Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Jean reigned as Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1964 until his abdication in 2000. He is the father of the current ruler, Grand Duke Henri, Jean was born on 5 January 1921, at Berg Castle, in central Luxembourg, the son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and of Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma. Among his godparents was Pope Benedict XV, who gave him his second name and he attended primary school in Luxembourg, where he continued the initial stage of secondary education. He completed secondary school at Ampleforth College, a Roman Catholic boarding school in the United Kingdom, upon reaching maturity, on 5 January 1938, he was styled Hereditary Grand Duke, recognising his status as heir apparent. On 10 May 1940, Germany invaded Luxembourg, beginning a four-year occupation, having been warned of an imminent invasion, the Grand Ducal Family escaped the previous night. At first, they sought refuge in Paris, before fleeing France only weeks later, the Grand Ducal Family sought refuge in the United States, renting an estate in Brookville, New York.
Jean studied Law and Political Science at Université Laval, Quebec City and he joined the British Army as a volunteer in the Irish Guards in November 1942. After receiving officer training at the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, Jean was commissioned as a Lieutenant in July 1943 and he landed in Normandy on 11 June 1944, and took part in the Battle for Caen and the liberation of Brussels. On 10 September 1944, he took part in the liberation of Luxembourg before moving on to Arnhem and the invasion of Germany. After the war, from 1984 until his abdication, he served as Colonel of the Regiment of the Irish Guards and he was named Lieutenant-Representative of the Grand Duchess on 28 April 1961. He became Grand Duke when his mother, the Grand Duchess Charlotte, the same day, he was made a General of the Luxembourg Army. Grand Duke Jean abdicated on 7 October 2000, and was succeeded on the throne by his son Henri, Grand Duke Jean now lives at Fischbach Castle. On 27 December 2016, Grand Duke Jean was hospitalized due to bronchitis and was discharged from hospital on 4 January 2017, the Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art bears his name.
He was married in Luxembourg on 9 April 1953 to Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, daughter of Léopold III, King of the Belgians. They had three sons and two daughters, Princess Marie-Astrid, Grand Duke Henri, who ascended to the ducal throne in 2000, Prince Jean, Princess Margaretha. Many of the titles are held without regard to the rules of salic inheritance. Jean renounced the titles of the House of Bourbon-Parma for himself and his family in 1986 when his eldest son and it is not known if the marriage of Prince Guillaume was seen by Carlos Hugo as equal. The Arrêté Grand-Ducal of 21 September 1995 established that the title of Prince/Princesse de Luxembourg is reserved for the children of the sovereign and the heir to the throne
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e. g. as a result of the Sovereigns incapacity or absence. Regents Park, Regent Street and Regents Canal in London were all named in honour of him. Nash, under the patronage of the HRH Prince Regent, planned a palatial summer residence for the Prince,50 detached villas in a parkland setting and elegant terraces around the exterior of the park. This was all part of a plan, to develop The Regents Park and lay out an elegant new street, Regents Street, to link it to St Jamess Park. This period is known as the British Regency, or just the Regency, the title was conferred by the Regency Act on February 5,1811. Subject to certain limitations for a period, the Prince Regent was able to exercise the powers of the King. The precedent of the Regency Crisis of 1788 was followed, the Prince of Wales continued as regent until his fathers death in 1820, when he became George IV. The years of Luitpolds regency were marked by artistic and cultural activity in Bavaria.
Numerous streets in Bavarian cities and towns are called Prinzregentenstraße, many institutions are named in Luitpolds honour, e. g. the Prinzregententheater in Munich. Prinzregententorte is a cake with chocolate butter cream named in Luitpolds honour. At Luitpolds death in 1912, his son Prince Ludwig succeeded as Prince Regent, Ludwig held the title for less than a year, since the Bavarian Legislature decided to recognise him as king. Prince Charles of Belgium served as Prince Regent of Belgium from 1944 to 1950 during the German captivity and exile to Switzerland of his elder brother, King Leopold III of Belgium. On 5 September 1944 the Soviet Union declared war on the Kingdom of Bulgaria and on 8 September Soviet armies crossed the Romanian border, in the Kingdom of Swaziland, queen mothers have temporarily stepped in when the sovereign was either a minor or unable to reign for other reasons. More prince-regents are to be found in List of regents, crown Prince Frederick of Denmark served as regent from 1784 to 1808 for his father, King Christian VII of Denmark, who was insane.
