2006 Lebanon War
The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israel Defense Forces. The conflict was precipitated by the Zarit-Shtula incident, on 12 July 2006, Hezbollah fighters fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence. The ambush left three soldiers dead, two Israeli soldiers were abducted and taken by Hezbollah to Lebanon. Five more were killed in Lebanon, in a rescue attempt. Hezbollah demanded the release of Lebanese prisoners held by Israel in exchange for the release of the abducted soldiers, Israel refused and responded with airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon. Israel attacked both Hezbollah military targets and Lebanese civilian infrastructure, including Beiruts Rafic Hariri International Airport, the IDF launched a ground invasion of Southern Lebanon. Israel imposed an air and naval blockade, Hezbollah launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the IDF in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions.
The conflict is believed to have killed between 1,191 and 1,300 Lebanese people, and 165 Israelis and it severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, and displaced approximately one million Lebanese and 300, 000–500,000 Israelis. On 11 August 2006, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 in an effort to end the hostilities, the Lebanese Army began deploying in Southern Lebanon on 17 August 2006. The blockade was lifted on 8 September 2006, on 1 October 2006, most Israeli troops withdrew from Lebanon, although the last of the troops continued to occupy the border-straddling village of Ghajar. In the time since the enactment of UNSCR1701 both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah, the remains of the two captured soldiers, whose fates were unknown, were returned to Israel on 16 July 2008 as part of a prisoner exchange. Concurrently, Syria began a 29-year military occupation in 1976, Israels 1978 invasion of Lebanon failed to stem the Palestinian attacks in the long run, but Israel invaded Lebanon again in 1982 and forcibly expelled the PLO.
Israel withdrew to a buffer zone in southern Lebanon, held with the aid of proxy militants in the South Lebanon Army. When the Lebanese Civil War ended and other warring factions agreed to disarm, ten years later, Israel withdrew from South Lebanon to the UN-designated and internationally recognized Blue Line border in 2000. The withdrawal led to the collapse of the SLA. In these attacks, including the attack that precipitated the Israeli response that developed into the war,31 Israelis were killed and 104 were wounded. In August 2006, in an article in The New Yorker, the US government denied these claims. In June 2005, an Israel Defense Forces paratroop unit operating near the Shebaa Farms engaged three Lebanese it identified as Hezbollah special force members, killing one, videotapes recovered by the paratroopers contained footage of the three recording detailed accounts of the area
Amnon Lipkin-Shahak was an Israeli military officer and politician. He served as Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, as a Member of the Knesset, Lipkin-Shahak was married to journalist Tali Lipkin-Shahak and had five children. He earned a B. A. in general history from Tel Aviv University, in 1994, while serving as Deputy Chief of Staff, he said in an interview that four years earlier he was diagnosed with leukemia, but had since recovered. When it was discovered he had been serving as Director of Military Intelligence, on 19 December 2012, Amnon Lipkin-Shahak died in Hadassah Ein Kerem Hospital in Jerusalem, after a long battle with cancer. In 1965, he became a commander in the newly established 202nd battalion of the brigade. As a company commander, he participated in operations preceding the Six Day War. During the war, he served as acting deputy battalion commander, after the war, he took command of the Duchifat unit of the brigade and participated in Operation Inferno, where he was awarded the Medal of Courage for his leadership and courage under fire.
After graduating from the Command and General Staff School in 1971, under his command, the battalion took part in many operations, mainly in the area of Lebanon. In April 1973, as a part of Operation Spring of Youth, he assaulted PFLP headquarters in Beirut, after the war, he was assigned as the operations officer for Central Command, and was sent to the U. S. Marines general staff course in the United States. In 1976, Lipkin-Shahak was promoted to Colonel and became head of the reservist Paratroopers Brigade, in 1977, he was appointed the head of the regular Paratroopers Brigade. During this period, the Brigade took part in operations along all of Israels borders, including extensive operations in Lebanon. After finishing his term as commander of the brigade, he was appointed as a commander of a reservist armored division, while serving as the Divisions commander, he served as the commander of the Beirut region after the First Lebanon War. In 1983, Lipkin-Shahak was appointed the Head of Central Command, from 1986 to 1991 he served as Head of Intelligence, and during those years, among other things, prepared the IDF during the developments that led to the Gulf War.
