Dongcheng District, Beijing
The Dongcheng District of Beijing covers the eastern half of Beijings urban core, the Old City. The districts population was 535,558 as of Chinas 2000 Census, settlement in the area dates back over a millennium. It did not formally become a district of the city until the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911. The name Dongcheng was first given to it in a 1958 reorganization, Dongcheng includes many of Beijings major cultural attractions, such as the Forbidden City and Temple of Heaven, both UNESCO World Heritage Sites. More than a quarter of the citys Major National Historical and Cultural Sites are inside its boundaries, over three-quarters of the districts economic activity is in the service sector. Dongcheng is often described, and depicted on simplified maps, as the half of the area inside the 2nd Ring Road. However, the boundaries include some areas outside it as well, particularly on the north. In the former direction a small projection crosses the 3rd Ring Road, the 2010 merger with Chongwen added some land beyond the Ring Road on the south.
At Wenzhin Street it turns eastward to follow Jingshan Front Street between the Forbidden City and Jingshan Park and it resumes its northward course along Jingshan East Street, turning west along Jingshan Back Street, thus leaving all of Jingshan in the Xicheng District to the west. At Dianmen Inner Street it turns again, following the east-west line that formally divided Beijing in the mid-15th century. At the streets end, the edge of Rendinghu Park, it follows the edge to the northeast. The boundary turns east at Huangsi Street, following the property lines of buildings on the north side. It crosses the street again a block east of Gulou Outer Street, from the parks northeastern corner it goes due east to Andingmen Outer Street, where it turns north. It continues north across the 3rd Ring Road for a kilometer to Jianan East Road and this is the districts northernmost section, now bordering on the Chaoyang District. After 500 m, it zigzags south and west again along local streets to Shenggu Middle Road, there it turns south and crosses the Ring Road again, continuing on Xiaohangzhuang North Street.
Another zigzag takes it along Xiaohangzhuang and Qingniangou roads to Heipingli East Street, at Jiaolin Alley it turns south again, following another irregular path through the neighborhoods here to just east of Minwang Hutong. At the river paralleling the Second Ring Road on its north, it turns east briefly to follow that, a short section detours north to take in some of the buildings on the north side of Xiangheyuan Road, after which it returns to what is now Xiangheyuan North Street. Turning southeast along Zuojiazhuang West Street, the turns to follow the north bank of the Landmark River eastward at the Chunxiu Road intersection
The Capital Museum is an art museum in Beijing, China. The Beijing Capital Museum today contains over 200,000 cultural relics in its collection, only a small fraction of the collection is exhibited, and a significant percentage of the museums art collection comprises artifacts unearthed in Beijing. The Capital Museum was established in 1981 with a collection of some 83,000 objects, list of museums in China Capital Museum website Capital Museum Gets Modern Look in Beijing This Month
Mausoleum of Mao Zedong
Although Mao had wished to be cremated, his body was embalmed and construction of a mausoleum began shortly after his death. This highly popular attraction is located in the middle of Tiananmen Square in Beijing and it stands on the previous site of the Gate of China, the southern gate of the Imperial City during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The remains of the Great Helmsman, as he is known, are on display for public viewing. The mausoleum was built soon after Maos death on September 9,1976, the groundbreaking ceremony took place November 24,1976, and the mausoleum was completed on May 24,1977. Hua Guofeng, who supervised the project, has his handwriting on the mausoleums sign. Water and sand from the Taiwan Straits were used to emphasize the Peoples Republic of Chinas claims over Taiwan. The mausoleum was closed for renovations for nine months in 1997 before reopening on January 6,1998, in the wake of the Sino-Soviet split, the Soviet process of embalming had to be learned through Vietnam and a crystal coffin for displaying the body had to be locally developed.