Prince William of Prussia served as regent from 1858 to 1861 for his older brother King Frederick William IV of Prussia, who had become mentally unfit to rule. Prince Dorgon of the early Qing dynasty served as regent for his nephew, Dorgon was instrumental in moving Manchu forces into Beijing in 1644, proclaiming the Qing dynasty to be the legitimate successor to the Ming dynasty. In Qing dynasty historical records, Dorgon was the first to be referred to as Shezhengwang, rameses The Great Prince Chun of the late Qing dynasty served as regent from 1908 to 1911 for his son Puyi, the Xuantong Emperor. Apart from Dorgon, Zaifeng was the person in Chinese history who was specifically referred to as Prince Regent
Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, in 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era, born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was an officer of the First World War, wounded several times. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions, during the German invasion of May 1940, he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders, he was appointed Under-Secretary for War. Refusing to accept his governments armistice with Nazi Germany, de Gaulle exhorted the French population to resist occupation and he led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the leader of the French resistance.
He became Head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the RPF party. He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, when the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a presidency. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies and he restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations, De Gaulle openly criticised the US intervention in Vietnam and the exorbitant privilege of the US dollar. In his years, his support for an independent Quebec, De Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralization.
He died a year at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his Presidential memoirs unfinished, many French political parties and figures claim the Gaullist legacy. De Gaulle was ranked as Le Plus Grand Français de tous les temps, De Gaulle was born in the industrial region of Lille in the Nord departement, the third of five children. He was raised in a devoutly Catholic and traditional family and his father, Henri de Gaulle, was a professor of history and literature at a Jesuit college who eventually founded his own school. Henri de Gaulle came from a line of parliamentary gentry from Normandy and Burgundy. De Gaulles mother, descended from a family of entrepreneurs from Lille
He saw action in the First World War as a junior officer of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. At Méteren, near the Belgian border at Bailleul, he was shot through the lung by a sniper. He returned to the Western Front as a staff officer. He took part in the Battle of Passchendaele in late 1917 before finishing the war as chief of staff of the 47th Division. During the Second World War he commanded the British Eighth Army from August 1942 in the Western Desert until the final Allied victory in Tunisia in May 1943 and this command included the Second Battle of El Alamein, a turning point in the Western Desert Campaign. He subsequently commanded the British Eighth Army during the Allied invasion of Sicily and he was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord from the initial landings until after the Battle of Normandy. He continued in command of the 21st Army Group for the rest of the campaign in North West Europe, as such he was the principal field commander for the failed airborne attempt to bridge the Rhine at Arnhem, and the Allied Rhine crossing.
On 4 May 1945 he took the German surrender at Lüneburg Heath in Northern Germany, after the war he became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army of the Rhine in Germany and Chief of the Imperial General Staff. He served as Deputy Supreme Commander of NATO in Europe until his retirement in 1958. Montgomery was born in Kennington, Surrey, in 1887, the child of nine, to an Ulster-Scots Church of Ireland minister, The Reverend Henry Montgomery. The Montgomerys, an Ascendancy gentry family, were the County Donegal branch of the Clan Montgomery and he was probably a descendant of Colonel Alexander Montgomery. Bernards mother, was the daughter of The V, rev. Frederic William Canon Farrar, the famous preacher, and was eighteen years younger than her husband. After the death of Sir Robert Montgomery, Henry inherited the Montgomery ancestral estate of New Park in Moville in Inishowen in Ulster. There was still £13,000 to pay on a mortgage, a debt in the 1880s. Despite selling off all the farms that were at Ballynally, there was enough to keep up New Park.
