The West Bank shares boundaries to the west and south with Israel, and to the east, across the Jordan River, with Jordan. The West Bank contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2015 it has an population of 2,785,366 Palestinians, and approximately 371,000 Israeli settlers. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law and this annexation was recognized only by Britain and Pakistan. The term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the east bank of this river, the neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian. The name West Bank, has become the standard usage for this entity in English. The analogous Transjordan has historically used to designate the region now roughly comprising the state of Jordan.
From 1517 through 1917, the now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria. At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine, the San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. Faced with the determination of Emir Abdullah to unify Arab lands under the Hashemite banner, the West Bank area, was conquered by Jordan during the 1948 war with the new state of Israel. In 1947, it was designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations partition plan for Palestine. 1949 Armistice Agreements defined the boundary between Israel and Jordan. In 1950, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River, naming it West Bank or Cisjordan, Jordan ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967. Jordans annexation was never recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom.
King Abdullah of Jordan had been crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop on 15 November 1948. and granted Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank, in June 1967, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were captured by Israel as a result of the Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem and the former Israeli-Jordanian no mans land, the Israeli settlements were, on the other hand, administered subsequently as Judea and Samaria Area directly by Israel. Since the 1993 Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority officially controls a geographically non-contiguous territory comprising approx, 11% of the West Bank which remains subject to Israeli incursions
A genizah document from 1121 gives the following description of decrees issued in Baghdad, Two yellow badges, one on the headgear and one on the neck. Furthermore, each Jew must hang round his neck a piece of lead with the word Dhimmi on it and he has to wear a belt round his waist. The women have to one red and one black shoe and have a small bell on their necks or shoes. In largely Catholic Medieval Europe Jews and Muslims were required to wear clothing in some periods. These measures were not seen as being inconsistent with Sicut Judaeis, thus it happens at times that through error Christians have relations with the women of Jews or Saracens, and Jews and Saracens with Christian women. Particularly, since it may be read in the writings of Moses, innocent III had in 1199 confirmed Sicut Judaeis, which was confirmed by Pope Honorius III in 1216. In 1219, Honorius III issues a dispensation to the Jews of Castile, spanish Jews normally wore turbans in any case, which presumably met the requirement to be distinctive.
Elsewhere, local laws were introduced to bring the canon into effect, the identifying mark varied from one country to another, and from period to period. However, these ecclesiastic pronouncements required legal sanctions of a temporal authority, on 19 June 1269, Louis IX of France imposed a fine of ten livres on Jews found in public without a badge. The rota looked like a ring of white or yellow, the shape and color of the patch varied, although the color was usually white or yellow. Married women were required to wear two bands of blue on their veil or head-scarf. In German-speaking Europe, a requirement for a badge was less common than the Judenhut or Pileum cornutum, in 1267, in a special session, the Vienna city council required Jews to wear a Judenhut, the badge does not seem to have been worn in Austria. There is a reference to a dispensation from the badge in Erfurt on 16 October 1294, there were attempts to enforce the wearing of full-length robes, which in late 14th century Rome were supposed to be red.
In Portugal a red star of David was used, enforcement of the rules was variable, in Marseilles the magistrates ignored accusations of breaches, and in some places individuals or communities could buy exemption. Cathars who were considered first time offenders by the Catholic Church, from the 16th century, the use of the Judenhut declined, but the badge tended to outlast it, surviving into the 18th century in places. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939 there were different local decrees requiring Jews to wear a distinctive sign under the General Government. The sign was an armband with a blue Star of David on it, in the Warthegau a yellow badge in the form of a Star of David on the left side of the breast. Thus, contrary to a belief, Jews within Germany were not required to wear distinctive signs for most of the Third Reich period
Star of David
The Star of David, known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David, is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism. Its shape is that of a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles, unlike the menorah, the Lion of Judah, the shofar and the lulav, the Star of David was never a uniquely Jewish symbol. During the 19th century the symbol began to proliferate amongst the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, a significant motivating factor was the desire to imitate the influence of the Christian cross. The earliest Jewish usage of the symbol was inherited from medieval Arabic literature by Kabbalists for use in talismanic protective amulets where it was known as a Seal of Solomon. The symbol was used in Christian churches as a decorative motif many centuries before its first known use in a Jewish synagogue. The symbol became representative of the worldwide Zionist community, and the broader Jewish community, the identification of the term Star of David or Shield of David with the hexagram shape dates to the 17th century.
