South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the State of Vietnam, the term South Vietnam became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts. The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president and its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and eighty-seven other nations. It had membership in several committees of the United Nations. After the Second World War, the Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, in 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, after Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, there was a series of short-lived military governments. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country from 1967 until 1975, the Vietnam War began in 1959 with an uprising by Viet Cong forces armed and controlled by Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Fighting reached a climax during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 1.5 million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U. S. soldiers in South Vietnam. Despite a peace treaty concluded in January 1973, fighting continued until the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong armies overran Saigon on 30 April 1975, the creation of this republic, during the Indochina War, allowed France to evade a promise to recognise Vietnam as independent. This pre-Vietnam government prepared for a unified Vietnamese state, but the countrys full reunification was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchinas legal status, Nguyễn Văn Xuân 1949–55 State of Vietnam. Roughly 60% of Vietnamese territory was controlled by the communist Việt Minh. Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th parallel in 1954, once highly lauded by America, he was ousted and assassinated in a U. S. -backed coup. In 1963–65, there were numerous coups and short-lived governments, several of which were headed by Dương Văn Minh or Nguyễn Khánh, Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ was the top leader in 1965–67.
Surrendered to Communists when others abandoned their posts, 1975–76 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. Huỳnh Tấn Phát Before World War II, the third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina. Between Tonkin in the north and Cochinchina in the south was the protectorate of Annam, Cochinchina had been annexed by France in 1862 and even elected a deputy to the French National Assembly. It was more evolved, and French interests were stronger than in parts of Indochina. During World War II, Indochina was administered by Vichy France, japanese troops overthrew the French administration on 9 March 1945, Emperor Bảo Đại proclaimed Vietnam independent
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank. Commander is used as a rank or title in other formal organisations, Commander is a generic term for an officer commanding any armed forces unit, for example platoon commander, brigade commander and squadron commander. In the police, terms such as commander and incident commander are used. Commander is a used in navies but is very rarely used as a rank in armies. In practice, these were usually unrated sloops-of-war of no more than 20 guns, the Royal Navy shortened master and commander to commander in 1794, the term master and commander remained in common parlance for several years. The equivalent American rank master commandant remained in use changed to commander in 1838. A corresponding rank in some navies is frigate captain, in the 20th and 21st centuries, the rank has been assigned the NATO rank code of OF-4. Various functions of commanding officers were styled Commandeur, in the navy of the Dutch Republic, anyone who commanded a ship or a fleet without having an appropriate rank to do so, could be called a Commandeur.
This included ad hoc fleet Commanders and acting Captains, in the fleet of the Admiralty of Zealand however, commandeur was a formal rank, the equivalent of Schout-bij-nacht in the other Dutch admiralties. The Dutch use of the title as a rank lives on in the Royal Netherlands Navy, in the Royal Netherlands Air Force, this rank is known by the English spelling of Commodore which is the Dutch equivalent of the British Air Commodore. The rank of commander in the Royal Australian Navy is identical in description to that of a commander in the British Royal Navy, RAN chaplains who are in Division 1,2 and 3 have the equivalent rank standing of commanders. This means that to officers and NCOs below the rank of commander, or wing commander, the chaplain is a superior. To those officers ranked higher than commander, the chaplain is subordinate, although this equivalency exists, RAN chaplains who are in Division 1,2 and 3 do not actually wear the rank of commander, and they hold no command privilege.
In France, the rank of commander exists as capitaine de frégate and it is senior to capitaine de corvette, and junior to capitaine de vaisseau. The rank of commander was used in the Imperial Japanese Navy, though the modern rank is translated as commander in English, its literal translation is captain second rank. The rank is equivalent to that of a commander in the U. S. Navy, Commander is a rank in the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem, and is denoted by the post-nominal letters CLJ. The corresponding rank in the Polish Navy is komandor porucznik, in the Russian Navy the equivalent rank to commander is captain of the second rank. The rank was introduced in Russia by Peter the Great in 1722, from the introduction of the Russian Table of Ranks to its abolition in 1917, captain of the second rank was equal to a court councillor, at the sixth level out of 14 ranks
Haile Selassie I,23 July 1892 –27 August 1975), born Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael, was Ethiopias regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974. He served as Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 25 May 1963 to 17 July 1964 and 5 November 1966 to 11 September 1967 and he was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty. At the League of Nations in 1936, the emperor condemned the use of weapons by Italy against his people during the Second Italo–Ethiopian War. His regime was criticized by rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch, as autocratic. Among the Rastafari movement, whose followers are estimated at two and four million, Haile Selassie is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible. Beginning in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafari movement perceives Haile Selassie as a figure who will lead a future golden age of eternal peace, righteousness. Haile Selassie was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian throughout his life and he is a defining figure in Ethiopian history. Haile Selassie died on 27 August 1975 at the age of 83, Haile Selassie was known as a child as Lij Tafari Makonnen.
