Count Matvei Ivanovich Platov was a Russian general who commanded the Don Cossacks in the Napoleonic wars and founded Novocherkassk as the new capital of the Don Host Province. Platov was born in Pribilyanskoe and began his service in the Don Cossacks in 1766 becoming an yesaul in 1769 and he distinguished himself in the 1771 Crimean campaign and was promoted to the command of a Cossack regiment in 1772. Between 1774 and 1784 he fought against the Crimean Tatars, in 1774 and again in 1782 serving under Alexander Suvorov in the Kuban Valley and Dagestan. For his bravery during the assault he was promoted to ataman of the Ekaterinoslav and Chuguev Cossacks, during 1796 he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir and a golden sword for courage in the Persian Campaign. Disgraced by the Emperor Paul I of Russia as a result of rumours spread by the courtiers, he was exiled to Kostroma. However, after verifying his innocence, the Emperor awarded him the Commanders Cross of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, this led to his appointment to the ill-fated and ill-conceived Russian expedition to India in 1800.
Although the expedition only reached Orenburg, Platov was promoted to Lieutenant-General, upon Alexander Is accession to the throne, he was appointed ataman of the Don Cossacks. In 1805, he ordered the Cossack capital to be moved from Starocherkassk to a new location, in 1808-1809, he was active against the Turks in the Danube valley, including at the Battle of Silistra, receiving for it the Order of St. Vladimir. On 11 October 1809 Platov was promoted to General of Cavalry, soon after the end of the campaign he returned to the Don Host and continued the reorganisation of the local Cossack administration. In 1812, Platov supported General Bagrations 2nd Western Army with a Cossack corps at the Korelichi engagement, at Mir and at Romanovo, during the Russian counter-attack at Smolensk Platov fought at Molevo Boloto. He hounded the French during their retreat from Moscow in 1812, Platov accompanied emperor Alexander to London where he was awarded a golden sword and an honorary degree by the University of Oxford.
A full-length portrait was painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence for the Waterloo Chamber created at Windsor Castle by George IV, Platov settled in the Cossack capital of Novocherkassk where he established a school and was head of the local administration. He is buried in the Novocherkassk Cathedral and he died, aged 67, in Epanchitskoe. The first monument to Platov, which existed from 1853 to 1923 in Novocherkassk, was replicated there in 1993, there are equestrian monuments to him in Novocherkassk, Rostov-on-Don and Moscow. Gavrila Derzhavin dedicated the last of his odes to Platovs exploits, in Leskovs Levsha, Don Cossack Platov is a prominent figure, even though his portrayal in that folk-styled tale is full of anachronisms. Mikaberidze, The Russian officer Corps in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars 1792-1815, Savas Beatie, Platov in Napoleonic wars Biography of Platov
Starocherkasskaya, formerly Cherkassk, is a rural locality in Aksaysky District of Rostov Oblast, with origins dating from the late 16th century. It is located on the bank of the Don River approximately 35 kilometers upstream from the major Russian port city of Rostov-on-Don. It is famous for having been the center of Don Cossack culture, due to regular spring floods that submerged the small city on several occasions, the Cossacks moved their capital to higher ground at Novocherkassk in 1805. In and around Starocherkasskaya there are over forty noteworthy historical and cultural sites including the Resurrection Cathedral, completed in 1719, and its famous gilded wooden iconostasis. A Cossack fortress on the island of what was called Monastyrsky on the Don river was built before 1570 although it is first mentioned in chronicles from 1593. In its heyday in the 18th century, Cherkassk was a city with a strong fortress. The city was the residence of quite a few famous Don cossacks of the 17th and 18th centuries, including Stepan Razin, Yermak Timofeyevich, Kondraty Bulavin.
It was the location of battles between Russian, Ottoman and Cossack forces. In 1805, the Don Voisko Provinces ataman, Matvei Platov moved the capital to the newly and specially built city of Novocherkassk, most of the residents of Cherkassk moved to the new capital. The remnants of the old city got the name of the stanitsa of Starocherkasskaya, now it is a site of an important museum, tourist center and orthodox male convent. Michail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov was a contributor to the museums organization
A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in an ad hoc fashion. Land use conflicts are less frequent in these communities, the term new town refers to planned communities of the new towns movement in particular, mainly in the United Kingdom. It was common in the European colonization of the Americas to build according to a plan either on ground or on the ruins of earlier Native American cities. C. in the United States. In Egypt, a new capital city east of Cairo has been proposed, the federal administrative centre of Malaysia, Putrajaya, is a planned city. Abu Dhabi and some of the recently built cities in the Persian Gulf region are planned cities, prior to the boom, these were just villages or towns. The city of Gaborone was planned and constructed in the 1960s, in 2012, President Teodoro Obiang decided to move the capital to a new jungle site at Oyala.