The term Shield of David is used in the Siddur as a title of the God of Israel, the hexagram does appear occasionally in Jewish contexts since antiquity, apparently as a decorative motif. For example, in Israel, there is a bearing a hexagram from the arch of a 3rd–4th century synagogue in the Galilee. Originally, the hexagram may have employed as an architectural ornament on synagogues, as it is, for example, on the cathedrals of Brandenburg and Stendal. A pentagram in this form is found on the ancient synagogue at Tell Hum, in the synagogues, perhaps, it was associated with the mezuzah. Similarly, the symbol illuminates a medieval Tanakh manuscript dated 1307 belonging to Rabbi Yosef bar Yehuda ben Marvas from Toledo, Spain. A Siddur dated 1512 from Prague displays a large hexagram on the cover with the phrase, turcomans who ruled in Anatolia during the 13th century, inherited it from the Seljuk Turks. A hexagram has been noted on a Jewish tombstone in Taranto, Apulia in Southern Italy, the Jews of Apulia were noted for their scholarship in Kabbalah, which has been connected to the use of the Star of David.
Medieval Kabbalistic grimoires show hexagrams among the tables of segulot, the six sfirot of the masculine Zer Anpin correspond to the six items on the seder plate, while the seventh sfira being the feminine Malkhut corresponds to the plate itself. However, these triangles are parallel, one above the other. According to G. S. Oegema Isaac Luria provided the hexagram with a further mystical meaning, similarly, M. Costa wrote that M. Some say that one represents the ruling tribe of Judah. It is seen as a dalet and yud, the two assigned to Judah
Jenin is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank. It serves as the center of the Jenin Governorate and is a major center for the surrounding towns. In 2007 the city had a population of 39,004, Jenin is under the administration of the Palestinian Authority. Jenin was known in ancient times as the village of Ein-Jenin or Tel Jenin, tell Jenin, is located at the center of what is today Jenins business district. The word ayn means water spring in Arabic and Hebrew, and the word Jenin might be related to the Hebrew word גַּן, the Arabicized name Jenin ultimately derives from this ancient name. The association of Jenin with the city of Ein-Ganim was recognized by Ishtori Haparchi. Jenin has been identified as the place Gina mentioned in the Amarna letters from the 14th century BCE, four terracotta lamps of Phoenician origin dated to the 8th century BCE were discovered in Ain Jenin by archaeologist G. I. Harding, and are interpreted as attesting to some form of contact, during the Roman era, Jenin was called Ginae, and was settled exclusively by Samaritans.
The people of Galilee were disposed to pass through their city during the pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Dimashki, writing around year 1300, said that after the rise of Turk power, Jenin was listed as one of the places belonging to the Kingdom centred at Safad. Yaqut described Jenin as a small and beautiful town, lying between Nabulus and Baisan, in the Jordan Province, there is much water, and many springs are found here, and often have I visited it. During Ottoman rule in Palestine, Jenin and the Carmel area, were for part of the 17th century ruled by the Bedouin Turabay family, in the mid-18th century, Jenin was designated the administrative capital of the combined districts of Lajjun and Ajlun. There are indications that the area comprising Jenin and Nablus remained functionally autonomous under Ottoman rule, in the late 19th century, some members of the Jarrar family, who formed part of the mallakin in Jenin, cooperated with merchants in Haifa to set up an export enterprise there. During the Ottoman era, Jenin was plagued by warfare between members of the same clan.