Lij is translated as child, and serves to indicate that a youth is of noble blood and his given name, means one who is respected or feared. Like most Ethiopians, his personal name Tafari is followed by that of his father Makonnen and his Geez name Haile Selassie was given to him at his infant baptism and adopted again as part of his regnal name in 1930. As Governor of Harer, he known as Ras Teferi Makonnen listen. Ras is translated as head and is a rank of nobility equivalent to Duke, in 1916, Empress Zewditu I appointed him to the position of Balemulu Siltan Enderase. In 1928, she granted him the throne of Shoa, elevating his title to Negus or King, on 2 November 1930, after the death of Empress Zewditu, Ras Tafari was crowned Negusa Nagast, literally King of Kings, rendered in English as Emperor. Upon his ascension, he took as his regnal name Haile Selassie I, Haile means in Geez Power of and Selassie means trinity—therefore Haile Selassie roughly translates to Power of the Trinity. Haile Selassies full title in office was By the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings of Ethiopia, Elect of God.
This title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace their lineage to Menelik I, who was the offspring of King Solomon, to Ethiopians, Haile Selassie has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu Meri, and Abba Tekel. The Rastafari movement employs many of these appellations, referring to him as Jah, Jah Jah, Jah Rastafari, Haile Selassies royal line originated from the Amhara people, but he had Oromo, and Gurage roots. He was born on 23 July 1892, in the village of Ejersa Goro and his mother was Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abba Jifar, daughter of the renowned Oromo ruler of Wollo province Dejazmach Ali Abba Jifar
Alfredo M. Santos
General Alfredo Manapat Santos was Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in 1962 to 1965, making him the first four-star general of the Philippines armed forces. Engineer turned soldier, General Alfredo M. Santos is one of the most notable Freedom Fighters of the Philippines with a war record. His outstanding achievements proved his selfless dedication to the service of his country and people and he is well known for his physical and moral courage, and keen sense of fairness, justice and integrity. He spearheaded programs for reserved officers and integrees to gain merits, Alfredo M. Santos was born in Santa Cruz, Philippines on July 13,1905 to Fructoso L. Santos and Agatona J. Manapat, and was seventh among fourteen children. His secondary education was acquired in Manila North High school and he graduated at Mapúa Institute of Technology with a degree in Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering in 1931. On the same year, He passed the Board examination and he showed interest in the military when he graduated on the top of his ROTC class at the University of the Philippines as a cadet colonel and Corps Commander in 1929.
He continued this interest after schooling, General Santos military career started when he was appointed probationary Third Lieutenant on June 8,1936, after five years of civil engineering practice. He entered the Reserve Officer Service School at Camp Henry T. Allen in Baguio City and he graduated at the top of his class, and twenty years after, he was honored as its Most Distinguished Alumnus. Two days after, he was decorated with the United States Armys Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in combat in Bataan, the Philippine Government awarded him the equivalent Distinguished Conduct Star and Gold Cross for the same combat action. On January 25,1942, a superior Japanese Army force launched an attack southward from a line along Pilar-Bagac Road. For four days, hundreds of Japanese troops tried to break through lines and he led a counter-attack against the strong and numerically superior Japanese forces positioned between the MLR and the Regimental Reserve Line. The fighting began at dawn of January 29,1942, with dogged determination, the defenders fought assiduously and without pause against all odds to restore the defensive sector assigned to the 1st Regular Division.
Major Santos was ordered to surrender his unit to the Imperial Japanese Forces which he reluctantly did on April 12,1942 and he became a prisoner-of-war and was one of the captives in the Death March to Camp ODonnell at Capas, Tarlac. He was released from the camp on August 10,1942. During the Japanese occupation from December 1942 to January 1945, he joined the Filipino-American Irregular Troops under Col. Hugh I, straughn as Chief of the Intelligence Division of the North Section in Manila, with the rank of Colonel. He fought with the American and Filipino soldiers in the liberation of Manila from February to March 1945 and he returned to military control at the end of the liberation campaign that year and was assigned at Camp Murphy as Camp Inspector of the 2nd Camp Complement. It was a decision which was very difficult to make. At that time, the position was appointive, rather than elective, the province of Cotabato was in turmoil
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines. The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers. There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe.
It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank. Many countries actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major, confusion arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major. Originally the serjeant major was, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general, the distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was eventually dropped from both titles, creating the modern rank titles
Military Merit Medal (Vietnam)
The Republic of Vietnam Military Merit Medal was the highest military decoration bestowed to enlisted personnel by South Vietnam during the years of the Vietnam War. The medal was established on August 15,1950, the Military Merit Medal was modelled after the French Médaille Militaire and was awarded mostly to Enlisted Men for valor in combat. The Vietnamese National Order of Vietnam was considered the equivalent decoration for military officers, the United States military authorized the Military Merit Medal as a foreign decoration and permitted the medal to be worn on U. S. uniforms by enlisted personnel. A high number Military Merit Medals were issued posthumously as the medal was most often awarded to United States servicemen who were killed in action. The Military Merit Medal was last issued to U. S. personnel in 1973 and was discontinued after the fall of South Vietnam in 1975, the decoration is now only available through private dealers in military insignia. The Military Merit Medal is awarded or awarded posthumously to Non-Commissioned Officers and Enlisted Men in the Armed Forces, --Been wounded once or many times in combat.
