An army group is a military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods. It is usually responsible for a geographic area. An army group is the largest field organization handled by a single commander—usually a full general or field marshal—and it generally includes between 400,000 and 1,000,000 soldiers. In the Polish Armed Forces and former Soviet Red Army an army group was known as a Front, the equivalent of an army group in the Imperial Japanese Army was a general army. Army groups may be multi-national formations, for example, during World War II, the Southern Group of Armies comprised the U. S. Seventh Army and the French First Army, the 21st Army Group comprised the British Second Army, the Canadian First Army and the US Ninth Army. In U. S. Army usage, the number of a group is expressed in Arabic numerals. The French Army formed a number of groupe darmees during the First World War, the first of these was Army Group North, formed on a provision basis in October 1914.
Army Group East and Army Group Centre both followed in 1915 while Army Group Reserve was established in 1917, a Franco-Belgian Army Group Flanders existed briefly in 1918, under the command of Albert I of Belgium. The German Army formed its first two Heeresgruppen in 1915, to forces on the eastern front. A total of eight army groups would ultimately be raised, four for service on each front, originally the Imperial German army groups were not separate formations, but instead additional responsibilities granted to certain army commanders. Crown Prince Wilhelm for instance, was commander of the 5th Army and Army Group German Crown Prince from August 1915 to November 1916. All eight German army groups were named after their commanders, a Chinese army group was usually equivalent in numbers only to a field army in the terminology of other countries, as the regimental level was sometimes omitted. See Heeresgruppen and Armeegruppen The German Army was organized into army groups, some of these army groups were multinational, containing armies from several Axis countries.
For example, Army Group Africa contained both German and Italian corps and these groupings were usually named after the commander of the unit in question, for example Armeegruppe Weichs, part of Army Group B during Operation Blau in 1942. The strength of the Kantōgun peaked at 700,000 personnel in 1941 and it faced and was destroyed by Soviet forces in 1945. Shina Hakengun, the China Expeditionary Army, was formed in Nanjing, in September 1939, at the end of World War II, it consisted of 620,000 personnel in 25 infantry and one armored divisions. Nanpo Gun was the Southern Army, known as the Southern Expeditionary Army, after the surrender of Japan, the Imperial Japanese Army was dissolved, except for the Dai-Ichi So-Gun, which existed until 30 November 1945 as the 1st Demobilization Headquarters
Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus was an officer in the German military from 1910 to 1945. The battle ended in disaster for Nazi Germany when Soviet forces encircled and defeated about 265,000 personnel of the Wehrmacht, their Axis allies, of the 107,000 Axis servicemen captured, only 6,000 survived captivity and returned home by 1955. Soviet troops took Paulus by surprise and captured him in Stalingrad on 31 January 1943, Hitler expected Paulus to commit suicide, repeating to his staff that there was no precedent of a German field marshal ever being captured alive. While in Soviet captivity during the war, Paulus became a critic of the Nazi regime. He moved to the German Democratic Republic in 1953, Paulus was born in Guxhagen and grew up in Kassel, Hesse-Nassau, the son of a treasurer. He tried, unsuccessfully, to secure a cadetship in the Imperial German Navy, after leaving the university without a degree, he joined the 111th Infantry Regiment as an officer cadet in February 1910. On 4 July 1912 he married the Romanian Elena Rosetti-Solescu, the sister of a colleague who served in the same regiment.
When World War I began, Pauluss regiment was part of the thrust into France, after a leave of absence due to illness, he joined the Alpenkorps as a staff officer, serving in Macedonia, France and Serbia. By the end of the war, he was a captain, after the Armistice, Paulus was a brigade adjutant with the Freikorps. He was chosen as one of only 4,000 officers to serve in the Reichswehr and he was assigned to the 13th Infantry Regiment at Stuttgart as a company commander. He served in staff positions for over a decade and briefly commanded a motorized battalion before being named chief of staff for the Panzer headquarters in October 1935. This was a new formation under the direction of Oswald Lutz that directed the training, in February 1938 Paulus was appointed Chef des Generalstabes to Guderians new XVI Armeekorps, which replaced Lutzs command. Guderian described him as clever, hard working and talented’ but already had doubts about his decisiveness, toughness. He remained in that post until May 1939, when he was promoted to general and became chief of staff for the German Tenth Army.
