Pampanga or Pampaŋga is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, Angeles City, while geographically within Pampanga, is classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city and is governed independently of the province. The name La Pampanga was given by the Spaniards, who encountered natives living along the banks of the Pampanga River and its creation in 1571 makes it the first Spanish province on Luzon Island. The town of Villa de Bacolor in the province served as the Spanish colonial capital when Great Britain invaded Manila as part of the Seven Years War. Pampanga is served by Clark International Airport, which is in Clark Freeport Zone, the province is home to two Philippine Air Force airbases, Basa Air Base in Floridablanca and the former United States Clark Air Base in Angeles City. By 2015, the province has 2,198,110 inhabitants, ancient Pampangas territorial area included portions of the modern provinces of Tarlac, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan.
Pampanga was re-organized as a province by the Spaniards on December 11,1571, due to excessive abuses committed by some encomenderos, King Philip II of Spain in 1574 prohibited the further awarding of private estates, but this decree was not fully enforced until 1620. The encomiendas of La Pampanga at that time had eighteen thousand six hundred, which is about 850 square miles in area and inhabited by more than 1.5 million people, had its present borders drawn in 1873. During the Spanish regime it was one of the richest Philippine provinces and its surrounding region were primarily dependent on Kapampangan agricultural and forestry products as well as on the supply of skilled workers. As other Luzon provinces were created due to increases in population, during the 17th century, The Dutch recruited men from Pampanga as mercenaries who served the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, known as Papangers part of the larger Mardijkers community. Their legacy can be found in North Jakarta, there are few traces of their descendants, except for a small community in Kampung Tugu.
The old Pampanga towns of Aliaga, Gapan, San Antonio, the municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo of Pampanga was yielded to the province of Bulacan in the same provincial boundary configuration in 1848. However, in 1873, the four towns were returned to Pampanga. On December 8,1941, Japanese planes bombed Clark Air Base marking the beginning of the invasion of Pampanga, between 1941 and 1942, occupying Japanese forces began entering Pampanga. The establishment of the general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from 1935 to 1946. The Philippine Constabulary was active from 1935 to 1942 and 1944 to 1946 in the province of Pampanga. S. military forces fight the Imperial Japanese armed forces. The June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo displaced a number of people with the submersion of whole towns. Pampanga covers a area of 2,002.20 square kilometres occupying the south-central section of the Central Luzon region
Cavite City, officially the City of Cavite, is a fourth class urban component city in the Province of Cavite, in the Philippines. The city was the capital of Cavite province from the establishment in 1614 until 1954. The city is classified as a first-class in terms of income classification, San Roque and La Caridad, two former independent towns of Cavite province, were added to form one municipality. There are several names attributed to present-day Cavite City and its early settlers, who were Tagalogs, called it Tangway, meaning peninsula. The name Cavite evolved from the word Kawit or Cauit meaning hook as people from other places refer to it, referring to the hook-shaped land along the coast of Bacoor Bay. It was mispronounced by the Spaniards as Kawite or Cavite there being no K in the Castillan alphabet, the Chinese traders or the Sangleys who came to Cavite to do business with the natives called it Keit, a corruption of the word Kawit. The early inhabitants of Cavite City were the Tagalogs ruled by the Kampilan and the bullhorn of a datu, according to folklore, the earliest settlers came from Borneo, led by Gat Hinigiw and his wife Dayang Kaliwanag who bore seven children.
Archaeological evidences in the coastal areas show prehistoric settlements, on May 16,1571 the Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi declared the region a royal encomienda, or royal land grant. Spanish colonizers settled in the most populated area of the place, the old Tangway at the tip of the Cavite Peninsula, across Bacoor Bay was referred to as Cavite la Punta meaning Point of Cavite or Cavite Point. In 1590, the Spaniards fortified Cavite Nuevo with a muralla on its western and eastern side while the side fronting Baccor Bay remained open. Fort Guadalupe on the easternmost tip was built at the same time. The Fort of San Felipe Neri and Porta Vaga gate were constructed in 1595, puerta Vaga was the port citys barbican western and only principal entrance from San Roque. It was flanked by the western wall protected by two bastions at its north and southern end, the wall and gate were separated from the mainland by a moat, which made the town like an island. Cavite was officially founded as a town in 1614 with Tomás Salazar as the earliest known gobernadorcillo recorded, at the same time, the town became the capital of the new politico-military province of Cavite, established in 1614.
