Order of the Crown of Italy
The Order of the Crown of Italy was founded as a national order in 1868 by King Vittorio Emanuele II, to commemorate the unification of Italy in 1861. It was awarded in five degrees for civilian and military merit, the order has been suppressed by law since the foundation of the Republic in 1946. However, Umberto II did not abdicate his position as fons honorum, following the demise of the last reigning monarch in 1983, the order, founded by the first, is no longer bestowed. It was replaced by the Order of Merit of Savoy instituted by his heir, while the Ordine al merito dSavoia has never been a national order, it is subsidiary to the Civil Order of Savoy which was. The Order of Merit has around 2,000 members and, as with the Order of the Crown of Italy previously, it is entrusted to the Chancellor of the Order of Saints Maurice, the obverse central disc featured the Iron Crown of Lombardy on a blue enamel background. The reverse central disc had an eagle bearing the Savoy cross on a golden background.
There was an eagle bearing the Savoy cross above the star. The star of the Grand Officer was an eight-pointed faceted silver star with ball tips at each point, the ribbon of the order was red-white-red. Major General Robert A. McClure, father of U. S, united States Navy sea power advocate. List of Italian orders of knighthood Dynastic Orders of Knighthood Order of the Star of Italy Ordini dinastici della Real Casa di Savoia
Monarchy of Italy
King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a military leader, in the late 5th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, the last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, although Napoleon I used the title from 1805 to 1814, it was not until the Unification of Italy in the 1860s that a Kingdom of Italy was restored. From 1861 the House of Savoy held the title as monarchs of the peninsula until the last King of Italy, Umberto II. After the deposition of the last Western Emperor in 476, Heruli leader Odoacer was appointed Dux Italiae by the reigning Byzantine Emperor Zeno. Later, the Germanic foederati, the Scirians and the Heruli, as well as a segment of the Italic Roman army. In 493, the Ostrogothic king Theoderic the Great killed Odoacer, Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire in 552.
In the 8th century, estrangement between the Italians and the Byzantines allowed the Lombards to capture the remaining Roman enclaves in northern Italy. However, in 774, they were defeated by the Franks under Charlemagne, after the death of Charles III the Fat in 887, Italy fell into instability and a number of kings attempted to establish themselves as independent Italian monarchs. During this period, known as the Feudal Anarchy, the title Rex Italicorum was introduced, after the breakup of the Frankish empire, Otto I added Italy to the Holy Roman Empire and continued the use of the title Rex Italicorum. The last to use this title was Henry II, subsequent emperors used the title king of Italy until Charles V. At first they were crowned in Pavia, Milan, in 1805, Napoleon I was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy at the Milan Cathedral. The next year, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated his imperial title, from the deposition of Napoleon I until the Italian Unification, there was no Italian monarch claiming the overarching title.
The Risorgimento successfully established a dynasty, the House of Savoy, over the peninsula, uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia. The monarchy was superseded by the Italian Republic, after a referendum was held on 2 June 1946 after the World War II. The Italian monarchy formally ended on 12 June of that year, Guy of Spoleto opponent of Berengar, ruled most of Italy but was deposed by Arnulf. Lambert of Spoleto subking of his father Guy before 894, reduced to Spoleto 894–895, Arnulf of Carinthia Ratold In 896, Arnulf and Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar and Lambert, Berengar I seized Lamberts portion upon the latters death in 898
Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood, originating in Savoy. It eventually was the pinnacle of the system in the Kingdom of Italy. Today, the order continues as an order under the jurisdiction of the Head of the House of Savoy, Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples. The origins of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation begins in 1362, even at this time, the order was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, who is celebrated as Our Lady of the Annunciation. Thus, the order is a religious order of chivalry. Under its first formulation, the order had fifteen knights, the number was symbolic of the number of daily masses celebrated with the order. In 1409, Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy, gave the order its first known statutes, Amadeus VIIIs statutes were subsequently amended and reformed by Charles III, Duke of Savoy in 1518, by Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Savoy in 1570, and thereafter by succeeding Sovereigns. The most recent took place on 11 June 1985 by HRH Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples and it was in 1518, that many of the present designations were instituted.