--Distinguished themselves by their heroic actions, --Served in an honorable manner for at least 13 years. The Military Merit Medal may be awarded or posthumously awarded to Allied Non-Commissioned Officers, with a ready zeal and commendable responsibility, they fought on to the end in every mission and set a brilliant example for their fellow soldiers. They died in the performance of duty, behind them they leave the abiding grief of their former comrades-in-arms, Vietnamese as well as American. Many posthumous awards of the Military Merit Medal to American servicemen included the Vietnamese Gallantry Cross with Palm, Military awards and decorations of South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam and Decorations of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces--South Vietnam--1967. Military Orders and Medals of the Republic of Vietnam
Army of the Republic of Vietnam
It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties during the Vietnam War. After the fall of Saigon to the invading North Vietnamese Army, the VNA fought in joint operations with the French Unions French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the communist Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a range of campaigns including but not limited to the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Atlas. Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA quickly became a modern army modelled after the Expeditionary Corps and it included infantry, signals, armored cavalry, airforce, navy and a national military academy. After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam, Laos, in 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên. On October 26,1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on December 30,1955.
The air force was known as the Vietnamese Air Force, early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front, formed to oppose the Diệm administration. The United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors, in 1963 Ngô Đình Diệm was killed in a coup détat carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, during these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant. They were plagued by continuing problems of corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was highly critical of the ARVN, it continued to be entirely US-armed and funded. S, there were many circumstances in which Vietnamese families had members on both sides of the conflict. Slowly, ARVN began to expand from its role to become the primary ground defense against the NLF.
From 1969 to 1971 there were about 22,000 ARVN combat deaths per year, starting in 1968, South Vietnam began calling up every available man for service in the ARVN, reaching a strength of one million soldiers by 1972. In 1970 they performed well in the Cambodian Incursion and were executing three times as many operations as they had during the American war period. However, the ARVN equipment continued to be of lower standards than their American and South Korean allies, the officer corps was still the biggest problem. Leaders were too often poorly trained, lacking morale, forced to carry the burden left by the Americans, the South Vietnamese Army actually started to perform rather well, though with continued American air support. In 1972, General Võ Nguyên Giáp launched the Easter Offensive, the assault combined infantry wave assaults and the first massive use of armored forces by the PAVN. Although T-54 tanks proved vulnerable to LAW rockets, the ARVN took heavy losses, the PAVN and NLF forces took Quảng Trị Province and some areas along the Laos and Cambodian borders
He served as Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, the second-highest ranking officer in the Army, and as Supreme Allied Commander Europe commanding all U. S. and NATO forces in Europe. A veteran of the Korean War and Vietnam War, Haig was a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, the Silver Star with oak leaf cluster, and the Purple Heart. Haig was born in Bala Cynwyd, the middle of three children of Alexander Meigs Haig Sr. a Republican lawyer, and his wife Regina Anne, when Haig was 10, his father, aged 38, died of cancer. His Irish-American mother raised her children in the Roman Catholic faith, enrolled in an accelerated wartime curriculum that deemphasized the humanities and social sciences, Haig graduated in the bottom third of his class in 1947. Haig earned a Master of Business Administration degree from Columbia Business School in 1955 and his thesis examined the role of military officers in making national policy. As a young officer, Haig served as an aide to Lieutenant General Alonzo Patrick Fox, in the early days of the Korean War, Haig was responsible for maintaining General MacArthurs situation map and briefing MacArthur each evening on the days battlefield events.
Haig served with the X Corps, as aide to MacArthurs Chief of Staff, General Edward Almond, Haig participated in four Korean War campaigns, including the Battle of Inchon, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, and the evacuation of Hŭngnam, as Almonds aide. Haig served as a officer in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations at the Pentagon. He was appointed Military Assistant to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, in 1966, Haig took command of a battalion of the 1st Infantry Division in Vietnam. During the battle, Haigs troops became pinned down by a Viet Cong force that outnumbered U. S. forces by three to one, in an attempt to survey the battlefield, Haig boarded a helicopter and flew to the point of contact. His helicopter was shot down. Two days of bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued, the next day a barrage of 400 rounds was fired by the Viet Cong, but it was ineffective because of the warning and preparations by Colonel Haig. As the barrage subsided, a three times larger than his began a series of human wave assaults on the camp.
Heedless of the danger himself, Colonel Haig repeatedly braved hostile fire to survey the battlefield. His personal courage and determination, and his employment of every defense and support tactic possible. Although his force was outnumbered three to one, Colonel Haig succeeded in inflicting 592 casualties on the Viet Cong, HQ US Army, General Orders No. During this time he was promoted to Brigadier General and Major General, in this position, Haig helped South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu negotiate the final cease-fire talks in 1972. Haig continued in this position until 1973, when he was appointed to be Vice Chief of Staff of the Army
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Officier, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses.
The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted.
This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time