Like some other provinces during the Spanish era, the province adapted the name of its capital town, San Roque was founded as a separate town in 1614. It was placed under the administration of Cavite Puerto until it was granted a right to be a separate. La Caridad, formerly known as La Estanzuela of San Roque, the Spanish Governor General Jose de la Gardana granted the petition of the people led by Don Justo Miranda to make barrio La Estanzuela an independent town. It was during times when it was called Tierra de Maria Santisima because of the popularity of the Marian devotion in this place
Tuguegarao, is a 3rd-class component city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Cagayan and the regional and institutional center of Cagayan Valley Region, the population of the city as of the 2015 census is 153,502 people. Most of the inhabitants are Ilocanos and Itawes, some are of Chinese and Indian descent. The highest temperature recorded in the Philippines --42.2 °C —was recorded in Tuguegarao on April 29,1912. Average temperature during March and April is 38 °C, one of the highest in the country, the city is politically subdivided into 49 barangays. 31 of these barangays have been classified by the city as urban, most of the rural barangays have agricultural territories, although some of the urbanized ones have mixed commercial and agricultural sites. There are several versions of legends looming about the origin of the name of the city of Tuguegarao, one is the abundance of tarrao trees in the area. Another is from the word meaning fire. Another recorded version is, the town was formerly called Tuerao by the people of the northern towns, still another is that the name Tuguegarao comes from two Ibanag words tuggi and aggao, possibly referring to a daytime fire that happened in the town.
The settlement was a small in terms of population but was big in territory, as a mission pueblo and with assigned encomendero to Tuguegarao, the inhabitants were made to pay taxes in the form of poultry products and other food products. Resentments flared and the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1605, the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1718 and 1761 under a leader named Rivera. The present chapel is the latest in a process of rebuilding started in 1724 when it was rebuilt by Fr. Bernabe de la Magdalena, O. P. Tuguegarao became the capital of Cagayan province in 1839 when the seat of power was relocated from Lal-lo. The decline of Lal-lo became the transformation of Tuguegarao as the most important town in Cagayan, Tuguegarao was occupied by American troops on December 12,1899. During World War II, the city and its airfield of some significance was captured by the Japanese Imperial Army on December 12,1941 as part of the Japanese invasion of Aparri. The General Headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary, the city and airfield were bombed by the US and Philippine regularly between January and May 1945, and attacked by Donald Blackburns guerrilla forces in June 1945.
Sitio Capatan was elevated into a barrio Capatan of Tuguegarao on April 3,1959, Tuguegarao was once the only first-class municipality in the province of Cagayan. It has served as the capital of Cagayan since 1839 because of the notable socio-economic progress of the town
George Catlett Marshall, Jr. was an American statesman and soldier. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army under presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman and he was hailed as the organizer of victory by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II. Born in Uniontown, Marshall was a 1901 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute, after serving briefly as commandant of students at the Danville Military Academy in Danville, Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February,1902. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, in 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J. Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department. After the United States entered World War I, Marshall served with Bell while Bell commanded the Department of the East. He was assigned to the staff of the 1st Division, and assisted with the mobilization and training in the United States. Subsequently assigned to the staff of the American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, after the war, Marshall was assigned as an aide-de-camp to John J.