It was a relief of some magnitude when, in 1889, Henry was made Bishop of Tasmania, still a British colony. Bishop Montgomery considered it his duty to spend as much time as possible in the areas of Tasmania and was away for up to six months at a time. While he was away, his wife, still in her mid-twenties, gave her children constant beatings, of Bernards siblings, Sibyl died prematurely in Tasmania, and Harold and Una all emigrated
Field marshal (United Kingdom)
Field marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to an admiral of the fleet in the Royal Navy or a marshal of the Royal Air Force in the Royal Air Force. A field marshals insignia consists of two crossed batons surrounded by yellow leaves below St Edwards Crown. As with marshals of the RAF and admirals of the fleet in their services, field marshals remain officers of the British Army for life. The rank has been used throughout its history and was vacant through parts of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After the Second World War, it became practice to appoint the Chief of the Imperial General Staff to the rank on his last day in the post. Army officers occupying the post of Chief of the Defence Staff, in total,141 men have held the rank of field marshal. The majority led careers in the British Army or the British Indian Army, some members of the British Royal Family—most recently Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, and Charles, Prince of Wales—were promoted to the rank after shorter periods of service.
Other ceremonial appointments were made as diplomatic gestures, twelve foreign monarchs held the honour, though three were stripped of it when their countries became enemies of Britain and her allies in the two world wars. Also awarded the rank were two distinguished foreign military officers, honoured for their contributions to World War I and World War II respectively, and one foreign statesman. A report commissioned by the Ministry of Defence in 1995 made a number of recommendations for financial savings in the forces budget. The recommendation was not taken up in full, but the convention of promoting service chiefs to five-star ranks was stopped, Sir Peter Inge was, in 1994, the last active officer to be promoted to the rank. Inge relinquished the post of Chief of the Defence Staff in 1997 and his successor, at the same time, who relinquished the post of CDS and retired from active service in 2001, was promoted to honorary field marshal. In June 2014 former Chief of the Defence Staff Lord Walker of Aldringham was promoted to field marshal.
The rank insignia of a marshal in the British Army comprises two crossed batons in a wreath of oak leaves, with a crown above. On appointment, British field marshals are awarded a gold-tipped baton which they may carry on formal occasions, the vast majority of officers to hold the rank of field marshal were professional soldiers in the British Army, though eleven served as officers in the British Indian Army. At least fifty-seven field marshals were wounded in battle earlier in their careers, of whom 24 were wounded more than once, and eight had been prisoners of war. Fifteen future field marshals were present at the Battle of Vitoria, where the Duke of Wellington earned the rank, and ten others served under Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo
Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
The Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a distinguished honorary order of Luxembourg. It was instituted on January 23,1961 by Grand Duchess Charlotte, Grand Master of the order is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Besides the five classes, a gilt medal can be bestowed, knight Josy Linkels, painter Fernand Roda, painter Jean-Claude Schlim Marianne Majerus, Anglo-Luxembourgish photographer. Marie-Joseé Stark Le Mémorial 13 du 14.04.1961, Arrêté grand-ducal du 23 janvier 1961 portant institution de lOrdre de Mérite du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
General of the Army (United States)
General of the Army is a five-star general officer and the second highest possible rank in the United States Army. A General of the Army ranks immediately above a general and is equivalent to a fleet admiral, there is no established equivalent five-star rank in the other federal uniformed services. Often called a general, the rank of General of the Army has historically been reserved for wartime use and is not currently active in the U. S. military. The General of the Army insignia consisted of five 3/8th inch stars in a pentagonal pattern, the insignia is paired with the gold and enameled United States Coat of Arms on service coat shoulder loops. The silver colored five-star metal insignia alone would be worn for use as an insignia of grade. Soft shoulder epaulettes with five 7/16th inch stars in silver thread and gold-threaded United States Coat of Arms on green cloth were worn with shirts and sweaters. A special rank of General of the Armies, which ranks above General of the Army, exists but has been conferred only twice, to John J.