The French explorer Guérin visited in 1870, in 1882, the Palestine Exploration Funds Survey of Western Palestine described Jenin as The capital of the district, the seat of a Caimacam, a town of about 3,000 inhabitants, with a small bazaar. The houses are built of stone. There are two families of Roman Catholics, the remainder are Moslems, a spring rises east of the town and is conducted to a large masonry reservoir, near the west side, of good squared stonework, with a long stone trough. This reservoir was built by And el Hady, Mudir of Acre, in the first half of the century, north of the town is the mosque of Ezz ed Din, with a good- sized dome
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Hero of Israel
Hero of Israel is an Israeli military decoration that was awarded during the War of Independence. The army command installed a committee to decide on a system of decorations, the number 12 was symbolic for the twelve tribes of Israel - while the title Hero of Israel resembles the Russian Hero of the Soviet Union. The award ceremony was held on July 17,1949, after a military parade, Israeli President Chaim Weizmann, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and IDF Chief of Staff Yaakov Dori awarded the decoration to the recipients or their dependents. After this ceremony, the continued to work on a system of decorations. Instead, in 1970 it was replaced with the Medal of Valor, all recipients of the Hero of Israel automatically received the Medal of Valor as well. The decoration is designed in the form of a red ribbon bar, charged with a clasp of the Israeli coat of arms made of gold
Yom Kippur War
The fighting mostly took place in the Sinai and the Golan Heights, territories that had been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat wanted to reopen the Suez Canal, neither specifically planned to destroy Israel, although the Israeli leaders could not be sure of that. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Sinai Peninsula, both the United States and the Soviet Union initiated massive resupply efforts to their respective allies during the war, and this led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers. The war began with a massive and successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal, after crossing the cease-fire lines, Egyptian forces advanced virtually unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula. After three days, Israel had mobilized most of its forces and halted the Egyptian offensive, resulting in a military stalemate, the Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and initially made threatening gains into Israeli-held territory.
Within three days, Israeli forces had pushed the Syrians back to the ceasefire lines. The Israel Defense Forces launched a four-day counter-offensive deep into Syria, within a week, Israeli artillery began to shell the outskirts of Damascus. He therefore ordered the Egyptians to go back on the offensive, on October 22 a United Nations–brokered ceasefire quickly unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Israelis had improved their positions considerably and completed their encirclement of Egypts Third Army and this development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. As a result, a ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. These changes paved the way for the subsequent peace process, the 1978 Camp David Accords that followed led to the return of the Sinai to Egypt and normalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country. Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere of influence entirely, the war was part of the Arab–Israeli conflict, an ongoing dispute that included many battles and wars since 1948, when the state of Israel was formed.
During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel had captured Egypts Sinai Peninsula, roughly half of Syrias Golan Heights, and the territories of the West Bank which had been held by Jordan since 1948. On June 19,1967, shortly after the Six-Day War, the Israeli government voted to return the Sinai to Egypt, the Arab position, as it emerged in September 1967 at the Khartoum Arab Summit, was to reject any peaceful settlement with the state of Israel. Prior to that, King Hussein of Jordan had stated that he could not rule out a possibility of a real, permanent peace between Israel and the Arab states. Armed hostilities continued on a limited scale after the Six-Day War and escalated into the War of Attrition, a ceasefire was signed in August 1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt died in September 1970 and he was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. A peace initiative led by both Sadat and UN intermediary Gunnar Jarring was tabled in 1971 and it resembled a proposal independently made by Moshe Dayan
It borders the Gaza Strip and Israel. Arish is distinguished by its blue water, widespread fruitful palmy wood on its coast. It has a marina, and many luxury hotels, the city has some of the faculties of Suez Canal University. Arish is by a big wadi, the Wadi Al Arish, the Azzaraniq national park is on the eastern side of Arish. The city grew around a Bedouin settlement near the ancient Ptolemaic Dynasty outpost of Rhinocolura, in the Middle Ages, pilgrims misidentified the site as the Sukkot of the Bible. ʻArīsh means palm huts in Literary Arabic, new fortifications were constructed at the original site by the Ottoman Empire in 1560. During the Napoleonic Wars, the French laid siege to the fort, during World War I, the fort was destroyed by British bombers. It was the location of the 45th Stationary Hospital which treated casualties of the Palestine campaign, the remains of those who died there were moved to Kantara Cemetery. Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, proposed Arish as a Jewish homeland since neither the Sultan nor the Kaiser supported settlement in Palestine, on December 8,1958, an air battle occurred between Egyptian and Israeli air forces over Arish.