Pershing, who was serving as the Armys Chief of Staff. He served on the Army staff, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, in 1927, he became assistant commandant of the Armys Infantry School, where he modernized command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. In 1932 and 1933 he commanded the 8th Infantry Regiment and Fort Screven, Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938, and received promotion to brigadier general. During this command, Marshall was responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps camps in Oregon, in July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff, and he was subsequently appointed as the Armys Deputy Chief of Staff. When Chief of Staff Malin Craig retired in 1939, Marshall became acting Chief of Staff and he served as Chief of Staff until the end of the war in 1945. As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U. S.
history, Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, a requirement for holders of five-star rank. As Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, Marshall received credit for the Marshall Plan for Europes post-war rebuilding, after resigning as Secretary of State, Marshall served as chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission and president of the American National Red Cross. After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia and he died in 1959 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. George Catlett Marshall, Jr. was born into a family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall, Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute, where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order in 1901. He was an All-Southern tackle for the VMI Keydets varsity football team in 1900, following graduation from VMI in 1901, Marshall sat for a competitive examination for a commission in the U. S.
Army. While awaiting the results he took the position of Commandant of Students at the Danville Military Institute in Danville, Marshall passed the exam and was commissioned a second lieutenant in February,1902
Philippine resistance against Japan
Fighting the guerrillas – apart from the Japanese regular forces – were a Japanese-formed Bureau of Constabulary and the Makapili. Postwar studies estimate that around 260,000 persons were organized under guerrilla groups, such was their effectiveness that by the end of World War II, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. Select units of the resistance would go on to be reorganized and equipped as units of the Philippine Army, the United States Government officially granted payments and benefits to various ethnicites who have fought with the Allies by the wars end. However, only the Filipinos were excluded from such benefits, some 277 separate guerrilla units made up of 260,715 individuals were officially recognized as having fought in the resistance movement. The Attack on Pearl Harbor was a military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack was intended as an action in order to keep the U. S.
Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against the territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands. Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese operations to invade the Philippines began,43 planes bombed Tuguegarao and Baguio in the first preemptive strike in Luzon. By January 2, Manila was under Japanese control and by January 9, by April 9, the remaining of the combined Filipino-American force was forced to retire from Bataan to Corregidor. Meanwhile, Japanese invasions of Cebu and Panay were successful, by May 7, after the last of the Japanese attacks on Corregidor, General Jonathan M. Wainwright announced through a radio broadcast in Manila the surrender of the Philippines. Following Wainwright was General William F. Sharp, who surrendered Visayas, All told, approximately 2, 500–10,000 Filipino and 300–650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp ODonnell. After Bataan and Corregidor, many who escaped the Japanese reorganized in the mountains as guerrillas still loyal to the U. S.
Army Forces Far East, one example would be the unit of Ramon Magsaysay in Zambales, which first served as a supply and intelligence unit. After the surrender in May 1942, Magsaysay and his unit formed a force which grew to a 10. Another was the Hunters ROTC which operated in the Southern Luzon area and it was created upon dissolution of the Philippine Military Academy in the beginning days of the war. Cadet Terry Adivoso, refused to go home as cadets were ordered to do. This force would be instrumental, providing intelligence to the forces led by General Douglas MacArthur. The Hunters originally conducted operations with another group called Markings Guerrillas. Led by Miguel Ver, a PMA cadet, the Hunters raided the enemy-occupied Union College in Manila and seized 130 Enfield rifles
Also based here were the 12th Ordnance Company and a platoon of the 12th Quartermaster Regiment. Fort Stotsenburg is situated at Barrio Sapang Bato in Angeles City and is approximately 80 km north of Manila and this was one of the locations where, under the National Defense Act of 1935, field artillery training was conducted. C.1917, Fort Stotsenburg was home to the 1st Philippine Artillery Regiment, by October 1902, American forces had established more or less permanent quarters near the Angeles railroad station in an area of the town known as Talimundoc. The rumor is that cavalry foragers had come across a fertile plain further to the north, the U. S. cavalry forces had encountered problems caused by the fact that their horses became sick and often died after eating Philippine sawgrass. By the latter part of 1902, plans were under consideration to relocate the American military reservation to this area near the barrio of Sapang Bato, the preliminary survey dates from 1902. In the following year, President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order, the entrance pillars to Fort Stotsenburg were originally located on what is now known as Dau Highway.
