Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910, after 1248, it was known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. The name is often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realms extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, the kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz. During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire, from 1580 to 1640, the kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain. After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the passed to the House of Braganza and after to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg.
From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major due to its most valuable colony. Portugal was an absolute monarchy before 1822. It rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a constitutional monarchy after 1834. The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal, the Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages, The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese internally, the second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso Is descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. Even after the change in houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another.
With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians, however a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. When returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I, with the death of the king and his heir, Carlos Is second son would become king as King Manuel II of Portugal. Manuels reign, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in England, on 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto. The monarchy would be deposed a month and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since, after centuries of Portuguese dominion in Angola, the Kingdom of Kongo was made a vassal state of the Portuguese kingdom, its king pledging allegiance to the King of Portugal
Diadem of the Stars
The Diadem of the Stars is a Diamond Tiara originally commissioned by Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy, who had a love for jewelry and fashion. It is a piece of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, the diadem was made in 1863 for the Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy, wife of King Luís I of Portugal. The tiara was fashioned in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler, Estêvão de Sousa, in Lisbon, Portugal. The tiara is just a piece of a set of jewelry that was commissioned by Maria Pia, which includes the Necklace of the Stars. The Diadem of the Stars was made in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler in Lisbon, commissioned in 1863, the tiara took three years before it was completed in 1866. It is fashioned out of gold and colourless and pink diamonds
The shield-shaped stone comprises two back-to-back crowns but lacks any semblance to a pavilion. The Sancys known history began circa 1570, several sources state it belonged to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. After Charles died, in 1495 it passed to his cousin King Manuel I of Portugal, when Portugal was threatened to come under Spanish rule, claimant António, Prior of Crato fled the country with the bulk of the Portuguese Crown Jewels. He spent his life trying to get allies to regain the Portuguese throne in the French and English courts, other sources claim that the diamond was purchased in Constantinople by de Sancy. He was popular in the French Court and was French Ambassador to Turkey, something of a gem connoisseur, de Sancy used his knowledge to prosperous advantage. Henry III of France suffered from premature baldness and tried to conceal this fact by wearing a cap, as diamonds were becoming increasingly fashionable at the time, Henry arranged to borrow de Sancys diamond to decorate his cap.
Henry IV borrowed the stone, for the practical purpose of using it as security for financing an army. When the body was disinterred, the jewel was found in the mans stomach. De Sancy sold the diamond to James I about 1605 when it is thought the Sancy acquired its name and it was described in the Tower of Londons 1605 Inventory of Jewels as. one fayre dyamonde, cut in fawcetts, bought of Sauncy. James had it set into the Mirror of Great Britain, the Sancy was briefly possessed by the unfortunate Charles I and by his third son James II. Beleaguered after a defeat, James took shelter under Louis XIV of France. Facing destitution, James had no choice but to sell the Sancy to Cardinal Mazarin in 1657 for the sum of £25,000. The cardinal bequeathed the diamond to the king upon his death in 1661, the Sancy was thus domiciled in France but disappeared during the French Revolution when brigands raided the Garde Meuble. As well as the Sancy, other treasures stolen were the Regent diamond, the Sancys history is unknown from until 1828 when purchased by Prince Demidoff for £80,000.
It remained in the Demidov family collection until 1865 when sold to Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy and he sold it only a year later, creating another gap in its history. It reappeared in 1867, displayed at the Paris Exposition, carrying a price tag of one million francs, the Sancy next surfaced in 1906 when bought by William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor. The prominent Astor family possessed it for 72 years until the 4th Viscount Astor sold it to the Louvre for $1 million in 1978, the Sancy now rests in the Apollo Gallery, sharing attention with the likes of the Regent and the Hortensia. Burton, E. Legendary Gems or Gems That Made History, chilton Book Company, Radnor, PA Fowler, M. Hope, Adventures of a Diamond, p.100,151,321
Portuguese Crown Jewels
The Portuguese Crown Jewels were the pieces of jewelry and vestments worn by the Monarchs of Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Monarchy. Over the nine centuries of Portuguese history, the Portuguese Crown Jewels have lost, most of the current set of the Portuguese Crown Jewels are from the reigns of King João VI and King Luís I. By the reign of King Manuel I, Portugal had already a set of jewels. In early 1581 King António I fled to France after King Philip I was made the King of Portugal, António I took with him the Portuguese Crown Jewels, including many valuable diamonds. After several failed attempts to reclaim the Portuguese Crown, António I fell into poverty and his poverty led him to sell many of the remaining diamonds. From Maximilien, the diamond would finally go to join the French Crown Jewels, during the Portuguese Restoration War, João II of Braganza sold many of the Portuguese Crown Jewels to finance the war with Spain. Since then, Portuguese monarchs did not have a coronation but instead an acclamation, before the assumption of the Portuguese throne by the Philippine Dynasty, the Kings of Portugal used to be anointed and crowned in the Jeronimos Monastery in Lisbon.
