km W of Halle,85 km S of Braunschweig and 60 km E of Göttingen. Nordhausen was first mentioned in records in the year 927 and became one of the most important cities in central Germany during the Middle Ages. The city is situated at Zorge river, a tributary of the Helme within the region of Goldene Aue at the southern edge of the Harz mountains. In the early 13th century, it became an imperial city, so that it was an independent. Due to its trade, Nordhausen was prosperous and influential. It was the third-largest city in Thuringia after Erfurt, todays capital, and Mühlhausen, Nordhausen was once known for its tobacco industry and is still known for its distilled spirit, Nordhäuser Doppelkorn. Industrialization accompanied railway construction that linked the cities to major markets in the mid-19th century, in the late 19th century, narrow-gauge railways were constructed in this region through the Harz mountains.
In December 1898 the Nordhausen-Wernigerode Railway Company or NWE added a line, the Harz Narrow Gauge Railways are maintained today by local authorities and frequented primarily by tourists. In the early 20th century, this became a center of the engineering, during World War II, the Nazi German government established and operated the nearby KZ Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp, where 60,000 forced labourers had to work in the arms industry. They were prisoners of war and persons from occupied territories, some 20,000 persons died because of the bad conditions. In April 1945, most of the city was destroyed by Royal Air Force bombings, most of the historic buildings of the city were destroyed, it suffered the most damage during the war of any city in Thuringia. A week the United States troops occupied the city, followed by the Soviet Red Army. The city was within the Soviet zone of occupation, and the territory was known as East Germany, hundreds of German scientists and their families from Nordhausen were among thousands deported to the Soviet Union after the war to work on advanced rocket and other arms engineering projects.
Nordhausen is the birthplace of the famous mathematician Oswald Teichmüller, known for his work on the Teichmüller spaces – which were named after him. It is the site of the Nordhausen University of Applied Sciences, the Franks colonized the area around Nordhausen about 800, many place names here have a Frankish origin, discernible by the suffix -hausen. Nordhausen itself is first mentioned in a 13 May 927 document of King Henry the Fowler and he built a castle here, which is traceable between 910 and 1277 and became a centre of the empire during the 10th century