The unit was renamed the Sixth Army, and engaged in the offensives of 1940 through the Netherlands. Paulus was promoted to lieutenant general in August 1940, the following month he was named deputy chief of the German General Staff. In that role he helped draft the plans for the invasion of the Soviet Union. However, he took over his new command on 20 January
Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov was a Soviet military leader, chief marshal of the artillery, and Hero of the Soviet Union. He was commander of forces of the Red Army from 1941 until 1950. Voronov commanded the Soviet artillery during the Battle of Stalingrad and was the Stavka representative to various fronts during the Siege of Leningrad and the Battle of Kursk. He fought in the Russian Civil War, the Polish-Soviet War, nikolay Voronov was born on 5 May 1899 in Saint Petersburg to Nikolai Terentyvich Voronov, a clerk, and Valentina Voronov. After the Revolution of 1905, Voronovs father became unemployed due to his Russian Social Democratic Labour Party sympathies, on 30 November 1908, his poverty-stricken mother committed suicide by taking cyanide. Voronov dropped out of a school in 1914 due to financial problems. In the fall of 1916, his father was drafted, in 1917, Voronov passed an external degree examination. In March 1918, Voronov joined the Red Army, in the same year, he completed the 2nd Petrograd Artillery courses, after which he was a platoon commander in a howitzer battalion in the Petrograd 2nd Battery.
As part of the 15th Army, he fought in battles with Nikolai Yudenichs forces near Pskov, in 1919, Voronov joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Beginning in April 1920, Voronov fought in the Polish–Soviet War with the 83rd Regiment of the 10th Rifle Division and his battery was armed with the 76 mm divisional gun M1902 instead of the 122 mm howitzer M1910. On 17 August, Voronov received a concussion during a battle in the village of Józefów nad Wisłą. When he regained consciousness, he found that Polish troops had captured the village, the injured Voronov attempted to escape on a horse, but was captured. During his eight months of captivity, Voronov suffered from typhus and he was repatriated at the end of the war in April 1921. In the summer of 1922, Voronov was appointed commander of the battery of the 27th Rifle Division. In fall 1923 he attended the school of higher artillery commanders, during the 1926 maneuvers, Voronov distinguished himself commanding the artillery of the Belorussian Military District.
As a reward, he was granted permission to take the examination for the Frunze Military Academy. In 1930, Voronov graduated from the academy and he became the commander of the artillery regiment of the 1st Moscow Rifle Division. In August 1932, Voronov was sent to Italy as part of the Soviet mission there, in April 1934, he was appointed chief military Commissar of the 1st Artillery School
Lebedyn is a city in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. An air base is located nearby, in 1708 the city was a site of ethnic cleansing against Ukrainians during the Executions of Cossacks in Lebedin by the Russian Empire
Arthur Schmidt (soldier)
Arthur Schmidt was an officer in the German military from 1914 to 1943. He was a prisoner of war in the Soviet Union for twelve years, Schmidt joined the army as a one-year volunteer on 10 August 1914, attaining the rank of Leutnant on 8 May 1915. Schmidt held various positions in the Heer, including chief of operations in Fifth Army, on 25 October 1940 he served as chief of staff in 5th Army Corps, a position he held until 25 March 1942, when he moved to the Führerreserve at Oberkommando des Heeres. On 26 January 1942 he was awarded the German Cross in Gold, the British historian and author Antony Beevor offers the following description of Schmidt, a slim, sharp-featured and sharp-tongued staff officer from a Hamburg mercantile family. Schmidt, confident of his own abilities, put many backs up within Sixth Army headquarters, Paulus relied greatly on his judgement, and as a result he played a large, some say an excessive, role in determining the course of events that year. Many false reports of the massing of Soviet forces were received from the Romanian sector and Schmidt realised that Sixth Army was encircled on 21 November.