Konza Technology City is a city that is hoped to become a hub of African science. The capital, Abuja, is a city and was built mainly in the 1980s. Upon completion, the new city which is still under development is anticipating 250,000 residents, centenary City, in the Federal Capital Territory, is another planned smart city under development. The city is designed to become a major tourist attraction to the country, a list of Nigerian cities and neighbourhoods that went through a form of planning are as follows, one of the most populous planned cities, and the fastest growing city in the world. Ikeja, the capital of Lagos State Lekki, a new city in Lagos State Lekki Free Zone, a trade zone in the Lekki Orange Island. Victoria Island in Lagos, Lagos State A number of cities were set up during the apartheid-era for a variety of ethnic groups, Planned settlements set up for white inhabitants included Welkom and Secunda. Additionally the majority of settlements in South Africa were planned in their early stages, some settlements were set up for non whites such as the former homeland capital of Bhisho.
Naypyidaw is the capital of Myanmar, known as Burma and it is administered as the Naypyidaw Union Territory, as per the 2008 Constitution. On 6 November 2005, the capital of Burma was officially moved to a greenfield 3.2 km west of Pyinmana, and approximately 300 km north of Yangon. The capitals official name was announced on 27 March 2006, Burmese Armed Forces Day, much of the city was still under construction as late as 2012. As of 2009, the population was 925,000, which makes it Burmas third largest city, after Yangon, famous examples are Changan in Tang dynasty and Beijing
Iserlohn is a city in the Märkischer Kreis district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the largest city by population and area within the district, Iserlohn is located at the north end of the Sauerland near the Ruhr river. The Pancratius church was founded in around 985, but the first written document mentioning lon dates only from 1150, in 1237 the Count of the Mark gave Iserlohn municipal rights. In 1975 the city, which had been an urban district before, incorporated the surrounding ex-municipalities of Letmathe, Hennen, Sümmern and Kesbern, as a larger mid-sized city, however, still has a special status as compared to most other municipalities in the district. This means that the city takes on tasks more usually performed by the district so that in some ways it is comparable to an urban district, the Dechenhöhle was discovered in 1868 during the construction of the railway line Hagen-Iserlohn. 360m are accessible for visitors, and lots of stalactites make it a spectacular sight, the Danzturm, located atop the southern hill overlooking the old city, is a landmark and featured on the logo of the local brewery.
The tower features spectacular views of the valley and surrounding hills and is open to the public with an inn at the base. In the 18th Century, the became known for its Iserlohn boxes. The city is home of the Iserlohn Roosters, a DEL ice hockey team and they came into the DEL in 2000 and developed from a low-budget-team to a solid team, which battles every year for a Playoff-spot. The club plays its homegames at the Eissporthalle Iserlohn, which holds 4967 spectators, the original club EC Deilinghofen was founded in 1959 and went bankrupt in 1987, the second club ECD Sauerland existed from 1988 to 1994. 1994 the Iserlohner EC was founded whereof the Roosters came to the DEL, in Iserlohn are 15 elementary schools and 13 secondary schools. Also two universities of applied sciences are located in the city of Iserlohn, the Business and Information Technology School is a private state approved business school with a campus near the Seilersee. Every year a part of the Iserlohner culture is the Schützenfest at Alexanderhöhe with its Parkhalle, in the middle of the coat of arms is Saint Pancras, patron of the oldest church in Iserlohn.
He is depicted between two towers of the city wall. The checked fess below is derived from the arms of the Counts of the Mark, die Oberste Stadtkirche Iserlohn – Zeitbilder und Momentaufnahmen. Westfalenverlag Dortmund Peter Müller und Günter Stalp, Unsere gute alte Straßenbahn, hans-Herbert Mönnig Verlag Iserlohn, Iserlohn – unsere lebendige Stadt. Ein Bildband von Iserlohnern für Iserlohner, Heinz Stoob, Westfälischer Städteatlas, Band, I,9 Teilband. Im Auftrage der Historischen Kommission für Westfalen und mit Unterstützung des Landschaftsverbandes Westfalen-Lippe, edited by Heinz Stoob, Official site Official site Newspaper Iserlohner Kreisanzeiger und Zeitung
Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825. He was the son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, Alexander was the first Russian King of Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland. He was sometimes called Alexander the Blessed and he was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, Emperor Paul I, and succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered. He ruled Russia during the period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and emperor, Alexander often used liberal rhetoric, in the first years of his reign, he initiated some minor social reforms and major, liberal educational reforms, such as building more universities. He promised constitutional reforms and a desperately needed reform of serfdom in Russia, Alexander appointed Mikhail Speransky, the son of a village priest, as one of his closest advisors. The Collegia was abolished and replaced by the The State Council, plans were made to set up a parliament and sign a constitution.
