United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
First Special Service Force
The 1st Special Service Force, was an elite American-Canadian commando unit in World War II, under command of the United States Fifth Army. The unit was organized in 1942 and trained at Fort William Henry Harrison near Helena, Montana in the United States, the Force served in the Aleutian Islands, and fought in Italy, and southern France before being disbanded in December 1944. The modern American and Canadian special operations forces trace their heritage to this unit, in 2013, the United States Congress passed a bill to award the 1st Special Service Force the Congressional Gold Medal. Geoffrey Pyke was an English journalist, and an inventor whose clever, in lifestyle and appearance, he fitted the common stereotype of a scientist-engineer-inventor or in British slang, a boffin. This was part of the British approach in World War II of encouraging innovative warfare methods, working for the British Combined Operations Command, envisioned the creation of a small, élite military force capable of fighting behind enemy lines in winter conditions.
This would have been a unit that could be landed, by sea or air, into occupied Norway, Romania. In Norway, the chief industrial threat was the creation of the water used in the German atomic weapon research at Rjukan. Furthermore, attacks on Norwegian power stations, which supplied the country with 49% of its power, might drive the Axis powers out of the country and give the Allies a direct link to Russia. In Romania, there were the strategically important Ploiești oil fields that met one quarter of the Germans consumption, Pyke requested that a tracked vehicle be developed especially for the unit, capable of carrying men and their equipment at high speed across snow-covered terrain. These troops would be equipped with Pykes proposed snow vehicle, Pyke persuaded Mountbatten that such a force would be invulnerable in its glacier strongholds and would tie down large numbers of German troops trying to dislodge it. However, given the demands upon both Combined Operations and British industry, it was decided to offer it instead to the United States at the Chequers Conference of March 1942, General George Marshall, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, accepted the suggestion for Project Plough.
In April 1942, since no suitable vehicle existed, the U. S. government asked automobile manufacturers to look into such a design, studebaker subsequently created the T-15 cargo carrier, which became the M29 Weasel. In May 1942, the papers for Plough were scrutinized by Lieutenant Colonel Robert T. Frederick. Frederick predicted Plough would be a fiasco on the following grounds. Firstly, he argued that Plough endeavored to achieve unrealistic objectives with the amount of troops that the called for. Similarly, he argued that the small, elite division would be outnumbered, Frederick concluded that there was no concrete way to evacuate the troops after a mission. Finally, the plan had called for troops to be dropped by airplane to their targets, General Marshall and General Eisenhower had already agreed to the operation with the British High Command and were unwilling to compromise a chance to open an American front in Europe. It was believed that Plough offered the possibility of defeating the Germans, the sooner the Germans were defeated, it was argued, the sooner this would become a reality
Operation Cottage was a tactical maneuver which completed the Aleutian Islands campaign. On August 15,1943, Allied military forces landed on Kiska Island, the Japanese, had secretly abandoned the island two weeks prior, and so the Allied landings were unopposed. Despite this, after two days in thick fog and in a confused state of affairs, U. S. Allied forces suffered over 313 casualties in total during the operation, due to stray Japanese mines, friendly fire incidents, the Japanese under Captain Takeji Ono had landed on Kiska at approximately 01,00 on June 7,1942, with a force of about 500 Japanese marines. Soon after arrival, they stormed an American weather station, here they killed two and captured eight United States Navy officers. The captured officers were sent to Japan as prisoners of war, another 2,000 Japanese troops arrived, landing in Kiska Harbor. At this time, Monzo Akiyama, a Rear-Admiral, headed the force on Kiska, in December 1942, additional anti-aircraft units, and a negligible number of reinforcement infantry arrived on the island.
In the spring of 1943, control was transferred to Kiichiro Higuchi, a Consolidated B-24 Liberator aircraft sighted Japanese ships in Kiska. To United States naval planners, none was necessary and the orders to invade Kiska soon followed, due to the heavy casualties suffered at Attu Island, planners were expecting another costly operation. The Japanese tactical planners had, realized the isolated island was no longer defensible, although small, there were signs of Japanese retreat. Anti-aircraft guns, once active during the bombardment of Kiska, were silent when Allied planes flew over in the leading up to the invasion. On August 15,1943, the 7th Division and the 13th Infantry Brigade, both U. S. and Canadian forces mistook each other as the Japanese and, as a result of friendly fire,28 Americans and 4 Canadians were killed, with wounded on either side. A stray Japanese mine caused the USS Abner Read to lose a large chunk of its stern, the blast killed 71 and wounded 47. Yank Levy who trained many of these forces in guerrilla warfare, where the Williwaw Blows, The Aleutian Islands-World War II.