Arish was under occupation by Israel briefly in 1956 and again from 1967 to 1979. It was returned to Egypt in 1979 after the signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, in February 2017, ISIS terrorists assassinated seven Coptic Christian men in the town, causing the Christian population to flee the town. Arish is in the northern Sinai Peninsula and is about 50 kilometres from the Rafah border crossing with the Gaza Strip, Arish is the closest larger settlement to Lake Bardawil. The city is served by Arish International Airport, the construction of the northern coast highway in Egypt was expected to be finished by 2008 linking El-Qantarah at Suez Canal to Gaza strip border passing by Arish. The railway line from Cairo is under re-construction and it reached the Ser. This route was part of the Palestine Railway built during World War I. The railway was cut during the formation of Israel, the highest record temperature was 45 °C, recorded on May 29,2003, while the lowest record temperature was −6 °C, recorded on January 8,1994
Gesher is a kibbutz in the Beit Shean Valley in northeastern Israel. Founded in 1939 by immigrants from Germany, it falls under the jurisdiction of Valley of Springs Regional Council and it is situated 10 km south of kibbutz Deganya Aleph and 15 km south of Tiberias. The population is approximately 500 inhabitants and it is named after the neighbouring bridge over the Jordan river, known as Jisr el-Majami in Arabic and as Gesher Naharayim in Hebrew. The original site of the kibbutz, abandoned after the 1948 war, is known as Old Gesher, in 2015 it had a population of 425. They were joined by Jewish immigrants from Poland, Austria, the kibbutz grew up near the Naharayim bridge as a Tower and stockade settlement. The site of the kibbutz was a khan from the Mamluk period to the late 18th or early 19th century, some of the original kibbutz buildings lay within the ruins. On 27 April 1948, the Haganah took control of the Gesher police station, the Arab Legion, still under British control at the time, ordered them to evacuate it.
After the war, the kibbutz was rebuilt about 1 km to the west, during the War of Attrition between 1967 and 1970 the kibbutz was attacked with bombs and gunfire by PLO Arab Palestinian fighters. In the 1990s it underwent privatization while preserving the model in the areas of education, health. Gesher Imanuel Reuveni - Lexicon of Holy Land - Eretz Israel Lexicon Yedioth Ahronoth - Chemed Books Publishing house,1999, yuval Elezri - lexicon Mapa - Eretz Israel - Maps Concise Gazetteer of Israel Today 2003, Tel Aviv MAP Mapping and Publishing
Gaza, together with the West Bank, comprise the Palestinian territories claimed by the Palestinians as the State of Palestine. The territories of Gaza and the West Bank are separated from each other by Israeli territory, both fall under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, but Gaza has since June 2007 been governed by Hamas, a Palestinian Islamic organization which came to power in free elections in 2006. It has been placed under an Israeli and U. S. -led international economic, the territory is 41 kilometers long, and from 6 to 12 kilometers wide, with a total area of 365 square kilometers. With around 1.85 million Palestinians on some 362 square kilometers, an extensive Israeli buffer zone within the Strip renders much land off-limits to Gazas Palestinians. Gaza has a population growth rate of 2. 91%, the 13th highest in the world. The population is expected to increase to 2.1 million in 2020, by that time, Gaza may be rendered unliveable, if present trends continue. Due to the Israeli and Egyptian border closures and the Israeli sea and air blockade, Sunni Muslims make up the predominant part of the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip.