In foreign policy, he changed Russias position relative to France four times between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality and alliance and he fought a small-scale naval war against Britain between 1807 and 1812. He and Napoleon could never agree, especially about Poland, the tsars greatest triumph came in 1812 as Napoleons invasion of Russia proved a total disaster for the French. As part of the coalition against Napoleon he gained some spoils in Finland and Poland. He formed the Holy Alliance to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as threats to legitimate Christian monarchs. He helped Austrias Klemens von Metternich in suppressing all national and liberal movements, in the second half of his reign he was increasingly arbitrary and fearful of plots against him, he ended many earlier reforms. He purged schools of teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative. Speransky was replaced as advisor with the artillery inspector Aleksey Arakcheyev.
Alexander died of typhus in December 1825 while on a trip to southern Russia and he left no children as heirs and both of his brothers wanted the other to become emperor. After a period of confusion that included the failed Decembrist revolt of liberal army officers, he was succeeded by his younger brother. Alexander and his younger brother Constantine were raised by their grandmother, some sources allege that she planned to remove her son Paul I from the succession altogether. From the free-thinking atmosphere of the court of Catherine and his Swiss tutor, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, but from his military governor, Nikolay Saltykov, he imbibed the traditions of Russian autocracy
In most cases, the trees planted in an avenue will be all of the same species or cultivar, so as to give uniform appearance along the full length of the avenue. The avenue is one of the oldest ideas in the history of gardens, an avenue of sphinxes still leads to the tomb of the pharaoh Hatshepsut, see the entry Sphinx. Avenues similarly defined by stone lions lead to the Ming tombs in China. British archaeologists have adopted highly specific criteria for avenues within the context of British archaeology, in order to enhance the approach to mansions or manor houses, avenues were planted along the entrance drive. Sometimes the avenues are in rows on each side of a road. Trees preferred for alleys were selected for their height and speed of growth, such as poplar, lime, in the American antebellum era South, the southern live oak was typically used, because the trees created a beautiful shade canopy. Sometimes tree avenues were designed to direct the eye toward some distinctive architectural building or feature, such as a chapels, gazebos, in Garden à la française Baroque landscape design, avenues of trees that were centered upon the dwelling radiated across the landscape.
See the avenues in the Gardens of Versailles or Het Loo. C, avenues will typically be the main roads. In Washington, DC the avenues radiate from the centre running diagonally across the grid of streets, which follows typical French usage of the name
Rostov Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Southern Federal District. The oblast has an area of 100,800 square kilometers and its administrative center is the city of Rostov-on-Don, which became the administrative center of the Southern Federal District in 2002. Rostov Oblast borders Ukraine and Volgograd and Voronezh Oblasts in the north and Stavropol Krais in the south, and it is within the Russian Southern Federal District. The Don River, one of Europes largest rivers, flows through the oblast for part of its course, lakes cover only 0. 4% of the oblasts area. The most important ethnicities are the 3,795,607 ethnic Russians, the 77,802 ethnic Ukrainians, the 110,727 ethnic Armenians. Other important groups are the 35,902 Turks,16,493 Belarusians ),13,948 Tatars,17,961 Azeris,11,449 Chechens,16,657 Roma,11,597 Koreans, and 8,296 Georgians. There were 76,498 people belonging to other ethno-cultural groupings,76,735 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group, according to a 2012 official survey 49. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious, 12% is atheist, major industries of Rostov Oblast are agriculture, agricultural industry, food processing, heavy industry and automobile manufacture. Областной закон №19-ЗС от29 мая1996 г, Областного закона №442-ЗС от23 ноября2015 г. «О поправках к Уставу Ростовской области», Вступил в силу6 июня1996 г. Опубликован, Наше время, №98–99,6 июня1996 г, Областной Закон №30-ЗС от10 октября1996 г. Вступил в силу с момента опубликования, Опубликован, Наше время, №196,31 октября1996 г. Official website of Rostov Oblast Russian South
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. They are a feature of river deltas. The phenomenon is known as river bifurcation, the opposite of a distributary is a tributary. In some cases, a minor distributary can divert so much water from the channel that it can become the main route. Common terms to name individual river distributaries in English-speaking countries are arm and they may refer to a distributary that does not rejoin the channel it has branched from, or one that does. In Australia, the term anabranch is used to refer to a distributary that diverts from the course of the river. In North America an anabranch is called a braided stream, in Louisiana, the Atchafalaya River is an important distributary of the Mississippi River. Examples of inland distributaries, Teton River—a tributary of Henrys Fork in Idaho—splits into two channels, the North Fork and South Fork, which join Henrys Fork miles apart. Kings River has deposited an alluvial fan at the transition from its canyon in the Sierra Nevada mountains to the flat Central Valley.