In 1755 the Great Lisbon earthquake destroyed Lisbon and the Paço da Ribeira, with the destruction of the palace, innumerable pieces of the Portuguese Crown Jewels of the time were destroyed, lost, or stolen. While his court was in Rio de Janeiro, João VI had a new set of Portuguese Crown Jewels made. Constructed by the royal jewelers at the workshop of António Gomes da Silva, the pieces from this era are the majority of the current set of jewels. When Maria Pia of Savoy became Queen Consort of Portugal, King Luís I ordered many pieces of jewelry to be made, alongside this, he had a new royal mantle produced. When the Portuguese Royal Family was exiled, many of the jewels were taken with Queen Amélie of Orléans, in 2002 a large part of the Portuguese Crown Jewels were stolen from the Museon in The Hague, where they were on loan for an exhibition on European Crown Jewels. Following an investigation by the museum and Dutch authorities, the Dutch government paid a sum of six million euros to the Portuguese government for reparation, the Portuguese Crown Jewels are currently kept in a secured vault at the Ajuda National Palace, in Lisbon.
While the palace is a popular and important museum, the jewels are not open to the public. The crown jewels are now seen at special events concerning them or the palace specifically. Though the Portuguese Crown Jewels have had a history, theft. The current set of crown jewels includes numerous pieces of jewelry, gems and other regalia, but most notably, The Crown of João VI is an imperial format crown. A unique feature of the crown is that it is composed only of gold and red velvet
The Portuguese Diamond is a large octagonal-cut diamond known for its flawlessness and clarity. Under ultraviolet light the stone gives out a strong fluorescence, under daylight or artificial light, it exudes a soft fluorescence and a bluish haze. The name The Portuguese Diamond was given by Harry Winston, who acquired it from dancer Peggy Hopkins Joyce, noted for her many marriages and he in turn arranged a 1963 trade with its current owner, the Smithsonian Institution, for 3,800 carats of smaller diamonds. According to one of the legends, the diamond was mined in Brazil in the century and became part of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, however. The stone was first documented as being owned by Black, Peggy Hopkins Joyce, a Ziegfeld Follies dancer noted for her marriages and affairs with wealthy men, acquired it in February 1928, for a $350,000 pearl necklace and $23,000 in cash. She had it mounted on a short platinum choker, Harry Winston bought the diamond from Joyce in 1951 and added it to his Court of Jewels.
In 1963, he traded it to the Smithsonian Institution in exchange for 3,800 carats of smaller diamonds
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². Its urban area extends beyond the administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people. About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and it is continental Europes westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. Lisbon is recognised as a city because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade, education. It is one of the economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector. Humberto Delgado Airport serves over 20 million passengers annually, as of 2015, and the motorway network, the city is the 7th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Istanbul, Barcelona, Madrid and Milan, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any region in Portugal.
Its GDP amounts to 96.3 billion USD and thus $32,434 per capita, the city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, in 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbons status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, the typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C.
Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbons name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela and it was referred to as Olisippo by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population and this indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects
Maria Pia of Savoy
Dona Maria Pia of Savoy was a Portuguese Queen consort, spouse of King Luís I of Portugal. On the day of her baptism, Pope Pius IX, her godfather, Maria Pia was married to Luís on the 6 October 1862 in Lisbon. She was the mistress of the Order of Saint Isabel. Maria Pia was the daughter of Victor Emmanuel II, the first King of Italy and her sister Maria Clotilde was the princesse Napoléon as wife of Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte and her brothers were King Umberto I of Italy and King Amadeo of Spain. As Queen, Maria Pia was considered by some as extravagant and she was known by the Portuguese people as an angel of charity and mother of the poor for her compassion and work on social causes. At a masquerade ball in 1865, she changed her costume three times, when the Portuguese parliament discussed her expenses, she replied saying if you want a Queen, you have to pay for her. As Queen, she was responsible for the interiors of the Ajuda Royal Palace in Lisbon. Maria Pia did not involve herself in politics, but at a conflict with João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira Daun, 1st Duke of Saldanha in 1870, she stated, If I were the king, King Luís died on 19 October 1889 and Maria Pia became Queen Dowager.
She remained very active and continued with her projects while holding a dominating position at court. She served as regent during the absence of the king and queen abroad, during her last years in Portugal, she withdrew from the public eye. She was deeply saddened after the coup that deposed her remaining grandson. Maria Pia left Portugal with the rest of the family on board the royal yacht into exile in 1910. She returned to her native Italy, where she died on 5 July 1911 and her remains are interred in the royal mausoleum in the Basilica of Superga, near Turin, with most members of the House of Savoy since the 18th century