During the Japanese occupation of Clark Air Base from 1942 to 1945 and they were unearthed intact in the vicinity of the old Base Operations Building in 1965. Following their discovery, the pillars were relocated near the Consolidated Base Personnel Office. In 1984, as part of a plan to highlight the bases long history. Because putting them at their original site would have placed them in an area which possessed low visibility, special crews and a giant crane rented from a company in Manila moved the posts in what turned out to be an all-day affair. Quite a number of onlookers viewed the move and cheered as the last post was dropped into its new position, the post flagpole has always been in its present location in front of Building 2122 with the original flagstaff constructed on September 16,1906 at a cost of $220. It was the location for reveille at 6 a. m. a cannon was fired at 5 p. m. for retreat ceremonies, and taps was sounded at 10 p. m. In accordance with the provisions of the Military Bases Agreement as revised in 1979, the camp gymnasium was completed in 1912 and this building has been used for many purposes over the years, including Post Exchange and Charlie Corns Canteen.
It last housed the offices of the Thirteenth Air Force Chief of Staff for Operations and Intelligence and the 6200th Tactical Fighter Training Group. In the early decades of Fort Stotsenburgs history, it housed Charlie Corns canteen and restaurant in the basement, the post exchange on the first floor, following the American recapture of Clark in February 1945, it served as the Fifth Air Force Headquarters building. Years of renovation and modification have all but disguised the original structure, the first building on this site was made of nipa and bamboo in 1902 and served as post headquarters. In 1906, it was rebuilt of lumber and roofed with tarpaper and it was reconstructed of concrete in 1912 and, for a time, housed a bowling alley. Throughout most of its history, this served as the office of post commanders and their executive officers
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack, known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, led to the United States entry into World War II. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U. S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions they planned in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Over the next seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S. -held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya, the attack commenced at 7,48 a. m. The base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese fighter planes, all eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but the USS Arizona were raised, and six were returned to service, the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, and one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed,2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded.
Important base installations such as the station, maintenance. Japanese losses were light,29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, one Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. The surprise attack came as a shock to the American people. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan, the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Germany and Italy. Domestic support for non-interventionism, which had been fading since the Fall of France in 1940, Roosevelt to proclaim December 7,1941, a date which will live in infamy. Because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, over the next decade, Japan continued to expand into China, leading to all-out war between those countries in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China and achieve sufficient resource independence to attain victory on the mainland, from December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, and the Nanking Massacre swung public opinion in the West sharply against Japan.
Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, the United Kingdom, in 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to control supplies reaching China. The United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, and aviation gasoline to Japan, an invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with a 40 and this was opposed by Douglas MacArthur, who felt that he would need a force ten times that size, and was never implemented. By 1941, U. S. planners anticipated abandonment of the Philippines at the outbreak of war and orders to that effect were given in late 1941 to Admiral Thomas Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet
The Axis powers, known as the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied Powers. The Axis agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity, the Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936, Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term Axis. The almost simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, Italy joined the Pact in 1937. At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied parts of Europe, North Africa. There were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, the war ended in 1945 with the defeat of the Axis powers and the dissolution of their alliance. As in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, at the time he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume.
The term was used by Hungarys prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany, when Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis. Italy under Duce Benito Mussolini had pursued an alliance of Italy with Germany against France since the early 1920s. He believed that Italy could expand its influence in Europe by allying with Germany against France, in early 1923, as a goodwill gesture to Germany, Italy secretly delivered weapons for the German Army, which had faced major disarmament under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. General Hans von Seeckt supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland between them and restore the German-Russian border of 1914. The discussions concluded that Germans still wanted a war of revenge against France but were short on weapons, however at this time Mussolini stressed one important condition that Italy must pursue in an alliance with Germany, that Italy must.
Tow them, not be towed by them, the French government warned Italy that it had to choose whether to be on the side of the pro-Versailles powers or that of the anti-Versailles revanchists. Grandi responded that Italy would be willing to offer France support against Germany if France gave Italy its mandate over Cameroon, France refused Italys proposed exchange for support, as it believed Italys demands were unacceptable and the threat from Germany was not yet immediate. In 1932, Gyula Gömbös and the Party of National Unity rose to power in Hungary, Gömbös sought to alter Hungarys post–Treaty of Trianon borders by forming an alliance with Austria and Italy, knowing that Hungary alone was not capable of challenging the Little Entente powers. At the meeting between Gömbös and Mussolini in Rome on 10 November 1932, the question came up of the sovereignty of Austria in relation to the rise to power in Germany of the Nazi Party. Mussolini was worried about Nazi ambitions towards Austria, and indicated that at least in the term he was committed to maintaining Austria as a sovereign state.