At Nizhne-Chirskaya on 22 November, Schmidt told 8th Air Corpss commander, General Martin Fiebig and he was told that The Luftwaffe doesnt have enough aircraft. Later that day and Paulus held a conference attended by General Hermann Hoth and Major-General Pickert and he re-emphasised that before Sixth Army could break out to the south, We must have fuel and ammunition delivered by the Luftwaffe. When told that this was impossible, he replied that more than 10,000 wounded and that would be a Napoleonic ending. All the while, Paulus remained silent, the time he spoke during the conference was to agree with his chief of staff. On the afternoon of 22 November, Schmidt flew with Paulus to the new Sixth Army HQ at Gumrak and that evening the Soviet encirclement of Axis forces was confirmed in a signal Paulus sent to Hitler. Schmidt contacted his corps commanders and, in defiance of Hitlers order to stand firm and Schmidt started planning for the breakout that evening, despite receiving another message from Hitler that they must stand firm and await relief.
However, on 24 November Sixth Army received a further Führer order relayed from Army Group B and we reacted to this order with astonishment, since we had expected some sort of discussion with the Army Group, and were fairly certain of the breakout. Paulus and I came separately to the same conclusion and it now seemed more impossible than ever to act against an order of the High Command or Army Group. This decision to stand firm in a hedgehog defence sealed Sixth Armys fate, interrogation of captured German officers led Soviet commanders to realise that, because of the toll of events on Pauluss nerves, Schmidt was the real commander of the defending forces. According to Beevor, were convinced that Paulus was virtually a prisoner in his own headquarters. Dyatlenko had no doubt that Schmidt was the eyes and hand of the Nazi Party in the Sixth Army, because captured officers reported that Schmidt was commanding the Army and these characteristics of Paulus and Schmidt would prove fatal to the trapped garrison of Stalingrad.
The envoys were even fired on, Paulus denied that he had ordered this, according to Pois and Langer, chief of staff, Arthur Schmidt, a committed National Socialist to the end, seemed to represent Hitler for Paulus, probably was Hitler at Stalingrad
Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Polands Defence Minister. Rokossovsky was born in Warsaw, part of Congress Poland under Russian rule and his family had moved to Warsaw following the appointment of his father as the inspector of the Warsaw Railways. The Rokossovsky family were members of the Polish nobility, and over generations had produced many cavalry officers, Konstantins father, Ksawery Wojciech Rokossowski, was a railway official in the Russian empire and his Belarusian mother Antonina Ovsyannikova was a teacher. Orphaned at 14, Rokossovsky earned a living by working in a stocking factory, in 1911, he became an apprentice stonemason. Much in his life, the government of Peoples Republic of Poland used this fact for propaganda and he was wounded twice during the war and awarded the Cross of St George. In 1917, he joined the Bolshevik Party and soon thereafter, Rokossovsky received Soviet Russias highest military decoration at the time, the Order of the Red Banner.
In 1921 he commanded the 35th Independent Cavalry Regiment stationed in Irkutsk and played an important role in bringing Damdin Sükhbaatar, Rokossovsky was again wounded, this time in the leg. The combined Mongol and Soviet forces soon thereafter captured Ulaanbaatar and it was in Mongolia that he met his wife Julia Barminan, a high school teacher who was fluent in four languages and who had studied Greek mythology, whom he married in 1923. Their daughter Ariadna was born in 1925, in 1924 and 1925 he attended the Leningrad Higher Cavalry School, where he first met Georgy Zhukov. He returned to Mongolia, where he was a trainer for the Mongolian Peoples Army, both became principal actors in his life during World War II, where he served directly under both at different times. Often demonstrates initiative and skillfully applies it, demanding and persistent in his demands. A somewhat ungracious and not sufficiently sympathetic person, broadly experienced as a military leader. Absolutely cannot be used in staff or teaching jobs because constitutionally he hates them, Rokossovsky was among the first to realize the potential of armoured assault.