Garfield, Brian The Thousand Mile War, Aurum Press,1995 ISBN 1-84513-019-7 Goldstein, the Williwaw War, The Arkansas National Guard in the Aleutians in World War. Fayettville, Arkansas, USA, University of Arkansas Press, Aleutians and Marshalls, June 1942-April 1944, vol.7 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Champaign, Illinois, USA, University of Illinois Press, stepping Stones to Nowhere, The Aleutian Islands and American Military Strategy,1867 -1945. Vancouver British Columbia, University of British Columbia Press, logistics Problems on Attu by Robert E. Burks
Kiichirō Higuchi was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. Higuchi was born in what is now part of Minamiawaji City on Awaji Island, Hyōgo Prefecture, when he was eleven years old, his parents divorced and he was raised by his mothers family. He was a graduate of the 21st class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, as a junior officer, he was sent as military attaché to Poland. Due to his fluency in the Russian language, Higuchi was posted to Manchuria with the Kwantung Army, Higuchi was a close confidant of General Kanji Ishiwara and Korechika Anami. From 1933-1935, he was commander of the IJA 41st Infantry Regiment and he was sent to Germany as part of a military delegation in 1937. Higuchis subordinates were responsible for feeding the refugees, settling them in Harbin or Shanghai, General Hideki Tojo, Chief of staff of the Kwantung Army, assented to Higuchis view that the German policy against the Jews was a serious humanitarian concern. Higuchis lieutenant Norihiro Yasue advocated for the protection of Jewish refugees to General Seishiro Itagaki, recalled to Japan in late 1938, Higuchi served briefly on the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff before being assigned as commanding officer of the IJA 9th Division in 1939.
In 1942, he was promoted to lieutenant general and assigned to the Sapporo-based 5th Area Army and he participated in the invasion of the Aleutian islands, including the disastrous campaigns on Attu Island and Kiska Island. The Soviet Strategic Offensive in Manchuria,1945, August Storm, the Fugu Plan, The Untold Story Of The Japanese And The Jews During World War II. The Generals of World War II
USS Abner Read (DD-526)
USS Abner Read was a Fletcher-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Lieutenant Commander Abner Read. She was laid down on 30 October 1941 at San Francisco by Bethlehem Steel and launched on 18 August 1942, the ship was commissioned on 5 February 1943 with Commander T. Burrowes in command. The destroyer held shakedown along the California coast into April and got underway with Task Group 51.2, bound for the Aleutian Islands. She assumed patrol duties on 4 May and, on 11 May, the destroyer again bombarded Attu on 16 May before returning to San Diego, which she reached on the last day of May. After two weeks in drydock at San Francisco, Abner Read got underway on 14 June for Adak, upon her arrival there, she joined Task Force 16 and, soon thereafter, began patrolling the waters around Kiska Island. On 22 July, as part of Task Group 16.22, between 12 and 15 August, the destroyer again shelled Kiska in support of landing operations on that island. On 17 August, American forces discovered that Japan had removed its forces from the island, while she was patrolling off Kiska that night, Abner Read was shaken by an explosion aft at 0150.
The exact cause of the blast was unknown, and it was thought that the destroyer had struck a mine. The concussion tore a hole in her stern and ruptured her smoke tanks. Men sleeping in aft compartments suffered from smoke inhalation, in the darkness, a few men fell through holes in the deck into fuel oil tanks below. Soon the stern broke away and sank, once in the water, the men recovered from the effects of the smoke and could breathe. Abner Read was taken under tow by Ute at 0355 and was pulled to Adak for temporary repairs, the destroyer lost 70 men who were killed or missing, and another 47 were wounded. The yard work was finished on 21 December 1943, and the destroyer commenced training exercises and she moved to Pearl Harbor in February 1944, and while she was underway for Hollandia, New Guinea, her starboard propeller was damaged. This accident required her to put in to Milne Bay, New Guinea, the ship was attached to TF75 and participated in the bombardment of Hollandia on 22 April. She provided fire support for the landing at Humboldt Bay by the central attack group in Operation Reckless.
Her next targets were on the Wakde Islands off the coast of Dutch New Guinea and she sought to neutralize Japanese airstrips located there by concentrated bombardment, which she conducted on 30 April. Abner Read moved on to Wewak and, on 12 May, the destroyer rendered fire support for the landings at Arara, New Guinea, and bombarded the Wakde-Toem area on 17 May. As part of TG77.3, she pounded Japanese targets on Biak in the Schouten Islands, from 8–9 June, she was involved in an engagement with a Japanese task force off the north coast of Biak
Harry Wickwire Foster
Major General Harry Wickwire Foster CBE, DSO was a senior Canadian Army officer who commanded two Canadian divisions during World War II. He served in both the Pacific and European theatres, born in Halifax, he was the son of Major General Gilbert Lafayette Foster, who had been the director general of the medical services of the First World War. Foster was educated at King’s College at Windsor, Nova Scotia as a cadet and he attended school at Berkhamsted, Bishops College School in Lennoxville, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, and McGill University, Montreal. As a young officer, he spent considerable time in debt, the army paid only for saddle, harness and he had to pay for his own horse and for mess and tailoring. By 1934 he held the rank of captain and he attended the Staff College, from 1937–1939 and was promoted to major and posted as brigade major of 1st Canadian Infantry Brigade at the outbreak of the Second World War. In 1941, promoted to lieutenant-colonel, Foster assumed command of 4th Reconnaissance Battalion, in 1942, he was appointed commanding officer of the 1st Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry of Canada.