Most importantly, the name was changed to its current name. The badge of the order was changed, with the representation of the Blessed Virgin Mary being added. The order, throughout its history and following the reforms of Charles III, was awarded for supreme recognition of distinguished services. Today, the order holds the other regulations, The number of knights of the Supreme Order of the most Holy Annunciation shall be, as in the past. The right to appoint knights and officers of the Order appertains exclusively to the Sovereign Head, when there are vacancies, the Sovereign Head meets with the Chapter of knights to hear their advice on the proposal of candidates whom he alone may select. Knights must have already been awarded the Order of Saints Maurice, in rare occasions, a non-Catholic may be awarded the order. However, they may only be members of the order. The order has one class, i. e. Knight. The full Italian title is Cavaliere dellOrdine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata, although the order has only one class, it has two sets of insignia, the Piccola Collana and the Grande Collana.
The two hold similar designs, though the Grande Collana has some different features than the Piccola Collana and is only on the most special of occasions
Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia
Victor Emmanuel I was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia. Victor Emmanuel was the son of King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain, daughter of King Philip V of Spain. Victor Emmanuel was known from birth as the Duke of Aosta, from 1792 to 1796, Aostas father had taken an active part in the struggle of the old powers against the revolutionary forces in France but was defeated and forced to make peace. Charles Emmanuel and his family were forced to withdraw to Sardinia, Aosta took the throne on 4 June 1802 as Victor Emmanuel I. He ruled Sardinia from Cagliari for the twelve years, during which time he constituted the Carabinieri. Victor Emmanuel could return to Turin only in 1814, his realm reconstituted by the Congress of Vienna, the latter became the seat of the Sardinian Navy. After the outbreak of the revolution in his lands in 1821, he abdicated in favor of his brother. Victor Emanuel died in the Castle of Moncalieri and is buried in the Basilica of Superga, on 21 April 1789, he married Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria-Este, daughter of Ferdinand, Duke of Modena
Constitution of Italy
The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended 15 times, was promulgated in the edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale No.298 on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, the Constitution came into force on 1 January 1948, one century after the Statuto Albertino had been enacted. Although the latter remained in force after Benito Mussolinis March on Rome in 1922, wherever an Italian died to redeem freedom and dignity, go there young people and ponder, because that was where our Constitution was born. All the different political and social views of the Assembly contributed in shaping and influencing the final text of the Constitution and this has been repeatedly described as the constitutional compromise, and all the parties that shaped the Constitution were referred to as the arco costituzionale. These members came from all walks of life, including politicians and partisans and it is important to note that the Constitution primarily contains general principles, it is not possible to apply them directly.
As with many written constitutions, only few articles are considered to be self-executing, the majority require enabling legislation, referred to as accomplishment of constitution. This process has taken decades and some contend that, due to political considerations. While the Principles recognise a central government and the integrity of the State, they recognise and promote local autonomies. They promote scientific and cultural development, and safeguard the environmental, the State and the Church are recognised as independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere. In fact, the treaty was modified by a new agreement between church and state in 1984. The last of the Principles establishes the Italian tricolour as the Flag of Italy, green and red, articles 13–28 are the Italian equivalent of a bill of rights in common law jurisdictions. Every citizen is free to travel, both outside and inside the territory of the Republic, with restrictions granted only for eventual health, citizens have the right to freely assemble, both in private and public places and unarmed.
Notifications to the authorities is required only for meetings on public lands. The Constitution recognises the freedom of association, within the limits of criminal law, secret associations and organisations having military character are forbidden. Freedom of expression and religion are guaranteed in public places, for example, hate speech and obscenity in the public sphere are considered criminal offences by the Italian Criminal Code. Every citizen is protected from persecution and cannot be subjected to personal or financial burden outside of the law. The right to a trial is guaranteed, with everyone having the right to protect their rights regardless of their economic status
History of the Italian Republic
This situation changed due to an external shock – the crisis and Dissolution of the Soviet Union – and an internal one – the Tangentopoli corruption scandal and operation Mani pulite. Although ousted after a few months of government, Berlusconi became one of Italys most important political and economic figures for the next two decades. After leading the Opposition to the Dini, Prodi I, DAlema I, DAlema II and he eventually lost the 2006 general election five years to Romano Prodi and his Union coalition but won the 2008 general election and returned to power in June 2008. In November 2011, Berlusconi lost his majority in the Chamber of Deputies and his successor, Mario Monti formed a new government, composed by technicians and supported by both the center-left and the center-right parties. After the 2013 election resulted in a parliament, in April the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On 22 February 2014, after tensions in the Democratic Party, mussolini was killed by resistance fighters in April 1945.
Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated on 9 May 1946, his son king as Umberto II of Italy. A Constitutional Referendum was held on 2 June 1946, republicans won, and the monarchy was abolished. The Kingdom of Italy was no more, the House of Savoy, the Italian royal family, was exiled. Victor Emmanuel left for Egypt where he died in 1947, who had been king for only a month, moved to Portugal. A Constituent Assembly was in place between June 1946 and January 1948, it wrote the new Constitution of Italy which took effect on January 1,1948, the Peace Treaty between Italy and the Allies of World War II was signed in Paris in February 1947. The PSI and the PCI received some posts in a Christian Democrat–led coalition cabinet. PCI’s leader Palmiro Togliatti was minister of Justice, since the PSI and the PCI together received more votes than the Christian Democrats, they decided to unite in 1948 to form the Popular Democratic Front. The 1948 general elections were influenced by the flaring cold-war confrontation between the Soviet Union and the US.
In response, on March 1948 the United States National Security Council issued its first document proffering recommendations to avoid such an outcome which were widely and energetically implemented, ten million letters were sent by mostly Italian Americans urging Italians not to vote communist. US agencies made numerous short-wave propaganda radio broadcasts and funded the publishing of books and articles, the CIA funded the centre-right political parties and was accused of publishing forged letters in order to discredit the leaders of the PCI. The PCI itself was accused of being funded by Moscow and the Cominform, for almost four decades, Italian elections were successively won by the Democrazia Cristiana centrist party. Italy lost its colonial Empire, except Somalia, which formed the object of a UN trusteeship mandate, in the same years, Italy became a founding member of the ECSC and of the European Economic Community, developed into the European Union
Order of Merit for Labour
It is a continuation of the earlier Ordine al Merito Agrario, Industriale e Commerciale founded in 1901. Members of the order may use the title Cavaliere del lavoro, the origins of the order lie with King Umberto I who, in 1898, instituted a decoration for agricultural and industrial merit and a medal of honour. The first was the prerogative of large landowners and industrialists. Awarded in the degree of Knight, the order is open to all Italians, living at home. Every year, on 1 June,25 new Knights of Labour are invested from a shortlist of 40 candidates, the related Star of Merit for Labour, established in 1923, confers the title of Maestro del Lavoro. The order is bestowed by decree of the President of the Italian Republic, its head since 1952, on the recommendation of the Minister of Economic Development. The badge bears the inscription Al merito del lavoro—1901, the V. E. monogram formerly at the centre of the Greek cross, now substituted for the national coat of arms. In 1977, the four-time President of the Council of Ministers, Cav.
Silvio Berlusconi, was appointed to the order by the sixth President of Republic and he renounced the title after he was found guilty of tax fraud. List of Italian orders of knighthood Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Presidenza della Repubblica - Le Onorificenze Ordini dinastici della Real Casa di Savoia
Silver Medal of Military Valor
The Silver Medal of Military Valor is an Italian medal for gallantry. Italian medals for valor were first instituted by Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia on 21 May 1793, with a medal, below it. These were intended for officers or common soldiers who had distinguished themselves in combat. These medals fell into disuse during the period of Napoleonic domination, according to royal decree no.753 of 24 May 1915, the number of times one individual could receive a medal for valor was limited to three, after which a promotion was foreseen. This limit was abolished with royal decree no.975 of 15 June 1922, during World War I, the medal was awarded to military personnel, units above the level of company and civilians for exceptional valor in the face of the enemy. During World War I, the medal was given out some 38,614 times for acts of heroism. Thus, the Italian Silver Medal for Military Valor is equivalent in frequency and prestige to the British Military Cross, italo Balbo William George Barker VC Carlo Emanuele Buscaglia Federico Cafiero Mark W