When the excavated quartz powder was processed, an issue arose from the fact that large pieces of quartz glass would require three years of gradual cooling to remove any internal stress. Xu Zhaocai, a technician of the 605th Factory, solved this problem by developing a technique of welding twenty square centimeter pieces into a larger two square meter plate. This was carried out by a technician named Shi Weicheng. The issue of illuminating the coffin was dealt with in a project, with Ren Fuguang as its manager. Optical engineer Wang Daheng was enlisted to devise the proper angles for the coffin, preventing any reflections and helping it maintain its structural integrity. The precision of the work meant the plates would not collapse, even without any adhesives or other methods of connection, nearly two dozen crystal coffins from all over China were there for the competition, including six from Shanghai and one from Sichuan. The design of the 608th factory, after being subject to various tests, was selected on the spot as Maos crystal coffin.
Mao Zedongs surviving family members visit the mausoleum biannually on Maos birthday. According to one of Maos granddaughters, Kong Dongmei, Maos third wife He Zizhen was initially banned from visiting the mausoleum and she was allowed to be photographed with her ex-husbands statue in the mausoleum by Lu Xiangyou, Maos personal photographer since the late 1950s. However, his own visit on September 8,1979, was barred from the book, by order of the Chinese government, in, Tilemann Grimm, Peter M. Kuhfus, Gudrun Wacker, Collected Papers of the XXIXth Congress of Chinese Studies. Satellite photo of the Mausoleum on Google Maps
Moshe Safdie, CC, FAIA is an Israeli/Canadian/American architect, urban designer, educator and author. He is most identified with Habitat 67, which paved the way for his international career, moshe Safdie was born in Haifa, Israel to a Syrian Jewish family. His family moved to Montreal, Canada, in 1953, in 1959, Safdie married Nina Nusynowicz. The couple had two children, a daughter and a son and his son Oren Safdie is a playwright who has written several plays about architecture including Private Jokes, Public Places. His daughter Taal is an architect in San Diego, a partner of the firm Safdie Rabines Architects, in 1961, Safdie graduated from McGill University with a degree in architecture. In 1981, Safdie married Michal Ronnen, a photographer, with whom he has two daughters and Yasmin, Carmelle Safdie is an artist, and Yasmin Safdie is a social worker. Safdie is the uncle of Dov Charney and former CEO of American Apparel, after apprenticing with Louis Kahn in Philadelphia, Safdie returned to Montreal to oversee the master plan for Expo 67.
In 1964, he established his own firm to undertake Habitat 67, Habitat 67, which pioneered the design and implementation of three-dimensional, prefabricated units for living, was a central feature of Expo 67 and an important development in architectural history. He was awarded the 1967 Construction Man of the Year Award from the Engineering News Record, in 1970, Safdie opened a branch office in Jerusalem. Among the projects he has designed in Jerusalem are Yad Vashem and the Alrov Mamilla Quarter, which includes the Mamilla Mall, Davids Village luxury condominiums, from 1984 to 1989, he was the Ian Woodner Professor of Architecture and Urban Design at Harvard. Moshe Safdies works are known for their dramatic curves, arrays of geometric patterns, use of windows and he said Safdie had studied Sikh religion for two years before designing the heritage museum. Safdie said he wanted the museum to look 300 years old and he thought he had succeeded in this objective. C. C. architravel. com/architravel/architects/safdie-architects/
The Beijing Planetarium is a national level natural science museum located in Beijing, China. The Planetarium comprises two buildings, Building A & B. Building A, which was built in 1957, contains the Celestial Theater, an Eastern Exhibition Hall and it was the first large-scale planetarium in China, and at one time the only planetarium in Asia. Building B contains a digital theater, 3D and 4D theaters, several exhibition halls
Watercolor or watercolour, aquarelle, a diminutive of the Latin for water, is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution. Watercolor refers to both the medium and the resulting artwork, the traditional and most common support—material to which the paint is applied—for watercolor paintings is paper. Other supports include papyrus, bark papers, vellum, or leather, wood, Watercolor paper is often made entirely or partially with cotton, which gives a good texture and minimizes distortion when wet. Watercolors are usually translucent, and appear luminous because the pigments are laid down in a form with few fillers obscuring the pigment colors. Watercolors can be made opaque by adding Chinese white, in East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, india and other countries have long watercolor painting traditions as well. Fingerpainting with watercolor paints originated in mainland China, its continuous history as an art medium begins with the Renaissance.