He led Canadian troops in the Kiska campaign in 1943, for which he was awarded the American Legion of Merit, unknown to the Allies, the Japanese had withdrawn three weeks before the attack. Foster commented in his diary “I feel bloody silly coming all this way for nothing. ”In 1943, he was promoted to brigadier, which landed on Juno beach on D-Day. In 1944 he was promoted to general and took over 4th Canadian Division in Normandy relieving George Kitching. On September 12,1944, he entered the city of Bruges with his troops. The liberation of this town was done successfully, without fight or damage. Later, swapping commands with Chris Vokes, he led the 1st Canadian Infantry Division in Italy, Foster was said to have had a hands off style and loathed paperwork. After the war, Foster presided over the martial of Canada’s top prisoner of war. The trial was a showcase for Canada, the first time that the country had conducted an international prosecution of this sort, Meyer was found guilty of three of five charges and sentenced to death.
The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Foster organized and commanded Eastern Army Command from 1946, upon retirement in 1952 he took the civilian appointment of chief administrator of the Central European District, Imperial War Graves Commission. In 1959, he married his third wife Mona Leonhart, a Canadian spy for the Dutch Resistance during the Second World War, Harry Foster Retrospective of Meyers trial Picture with Mackenzie King Video History Minute Mona Parsons Anecdote why he never served in Ottawa
Japanese occupation of Attu
The Japanese occupation of Attu was the result of an invasion of the Aleutian Islands during World War II. Imperial Japanese Army troops landed on 6 June 1942 at the time as the invasion of Kiska. The occupation ended with the Allied victory in the Battle of Attu on 30 May 1943, in May 1942, the Japanese began a campaign against Midway, their objective being to occupy the islands and destroy the remaining United States Navy forces in the Pacific. In order to deceive the American Pacific Fleet, an attack was ordered to take place in the Aleutians. During the Battle of Midway, Japanese forces were repulsed in an action, meanwhile on 6 June, Japanese naval forces under Boshirō Hosogaya landed troops unopposed at Kiska. A force consisting of 1,140 infantry under Major Matsutoshi Hosumi took control of the island and captured forty-five Aleut civilians, the school teachers husband was killed during the invasion, the Japanese Army was suspected of executing him. All of the prisoners were removed to Japan.
After landing, the soldiers began constructing an airbase and fortifications, the nearest American forces were on Unalaska Island at Dutch Harbor and at an airbase on Adak Island. Throughout the occupation, American air and naval forces bombarded the island, initially the Japanese intended to hold the Aleutians only until the winter of 1942, the occupation continued into 1943 in order to deny the Americans use of the islands. In August 1942, the garrison of Attu was moved to Kiska to help repel a suspected American attack, from August to October 1942, Attu was unoccupied until a 2, 900-man force under Colonel Yasuyo Yamasaki arrived. The new garrison of Attu continued constructing the airfield and fortifications until 11 May 1943, on 12 May, I-31 was forced to surface five miles northeast of Chichagof Harbor, she was sunk in a surface engagement with USS Edwards. Allied forces under General John L. DeWitt took control of the island on 30 May after the remaining Japanese troops conducted a massive banzai charge, American forces lost 549 killed and 1,148 wounded, another 2,100 evacuated due to weather-related injuries.
During the Battle of Attu, all but 29 men of the Japanese garrison were killed, the occupation ended with an American victory and American forces deemed the half-completed airfield as not ideally situated. In 2012, for the 70th anniversary of the occupation, a memorial to Attu village was dedicated at the site of the town. Attacks on North America during World War II Fern Chandonnet, memorial placed in Attu honoring villagers. Attu, A Lost Village of the Aleutians, alaska Park Science, Volume 10, Issue 2
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Operation Chronicle was the Allied invasion of Woodlark and Kiriwina Islands during World War II, in the South West Pacific as part of Operation Cartwheel. An early planning name for operation was Operation Coronet. The operation was executed without opposition on 30 June 1943, initial planning for the seizure of Woodlark and Kiriwina was undertaken in May 1943 at General Walter Kruegers Sixth Army headquarters in Brisbane, Australia. General MacArthur gave command of the landings to Krueger as well as responsibility for the co-ordination of ground, air and Kiriwina were required as future airfield sites to support operations in both New Guinea, New Britain and the Solomon Islands. The invasion was the first amphibious movement undertaken in the South West Pacific Area, with planning thorough and comprehensive which became standing operating procedure for future invasions. Air support for the operation was split between the United States Army Air Forces V Bomber Command and the Royal Australian Air Force 1st Tactical Air Force and No.9 Operational Group.