He was a supporter of the creation of a strong armoured corps for the Red Army. Rokossovsky held senior commands until August 1937 when he caught up in Joseph Stalins Great Purge. Tchaikovsky who, like Rokossovsky, served in the far east in the early 1930s and he described Rokossovskys refusal to sign a false confession, Those who refused to sign a false statement were beaten up, as long as the false statement was not signed. There were steadfast people who stubbornly did not sign, K. K. Rokossovsky, as he sat with me in the same cell did not sign a false statement. But he was a brave and strong man and broad-shouldered, but my grandfather knew very well that Yushkevich died in Perekop
Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach
Walther Kurt von Seydlitz-Kurzbach was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Seydlitz-Kurzbach was relieved of his command in early 1943 and abandoned the German army lines under German fire to surrender to the Red Army. He became a Soviet collaborator while a prisoner of war, after the war he was convicted by the Soviet Union of war crimes. In 1996, he was pardoned by Russia. Seydlitz-Kurzbach was born in Hamburg, into the noble Prussian Seydlitz family, during World War I he served on both fronts as an officer. During the Weimar Republic, he remained an officer in the Reichswehr. The corps was subordinated to the Sixth Army during the Battle of Stalingrad, on 25 January 1943, he told his subordinate officers that they were free to decide for themselves on whether to surrender. Paulus immediately relieved him of command of his three divisions, a few days later, Seydlitz fled the German lines under fire from his own side with a group of other officers.
He was taken into Soviet custody, where he was interrogated by Captain Nikolay Dyatlenko and he was identified by the interrogations as a potential collaborator. In August 1943, he was taken two other Generals to a political re-education center at Lunovo. A month later, he was sent back to prisoner of war camps to recruit other German officers. He was a leader in the forming under Soviet supervision of an anti-Nazi organization and he was condemned by many of his fellow generals for his collaboration with the Soviet Union. He was sentenced to death in absentia by Hitlers government and his role in Soviet propaganda was largely equivalent to that of Andrey Vlasov in Nazi propaganda. In 1949 he was charged with war crimes and he was put on trial for responsibility for actions against Soviet POWs and the civilian population while in Wehrmacht service. In 1950, a Soviet tribunal sentenced him to 25 years’ imprisonment, but in 1955 he was released to West Germany, Seydlitz died on 28 April 1976 in Bremen.
On 23 April 1996 a posthumous pardon was issued by Russian authorities, Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves Knights Cross on 15 August 1940 as Generalmajor and commander of 12. Infanterie-Division Oak Leaves on 31 December 1941 as Generalmajor and commander of 12, infanterie-Division Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach in the German National Library catalogue
Stavka is the term used to refer to the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. It was used in Imperial Russia to refer to the administrative staff, in western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase, which is incorrect since the term is not an acronym. The term may be used to refer to its members, as well as to the headquarters location, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the beginning of World War I was Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. Appointed at the last minute in August 1914, he played no part in formulating the military plans in use at the beginning of the war, Nikolai Yanushkevich was his chief of staff. In the summer of 1915 the Tsar himself took personal command, in the years 1915–1917 Stavka was based in Mogilev and the Tsar, Nicholas II, spent long periods there as Commander-in-Chief. In August 1915, after the German advance, the Stavka re-located to Mogilev, very soon afterwards the deputy defence minister army Meretskov was arrested following the false charges by Beria and Merkulov.
Meretskov was subsequently released from the jail and on the day at the end of the first week of September 1941 was called for by Stalin. Stavka of the Main Command was reorganised into the Stavka of the Supreme Command on 10 July 1941 after Stalin was named Supreme Commander, on 8 August 1941 it was again reorganised into Stavka of the Supreme Main Command. On the same day Strategic Directions commands were instituted, a 17 February 1945 decree set out the membership of Stavka as Stalin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Aleksei Antonov, Nikolai Bulganin and Kuznetsov. Creation of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of USSR
Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace.
Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwelling
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943