The German Northern Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer, who painted several fine botanical, wildlife, an important school of watercolor painting in Germany was led by Hans Bol as part of the Dürer Renaissance. Despite this early start, watercolors were used by Baroque easel painters only for sketches, copies or cartoons. Notable early practitioners of watercolor painting were Van Dyck, Claude Lorrain, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, botanical illustration and wildlife illustration perhaps form the oldest and most important traditions in watercolor painting. Botanical illustrations became popular during the Renaissance, both as hand-tinted woodblock illustrations in books or broadsheets and as tinted ink drawings on vellum or paper. Wildlife illustration reached its peak in the 19th century with such as John James Audubon. Several factors contributed to the spread of watercolor painting during the 18th century, Watercolor artists were commonly brought with the geological or archaeological expeditions, funded by the Society of Dilettanti, to document discoveries in the Mediterranean and the New World.
This example popularized watercolors as a form of personal tourist journal, the confluence of these cultural, scientific and amateur interests culminated in the celebration and promotion of watercolor as a distinctly English national art. William Blake published several books of hand-tinted engraved poetry, provided illustrations to Dantes Inferno, from the late 18th century through the 19th century, the market for printed books and domestic art contributed substantially to the growth of the medium. Satirical broadsides by Thomas Rowlandson, many published by Rudolph Ackermann, were extremely popular. Among the important and highly talented contemporaries of Turner and Girtin, were John Varley, John Sell Cotman, Anthony Copley Fielding, Samuel Palmer, William Havell, the Swiss painter Louis Ducros was widely known for his large format, romantic paintings in watercolor. These societies provided annual exhibitions and buyer referrals for many artists, in particular, the graceful and atmospheric watercolors by Richard Parkes Bonington created an international fad for watercolor painting, especially in England and France in the 1820s
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Monument to the People's Heroes
It is located in the southern part of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, to the north of Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. The architect of the monument was Liang Sicheng, with elements designed by his wife. The civil engineer, Chen Zhide was instrumental in realising the final product, the monument has served as the centre of large-scale mourning activities that developed into protest and unrest, such as the deaths of Premier Zhou Enlai and Hu Yaobang. The monument has an height of 37.94 metres. It weighs over 10,000 tonnes and contains about 17,000 pieces of marble and granite from Qingdao, Shandong Province, and the nearby Fangshan District. Eternal glory to the heroes of the people who laid down their lives in the war of liberation. The conduct of activities at the Monument to the Peoples Heroes is regulated by the Major Events Administration Office of the Tiananmen Area Administrative Committee. Strict rules apply to conduct within the vicinity of the monument, since the protests of 1989, the government has prohibited climbing the monument beyond the protective barrier without prior approval, as well as photography and filming.
Today, those intending to lay wreaths at the monument must apply five days in advance, certain domestic groups, such as police and military units, would sometimes lay wreaths at the monument. History of Beijing Satellite photo of the Monument
The Minzu Hotel, located in Xicheng District, Peoples Republic of China, is one of the Ten Great Buildings of Beijing. The Minzu Hotel is located on West Changan Avenue, having opening in 1959, it has hosted numerous foreign delegations, and is often used for press conferences. The 10-storey hotel has 507 rooms, list of hotels in Beijing Beijing portal Minzu Hotel
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China and that of overseas Chinese can be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage, early stone age art dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors. After contacts with Western art became increasingly important from the 19th century onwards, traditional Chinese painting involves essentially the same techniques as Chinese calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink, oils are not used. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of paper, the finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls. Traditional painting can be done on album sheets, lacquerware, folding screens, the two main techniques in Chinese painting are, Gong-bi, meaning meticulous, uses highly detailed brushstrokes that delimits details very precisely.