The V Bomber Command was to bomb the Japanese airfields at Rabaul, each night from 25 through 30 June and be called upon to support the invasion fleet, the RAAF was to provide fighter cover as requested. Reconnaissance parties landed on Woodlark and Kiriwina in May and reported there were no Japanese troops occupying the islands. Due to a delay in gathering the units assigned to the operation together, as they were spread across the north of Australia and New Guinea D-Day was set for 30 June 1943. A RAAF LW-AW radar unit, No.305 Radar Station arrived at Kiriwina Island on 17 May and was operational the next day, the landings took place in conjunction with the landing at Nassau Bay, Papua New Guinea and the landing on Rendova, New Georgia. An advanced party of 112th Cavalry Regiment under the command of Major D. M. McMains, left Milne Bay at 16,00 on 22 June 1943 aboard the destroyer transports Brooks and Humphreys to Woodlark. Arriving at Guasopa Harbour at 00,32 on 23 June landing in six Landing Craft, the destroyer transports left at 04,00 for Milne Bay.
An Australian coastwatcher, not having been informed of the landing, the advance party undertook reconnaissance, established defenses and facilities for the invasion force and cleared obstructions on the landing beaches. Powell, departed Milne Bay at 18,10 on 23 June aboard the returned Brooks, Arriving at Kiriwina at midnight on 24 June they landed in LCPs along a channel winding through the reef to the beach at Losuia on Kiriwina. The ships had not been emptied before departing, returning three nights to unload heavy communication and engineer equipment left in their holds, the advance party built a coral causeway across the reef to allow landing. On 25 June 2,600 troops of Woodlark Force, led by Colonel Julian W. Arriving at Woodlark and Humphreys carrying other troops from Milne Bay arrived at 01,00 on 1 July, with further supply echelons arriving in LCIs and LSTs. On 30 June 2,250 troops Kiriwina Force, led by Colonel J. Arriving at RED Beach near Losuia, a supply eschelon arrived on 30 June consisting of twelve LCTs and seven LCMs.
Except for reconnaissance flights and two bombing attacks against Woodlark, the Japanese took no further action in relation to the occupation of the islands
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. Methods of war stand on a continuum between maneuver warfare and attrition warfare, the focus on achieving victory through killing or capturing the enemy, Maneuver warfare advocates recognize that all warfare involves both maneuver and attrition. Maneuver warfare concepts have historically been stressed by militaries that are smaller, more cohesive, the idea of using rapid movement to keep an enemy off balance is as old as war itself. However, changing technology, such as the development of cavalry and mechanized vehicles, has led to increased interest in the concepts of maneuver warfare, Military orthodoxy believes that with some exceptions, most battles between established armies have historically been fought based on an attrition warfare strategy. Closer examination, reveals that the view is not universally held, attrition warfare tends to use rigidly centralized command structures that require little or no creativity or initiative from lower-level leadership.
Maneuver warfare doctrine sees styles of warfare as a spectrum with attrition warfare, in attrition warfare, the enemy is seen as a collection of targets to be found and destroyed. Attrition warfare exploits maneuver to bring to bear firepower to destroy enemy forces, Maneuver warfare, on the other hand, exploits firepower and attrition on key elements of opposing forces. Instead, in warfare, the destruction of certain enemy targets is combined with isolation of enemy forces. Bypassing and cutting off enemy strongpoints often results in the collapse of that strongpoint even where the damage is minimal. Firepower, which is used primarily to destroy as many forces as possible in attrition warfare, is used to suppress or destroy enemy positions at breakthrough points during maneuver warfare. Infiltration tactics by conventional or special forces may be used extensively to cause chaos, Leonhard summarizes maneuver warfare theory as preempt and disrupt the enemy as alternatives to destruction of enemy mass through attrition warfare.
Clarification of the Clausewitzian center of gravity concept in maneuver warfare terms suggests the question, is a COG the source of strength or the critical vulnerability. The issue can be resolved using the game of chess as a model, is the Queen or the King the opposing players COG, once the opposing players King is knocked off, it does not matter how many other chess pieces are taken. Since tempo and initiative are so critical to the success of maneuver warfare, command structures tend to be more decentralized, with more tactical freedom given to lower-level unit leaders. The decentralized command structure allows on the unit leaders, while still working within the guidelines of commanders overall vision. War theorist Martin van Creveld identifies six main elements of warfare, Tempo. Schwerpunkt, the center of effort, or striking the enemy at the place at the right time. According to van Creveld, ideally, a spot that is vital and weakly defended