Pershing and posthumously to George Washington. On July 25,1866, the U. S. Congress established the rank of General of the Army of the United States for General Ulysses S. Grant. His pay was four hundred dollars per month, and his allowance for fuel and quarters except when his headquarters are in Washington, when appointed General of the Army, Grant wore the rank insignia of four stars and coat buttons arranged in three groups of four. Unlike the World War II rank with a title, the 1866 rank of General of the Army was a four-star rank. This rank held all the authority and power of a 1799 proposal for a rank of General of the Armies even though Grant was never called by this title. In contrast to the modern rank of general, only one officer at a time could hold the 1866–1888 rank of General of the Army. After Grant became the U. S. president, he was succeeded as General of the Army by William T. Sherman, in 1872, Sherman ordered the insignia changed to two stars with the coat of arms of the United States in between.
By an Act of June 1,1888, the grade was conferred upon Philip Sheridan, the rank of General of the Army ceased to exist with Sheridans death on August 5,1888. As the logistics and military leadership requirements of World War II escalated after the June 1944 Normandy Landings, the five-star rank and authority of General of the Army and equivalent naval fleet admiral was created by an Act of Congress on a temporary basis when Pub. L. 78–482 was passed on 14 December 1944, as a temporary rank, the temporary rank was declared permanent 23 March 1946 by Pub. L. 79–333, which awarded full pay and allowances in the grade to those on the retired list and it was created to give the most senior American commanders parity of rank with their British counterparts holding the ranks of field marshal and admiral of the fleet. This second General of the Army rank is not the same as the post-Civil War era version because of its purpose, the insignia for General of the Army, created in 1944, consists of five stars in a pentagonal pattern, with points touching
Obverse and reverse
In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse means the back face. The obverse of a coin is commonly called heads, because it depicts the head of a prominent person. In fields of scholarship outside numismatics, the front is more commonly used than obverse. For prints and drawings with material on both sides the one judged as more significant will be the recto, a convention now exists typically to display the obverse to the left and the reverse to the right in photographs and museum displays, but this is not invariably observed. Following this principle, in the most famous of ancient Greek coins, the tetradrachm of Athens, the obverse is the head of Athena, similar versions of these two images, both symbols of the state, were used on the Athenian coins for more than two centuries. The opposite side may have varied from time to time and this change happened in the coinage of Alexander the Great, which continued to be minted long after his death. The various Hellenistic rulers who were his successors followed his tradition and this script alone style was used on nearly all Islamic coinage until the modern period.
The type of Justinian II was revived after the end of Iconoclasm, without images, therefore, it is not always easy to tell which side will be regarded as the obverse without some knowledge. After 695, Islamic coins avoided all images of persons and usually, the side expressing the Six Kalimas is usually defined as the obverse. The form of currency follows its function, which is to serve as an accepted medium of exchange of value. Traditionally, most states have been monarchies where the person of the monarch, if not provided for on the obverse, the reverse side usually contains information relating to a coins role as medium of exchange. Additional space typically reflects the countrys culture or government, or evokes some aspect of the states territory. Regarding the euro, some regarding the obverse and reverse of the euro coins exists. This rule does not apply to the coins as they dont have a common side. A number of the used for obverse national sides of euro coins were taken from the reverse of the old pre-euro coins of some individual countries.
Several countries continue to use portraits of the monarch and the Republic of Ireland continues to use the State Arms. The Chrysanthemum Crest was no longer used after the war, and so, the side on which the date continues to be regarded as the reverse. Following ancient tradition, the obverse of coins of the United Kingdom almost always feature the head of the monarch
Prince Charles, Count of Flanders
Prince Charles, Count of Flanders, Prince of Belgium was the second son of Albert I, King of the Belgians and Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria. Born in Brussels, he served in lieu of his older brother King Leopold III from 1944 until 1950 as prince regent until Leopold was allowed to return to Belgium. However, shortly after returning and resuming his duties, Leopold abdicated in favour of his heir apparent. During the Second World War Charles was known as General du Boc and he had an association with RAF Hullavington where many top officers from Allied nations were based or transported to and from. During World War I, the children of the Belgian royal family were sent to United Kingdom while King Albert I remained in Belgium behind the Yser Front. In 1915 Prince Charles began attending the school of Wixenford in Wokingham, and in 1917 proceeded to the Royal Naval College in Osborne. In 1926 he received the rank of sub-lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, that year he returned to Belgium and began attending the Royal Military School of Brussels.