It is often coloured and usually depicts figural or narrative subjects. It is often practised by artists working for the court or in independent workshops. Bird-and-flower paintings were often in this style and this style is referred to as xie yi or freehand style. Artists from the Han to the Tang dynasties mainly painted the human figure, much of what is known of early Chinese figure painting comes from burial sites, where paintings were preserved on silk banners, lacquered objects, and tomb walls. Many early tomb paintings were meant to protect the dead or help their souls get to paradise, others illustrated the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, or showed scenes of daily life. Most Chinese portraits showed a formal full-length frontal view, and were used in the family in ancestor veneration, Imperial portraits were more flexible, but were generally not seen outside the court, and portraiture formed no part of Imperial propaganda, as in other cultures. Many critics consider landscape to be the highest form of Chinese painting, the time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period is known as the Great age of Chinese landscape.
In the south, Dong Yuan and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer and these two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting. Chinese ritual bronzes from the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties come from a period of over a thousand years from c,1500, and have exerted a continuing influence over Chinese art. They are cast with complex patterned and zoomorphic decoration, but avoid the human figure, smaller figures in pottery or wood were placed in tombs for many centuries afterwards, reaching a peak of quality in the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism is the context of all large portrait sculpture, in total contrast to other areas in medieval China even painted images of the emperor were regarded as private. Imperial tombs have spectacular avenues of approach lined with real and mythological animals on a scale matching Egypt, and smaller versions decorate temples and palaces
Laurent Fabius is a French Socialist politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 17 July 1984 to 20 March 1986. Fabius was 37 years old when he was appointed and is, so far, Fabius was President of the National Assembly from 1988 to 1992, and again from 1997 to 2000. Fabius served in the government as Minister of Finance from 2000 to 2002, Fabius was born in the wealthy 16th arrondissement of Paris, the son of Louise and André Fabius. He is the brother of Catherine Leterrier and François Fabius. Fabius parents were from Ashkenazi Jewish families, and converted to Catholicism and he has three sons, David with his partner Ch dIzarny Gargas and Victor with his spouse Francoise Castro. Fabiuss secondary education was at the Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Fabius was a graduate of institutions that are training grounds for academics, and senior civil servants and executives. After his studies, Fabius became an auditor for the Council of State, a member of the Socialist Party since 1974, Fabius was first elected to the National Assembly in 1978 for the fourth constituency of Seine-Maritime.
Fabius quickly gained entry to the circle of François Mitterrand, the leader of the party, when Mitterrand was elected as President of France in 1981, Fabius was nominated as Minister of the Budget. Two years later, Fabius became Minister of Industry, and pursued the policy of industrial restructuration, in 1984, a government shake up by Mitterrand led Fabius to be appointed as Prime Minister at the age of 37. Fabius advocated a new kind of French socialism, which accepted the market economy, the allowable income for recipients of the young child allowance was increased for families with three or more children. The Fabius Government sought to reduce penalties on families with working mothers by substantially increasing the income ceiling for dual-income families receiving the young child allowance. In 1985, as a means of upholding the rights of homosexuals, in November 1984, an allowance was introduced if the parent concerned had been employed for two or more years. Known as the “allocation parentale d’education, ” this allowance provided 1,000 francs per month for parents who decided to take two years of leave after the birth of their first child.
Payment was to continue after this period for 8 out of 10 families for a further 32 months on a means-tested basis, in effect, this created a benefit for the first child in lower income families. The government, reduced the daily maternity allowance from 90% to 84% of the basic wage, in June 1985, a law was passed allowing first offenders who had committed petty crimes to serve sentences of six months or less in public-service jobs. A July 1985 law tripled the amount of aid for victims of crimes, legislation was introduced that year to restrict the use of preventive detention, and ensure that the rights of suspects were better protected. A special 1985 holiday programme was introduced, directed particularly at young people outside the traditional circuits of organised leisure activities, the right to maternity leave was extended to the father, in the event of the death of the mother in child-birth. The father was entitled to leave and could claim an allowance under the maternity insurance scheme