Distributaries flow north into the Pacific Ocean via San Joaquin River, the QuAppelle River, in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, is a distributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Its flow is controlled by the QuAppelle River Dam and this dam forms the southern arm of Lake Diefenbaker. The Casiquiare is a distributary of the upper Orinoco, which flows southward into the Rio Negro. It is the largest river on the planet that links two major river systems, the IJssel, the Waal and the Nederrijn are the three principal distributaries of the Rhine. These are formed by two separate bifurcations within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, the Akhtuba River is a major distributary of the Volga. The bifurcation occurs close to, but before, the Volga Delta, the Tärendö River in northern Sweden is an inland distributary, far from the mouth of the river. It begins at the Torne River and ends at the Kalix River, the Little Danube in Slovakia branches off from the Danube near Bratislava, and flows into the Vah before rejoining the main river near Komárno.
The area in the middle is the largest freshwater island in Europe, kollidam River is a distributary of the Kaveri River. These areas are highly flood-prone, for example the 2008 Bihar flood on the Kosi River, hoogli River is a Ganges distributary that flows through India, whereas most of the Ganges-Brahmaputra complex enters the sea through Bangladesh
Russian Census (2002)
Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16,2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics, the census data were collected as of midnight October 9,2002. The census was intended to collect statistical information about the resident population of Russian Federation. All detailed census tables are for the resident population, a sample of the participants were asked more detailed questions about their economic and housing situation. Also, the census counted two more groups of people, Russian citizens currently living abroad for more one year in connection with the employment with the federal government. Persons permanently residing abroad, but temporarily present in Russia, Foreign citizens present in Russia as employees of foreign diplomatic missions or international organizations, and members of their household, were excluded from the census altogether.
The Census recorded the resident population of 145,166,731 persons and that included urban population of 106,429,000 and rural population of 38,738,000. The non-resident populations included, Russian citizens living abroad in connection with the government service,107,288. Census participants were asked what country they were citizens of,142,442,000 respondents reported being Russian citizens, among them,44,000 had citizenship of another country. Among Russias resident population,1,025,413 foreign citizens and 429,881 stateless persons were counted,1,269,023 persons did not report their citizenship. Among the questions asked were Are you competent in the Russian language, and What other languages are you competent in. As the census manual explained, competence meant either the ability to speak and write a language, the questions did not distinguish native and non-native speakers, nor did they try to measure the degree of language competence. For small children, the answer was based on the language spoken by the parents.
142.6 million of the responders claimed competence in Russian, other widely reported languages are listed in the table below. 1.42 million responders did not provide language information, for a more detailed list, see List of languages of Russia. Demographics of Russia Russian Empire Census Soviet Census Official census home page Population of Chechnya, was the Census correct
Federal subjects of Russia
Since March 18,2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. Three Russian cities of importance have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns within federal city keeping old structure of postal address. In 1993, there were 89 federal subjects listed, by 2008, the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia, every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Federal subjects have their own constitution and legislation, subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council and they do, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Composition of post-Soviet Russia was formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR, the Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. There are several groupings of Russian regions, Federal subjects should not be confused with the eight Federal districts which are not subdivisions of Russia, are much larger and each encompass many federal subjects. Federal districts were created by Executive Order of the President of Russia specially for presidential envoys, an official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states,1. Another translation of the Constitution of Russia gives for article 65, each federal subject belongs to one of the following types, b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, however, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast. ^ Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia, the merging process was finished on March 1,2008.
No new mergers have been planned since March 2008, Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от30 декабря2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Российская газета, №237,25 декабря1993 г