Prince Charles was appointed Regent of Belgium when the German occupation of his country ended in 1944, the role of his elder brother King Leopold III during the Second World War, as well as Leopolds marriage to Mary Lilian Baels, was questioned and he became a controversial monarch. Charless regency was dominated by the events resulting from the German occupation and this period had an important impact on events in decades. During his regency, important economic and political decisions were taken, Belgium managed to jump-start its national economy with the aid of American assistance provided under the Marshall plan. The building sector was stimulated by government grants to repair war-damaged buildings, the financial sector was sanitized through the Operation Gutt, whereby illegally gained profits during the war were targeted. A social welfare system was introduced and a system was set up to govern labour relations, women obtained the right to vote in parliamentary elections in 1948. Also during his regency the Benelux customs union was formed, Belgium became a state of the United Nations.
In 1950, Charless regency ended when Leopold III returned to Belgium and resumed his monarchical duties, Charles retired from public life, taking up residence in Ostend and becoming involved in artistic pursuits. Having taken up painting, he signed his works, Karel van Vlaanderen and he was the 377th knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword. Charles had a daughter, Isabelle Wybo, born in 1938 as the result of a relationship between Charles and Jacqueline Wehrli, the daughter of a Brussels baker. Her existence was unknown until a biography of the prince was published in 2003. Wybo made an appearance with her great-nephew, Prince Laurent in 2012
Major general (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general, a major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy. The United States Code explicitly limits the number of general officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army,61 for the Marine Corps, some of these slots are reserved or finitely set by statute. This promotion board generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank and this list is sent to the service secretary and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review before it can be sent to the President, through the Secretary of Defense for consideration. The President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the secretary, and if applicable.
The President may nominate any eligible officer who is not on the recommended list if it serves in the interest of the nation, the Senate must confirm the nominee by a majority vote before the officer can be promoted. Once confirmed, the nominee is promoted to rank on assuming a position of office that requires an officer to hold the rank. For positions of office that are reserved by statute, the President nominates an officer for appointment to fill that position, since the grade of major general is permanent, the rank does not expire when the officer vacates a two-star position. Tour length varies depending on the position, by statute, and/or when the officer receives a new assignment or a promotion, in the case of the Air National Guard, they may serve as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory. Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement of general officers, all major generals must retire after five years in grade or 35 years of service, whichever is later, unless appointed for promotion or reappointed to grade to serve longer.
Otherwise, all officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday. However, the Secretary of Defense may defer a general officers retirement until the officers 66th birthday, because there are a finite number of General Officer positions, one officer must retire before another can be promoted. As a result, general officers typically retire well in advance of the age and service limits. The rank of general was abolished in the U. S. Army by the Act of March 16,1802. Major general has been a rank in the U. S. Army ever since, to address this anomaly, Washington was posthumously promoted by Congress to the rank of General of the Armies of the United States in 1976. The position of Major General Commanding the Army was entitled to three stars according to General Order No.6 of March 13,1861
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG OM CH TD PC DL FRS RA was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was an officer in the British Army, a historian. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, in 1963, he was the first of only eight people to be made an honorary citizen of the United States. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough and his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns, at the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, during the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government.
He briefly resumed active service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, at the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister and he led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party suffered a defeat in the 1945 general election. He publicly warned of an Iron Curtain of Soviet influence in Europe, after winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral and his highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.
Born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father. His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy, Churchills brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party, the office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The position of Prime Minister was not created, it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective, the origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of political parties, the introduction of mass communication. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged, prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons.
However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Ministers authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act of 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the Head of Her Majestys Government the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet, in addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers, under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party.
The Prime Minister acts as the face and voice of Her Majestys Government. The British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, in 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs, In this country we live. Our constitutional practices do not derive their validity and sanction from any Bill which has received the assent of the King, Lords. They rest on usage, convention, often of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, the relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined largely by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Ministers executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still vested in the Sovereign