Israel maintains direct control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza, it controls Gazas air and maritime space. It reserves the right to enter Gaza at will with its military, Gaza is dependent on Israel for its water, telecommunications, and other utilities. When Hamas won the Palestinian legislative election,2006, Fatah refused to join the proposed coalition, when this collapsed under joint Israeli and United States pressure, the Palestinian Authority instituted a non-Hamas government in the West Bank while Hamas formed a government on its own in Gaza. Further economic sanctions were imposed by Israel and the European Quartet against Hamas, a brief civil war between the two groups had broken out in Gaza when, apparently under a U. S. -backed plan, Fatah contested Hamas’s administration. Hamas emerged the victor and expelled Fatah-allied officials and members of the PAs security apparatus from the Strip, since 2007, the Gaza Strip has been de facto governed by Hamas, which claims to represent the Palestinian National Authority and the Palestinian people.
Israel maintains direct control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza, it controls Gazas air and maritime space. It reserves the right to enter Gaza at will with its military, Gaza is dependent on Israel for its water, telecommunications, and other utilities. The Gaza Strip acquired its current northern and eastern boundaries at the cessation of fighting in the 1948 war, article V of the Agreement declared that the demarcation line was not to be an international border. At first the Gaza Strip was officially administered by the All-Palestine Government, All-Palestine in the Gaza Strip was managed under the military authority of Egypt, functioning as a puppet state, until it officially merged into the United Arab Republic and dissolved in 1959. From the time of the dissolution of the All-Palestine Government until 1967, Israel captured the Gaza Strip from Egypt in the Six-Day War in 1967. In 2005, Israel withdrew from the Gaza Strip under their unilateral disengagement plan, in July 2007, after winning the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, Hamas became the elected government
Qalqilya, is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. Qalqilya serves as the center of the Qalqilya Governorate. In the official 2007 census the city had a population of 41,739, Qalqilya is surrounded by the Israeli West Bank barrier with a narrow gap in the east controlled by the Israeli military and a tunnel to Hableh. The vicinity of Qalqilya has been populated since prehistoric times, as attested to by the discovery of flint tools. In 1596, Qalqilya appeared in Ottoman tax registers as a village in the nahiya of Bani Sab in the Liwa of Nablus and it had a population of 13 Muslim households and paid taxes on wheat, summercrops and goats or beehives. In 1882, Qalqilya was described as A large somewhat straggling village, with cisterns to the north, according to the Qalqilya Municipality, the modern city was founded in 1893 by residents of nearby Baqat al-Hatab. A municipal council to administer Qalqilya was established in 1909, in the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Qalqilya had a population of 2,803, increasing in the 1931 census to 3,867, in a total of 796 houses.
In 1945 the population of Qalqilya was 5,850, all Arabs, of this,3701 dunams were for citrus and bananas,3,232 were plantations and irrigable land,16,197 used for cereals, while 273 dunams were built-up land. In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, during the war, many inhabitants from nearby and currently depopulated villages, including Kafr Saba, Abu Kishk, Biyar Adas and Shaykh Muwannis fled to Qalqilya as refugees. On the night of 10 October 1956 the Israeli army launched a raid against Qalqilya police station, the attack was ordered by Moshe Dayan and involved several thousand soldiers. During the fighting a paratroop company was surrounded by Jordanian troops, eighteen Israelis and between 70 and 90 Jordanians were killed in the operation. Qalqilya was occupied by Israeli forces during the Six-Day War in 1967, after the conquest of Qalqilya in 1967, dozens of its inhabitants were evicted by Israel to Jordan, and at least 850 buildings were razed.
In his memoirs, Moshe Dayan described the destruction as a punishment that was designed to chase the inhabitants away, the villagers were eventually allowed to return and the reconstruction of damaged houses was financed by the military authorities. In September 1967, a census found 8,922 persons, as part of the 1993 Oslo Accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, control of Qalqilya was transferred to the Palestinian National Authority on 17 December 1995. In 2003, the Israeli West Bank barrier was built, encircling the town, in November 2015, Israel arrested what it alleged to be a network of 24 Hamas militants active in the city. Qalqilya is located in the northwestern West Bank, straddling the border with Israel, Qalqilya has an average elevation of 57 meters above sea level. The average annual rainfall 587.4 millimeters and the annual temperature is 19 degrees Celsius. The 1997 census by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics recorded Qalqilyas population to be 22,168, the majority of the inhabitants were Palestinian refugees or their descendants