Italy had concerns over a Germany which included Austria laying land claims to German-populated territories of the South Tyrol within Italy, Mussolini said he hoped the Anschluss could be postponed as long as possible until the breakout of a European war that he estimated would begin in 1938
The Dutch Empire comprised the overseas colonies and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies and subsequently, the Dutch Republic and the modern Netherlands. This was reflective of the fact that the network of the Dutch Empire was commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over a homogeneous landmass. The companies brief domination of global commerce contributed greatly to a commercial revolution, in their search for new trade passages between Asia and Europe Dutch navigators explored and charted vast regions such as New Zealand and parts of the eastern coast of North America. Shortly after reaching its zenith, the Dutch Empire began to decline as a result of the Anglo-Dutch Wars, in which it lost many of its colonial possessions and trade monopolies to the British Empire. Nevertheless, some portions of the empire survived until the advent of global decolonisation following World War II, namely the East Indies, three former colonial territories—Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten—are retained as constituent countries within the Netherlands.
In 1566, a Protestant Dutch revolt broke out against rule by Roman Catholic Spain, led by William of Orange, independence was declared in the 1581 Act of Abjuration. The revolt resulted in the establishment of an de facto independent Protestant republic in the north by Treaty of Antwerp, the coastal provinces of Holland and Zeeland had for centuries prior to Spanish rule been important hubs of the European maritime trade network. Their geographical location provided convenient access to the markets of France, Germany, efficient access to capital enabled the Dutch in the 1580s to extend their trade routes beyond northern Europe to new markets in the Mediterranean and the Levant. In the 1590s, Dutch ships began to trade with Brazil and the Dutch Gold Coast of Africa, and towards the Indian Ocean, by attacking Portuguese overseas possessions, the Dutch forced Spain to divert financial and military resources away from its attempt to quell Dutch independence. Thus began the several decade-long Dutch-Portuguese War, in 1594, the Compagnie van Verre was founded in Amsterdam, with the aim of sending two fleets to the spice islands of Maluku.
The first fleet sailed in 1596 and returned in 1597 with a cargo of pepper, the second voyage, returned its investors a 400% profit. The success of these led to the founding of a number of companies competing for the trade. The competition was counterproductive to the interests as it threatened to drive up the price of spices at their source in Indonesia whilst driving them down in Europe. As a result of the caused by inter-company rivalry, the Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602. The directors of the company, the Heeren XVII, were given the authority to establish fortresses and strongholds, to sign treaties. The company itself was founded as a joint stock company, similarly to its English rival that had founded two years earlier, the English East India Company. The Spanish-Dutch War was for the Dutch part of their struggle for independence and religious freedom, the Netherlands became part of the domains of the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty when Emperor Charles V divided the holdings of the Habsburg Empire following his abdication in 1555.
From 1517, the port of Lisbon in Portugal was the main European market for products from India that was attended by other nations to purchase their needs
Tarlac is a landlocked province located in the Central Luzon region in the Philippines. It is bounded on the north by the province of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija on the east, Zambales on the west, the province comprises three congressional districts and is subdivided into 17 municipalities and one city, Tarlac City, which is the provincial capital. The province is situated in the heartland of Luzon, in what is known as the Central Plain covering the provinces of Region III, Tarlac covers a total land area of 305,345 hectares. Tarlac is the most multi-cultural of the provinces in the region for having a mixture of four distinct groups and it is known for its fine food and vast sugar and rice plantations in Central Luzon. Tarlacs name is a Hispanized derivation from a talahib weed called Malatarlak, Tarlac was originally divided into two parts, the southern division belonging to Pampanga and the northern division belonging to Pangasinan. It was the last province in Central Luzon to be organized under the Spanish colonial administration in 1874, during the Philippine Revolution of 1896, Tarlac was among the first eight provinces to rise against Spain, alongside neighbouring Pampanga.
It became the new seat of the first Philippine Republic in March 1899 when General Emilio Aguinaldo abandoned the capital, Malolos. This lasted only for a month before the seat was moved to Nueva Ecija in Aguinaldos attempt to elude the pursuing Americans, on October 23,1899, Gregorio Aglipay, military vicar general of the revolutionary forces, called the Filipino clergy to a conference in Paniqui. There, they drafted the constitution of the Philippine Independent Church and they called for the Filipinization of the clergy, which eventually led to a separation from the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. Tarlac was captured by American forces on November 1899, a civil government was established in the province in 1901. During World War II, Camp ODonnell in Capas became the point of the infamous Bataan Death March of Filipino. Many prisoners died of hunger, disease and/or execution, in early 1945, combined American and Filipino military forces with the recognized Aringay Command guerillas liberated Camp ODonnell.
The raid in Capas resulted in the rescue of American, recently, the Philippine Army has used Crow Valley in the borders of Barangay Patling and Santa Lucia in Capas, Tarlac as a testing ground for both Philippine forces and allies. Many of the Philippine military testings were done on March 17,2006 most likely as a part of Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines, the province covers a total area of 3,053.60 square kilometres. Approximately 75% of the province is plains while the rest is hilly to mountainous, eastern Tarlac is a plain, while Western Tarlac is hilly to mountainous. Because of this, the province includes a portion of mountains like Mt. Telakawa, located at Capas. Mt. Bueno, Mt. Mor-Asia and Mt. Canouman are located in Capas as well as Mt. Dalin, the other mountains are Mt. Dueg and Mt. Maasin, found in the municipality of San Clemente. Also noted are Mt. Damas of Camiling, there are a total of 511 barangays comprising the province
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina was a Filipino statesman and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the entire Philippines, Quezon was a Spanish Filipino, with both his parents being Filipino mestizos. Quezon was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through an election. During his presidency, Quezon tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside and he established a government-in-exile in the U. S. with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion. It was during his exile in the U. S. that he died of tuberculosis at Saranac Lake and he was buried in the Arlington National Cemetery until the end of World War II, when his remains were moved to Manila. His final resting place is the Quezon Memorial Circle, President Benigno Aquino III, and María Zeneida Quezon Avanceña, who is 94 years old and the daughter of the former President, were duly informed about this recognition.
Quezon, was born in Baler in the district of El Príncipe and his parents were Lucio Quezon and María Dolores Molina, both of whom were Spanish-Mestizos with distant ethnic Tagalog origins. His father was a grade school teacher from Paco, Manila. Quezon started life in a province of the Philippines as the son of a rice farmer. He went from governor of his local Tayabas region to president of the country in 10 years and he was influential in revising a key law that gave Filipinos a majority in the Philippine Commission and negotiated the Jones Act that allowed Filipinos to be self-legislating. He boarded at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran where he completed secondary school, in 1899, Quezon cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Tomás in Manila to participate in the struggle for independence against the United States, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. During the Philippine–American War he was an Aide-de-camp to Emilio Aguinaldo and he rose to the rank of Major and fought in the Bataan sector.
However, after surrendering in 1900 wherein he made his first break in the American press, Quezon returned to the university and passed the bar examinations in 1903, achieving fourth place. He worked for a time as a clerk and surveyor, entering government service as an appointed fiscal for Mindoro and he became a councilor and was elected governor of Tayabas in 1906 after a hard-fought election. Manuel Quezon was a personality who dominated the political scene. His active involvement in the destiny of his country was felt both in the Philippines and the United States. From 1909 to 1916, he served as one of the Philippines two resident commissioners to the U. S. House of Representatives, lobbying for the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law. He headed the first Independent Mission to the U. S. Congress in 1919, building a long-term friendship with American Lieutenant Douglas MacArthur was vital to many of his achievements
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943