In 1991, he was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff, and during this role served as the commander of Operation Solomon, on January 1,1995, he became Chief of Staff of the IDF, succeeding Ehud Barak. Lipkin-Shahak retired from the IDF in 1998 and he was succeeded as Chief of Staff by Shaul Mofaz. After retiring from the army he expressed opinions and severely criticized Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. He called for the establishment of a centrist party that would include representatives of large parts of the public
Amir Drori was an Israeli general and the first director general of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Amir Drori was born in Tel Aviv in 1937 and graduated from the IDFs Junior Command Preparatory School in Haifa and he was drafted into the Israel Defense Forces in 1955, where he joined the Golani infantry brigade. During the 1956 Suez Crisis Drori led a team and participated in fighting in Rafah. He was awarded the Medal of Courage for his part in the Israeli raid on the Syrian village of Tawafiq in 1960, during the 1967 Six Day War Drori served as deputy commander of Golanis 51st Battalion and took part in fighting on the Golan Heights. During the subsequent War of Attrition he commanded Golanis 13th Battlation, participating in fighting on the Golan Heights, Beit Shean Valley, between 1970 and 1972 he served as the chief operations officer of Israels Southern Command, under Ariel Sharon. In 1972 Drori was given command of the Golani Brigade, which he was to lead through the fighting of the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
The brigade participated in the efforts to halt the Syrians on the Golan Heights, as well as in the battles for Mount Hermon, in 1976 Drori was appointed to lead the IDFs 36th Armored Division. A year he received the rank of Aluf and was appointed head of the Operations Directorates operations department and he went on to command the IDFs training department before given command of Israels Northern Command in 1981. He played a significant role in the 1982 Lebanon War, leading Israeli forces to the gates of Beirut through fighting with both the Syrian Army and the Palestinian Liberation Organization. His conduct during the Sabra and Shatila massacre was investigated by the Kahan Commission which saw no reason to any recommendations against him. Drori served at Northern Command for another year before leaving in December 1983 and he spent the next year studying in the US. He retired from the IDF in 1988 following his failure to secure the post of Chief of the General Staff, between 1961 and 1964 Drori had studied Archaeology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, participating in several digs, including that of Yigael Yadin at Masada.
Upon his retirement from the IDF he was appointed head of the Israeli Ministry of Educations Department of Antiquities, under his guidance and leadership the department was expanded and restructured, in 1990 becoming the Israel Antiquities Authority with Drori as its first director general. Droris tenure with the IAA was plagued by clashes with Haredi elements which considered archaeological exploration of possible burial sites as an affront to Judaism. Haredi political parties campaigned for his dismissal, going as far as to threaten abandoning the governing coalition unless they were given control of tomb excavations. He occasionally received death threats and was reputed to have been the target of a Pulsa diNura. Despite weathering these challenges, Drori quit his post in 2000 after having secured its extension. Amir Drori died on March 12,2005, after suffering an attack during a hiking trip in the Negev
Meir Har-Zion was an Israeli military commando. As a key member of Unit 101, he was praised by Chief of Staff Moshe Dayan who described him as the finest of our commando soldiers. Ariel Sharon described him as the elite of the elite and his three-year military career was ended by injuries sustained in battle. Born in 1934 in Herzliya, to second generation Sabra, Har-Zion, in 1949 he was briefly detained by Syrian authorities together with his 13-year-old sister, after being caught in Syrian territory east of Beit Shean. In 1951, two later, they were both captured by a shepherd while on the Syrian side of the border. During the 1950s around a dozen Israeli teenagers were killed attempting to reach the ancient city of Petra. Such cross-border treks were considered a rite of passage for elite youth, the song HaSela HaAdom, which praised a group killed attempting the trek, was banned. This feat made them legendary figures amongst the Israeli youth of the time and we had only a compass and a map on a small scale, but that was definitely enough to find our way to Petra, Har-Zion recalled.
In 1953 he was one of the members of Unit 101. He took part in the units first operation at the end of August 1953, sixteen men with two jeeps, two command cars and a reconnaissance aircraft attacked the Azazme bedouin camps around the wells at al Auja. Their tents were burnt and anything attempting to reach the water was shot at, on the night of 14–15 October 1953 around 65 men from Unit 101 joined a larger IDF force in an attack on the village of Qibya. Har-Zion commanded one of three sent to ambush any reinforcements coming from Nilin and Shuqba. In another night attack, 18–19 December 1953, two Unit 101 squads led by Har-Zion ambushed a car on the Bethlehem to Hebron road. A Lebanese-born doctor serving in the Arab Legion, Mansour Awad, was killed, the Israeli Prime Minister Moshe Sharett was annoyed that he had not been informed about the attack beforehand. Three nights Har-Zion led a four man squad on a 21-kilometre march to the outskirts of Hebron, other missions that Har-Zion took part in included Operation Black Arrow and Operation Elkayam.
Two National Guardsmen were killed in an ambush as well as two farmers and two camels, Sharett once again complained about not being informed and suspected that Minister of Defence Pinhas Lavon had not been consulted either. On 27–28 June 1954 Har-Zion was in a seven man squad led by Major Aharon Davidi that launched an attack on an Arab Legion camp at Azzun,13 km east of Qalqilya. Three Legionnaires were killed as well as a farmer, Rafia Abdel Aziz Omar, on their return to Israeli lines one of the team who had been wounded, Sergeant Yitzhak Jibli, was left behind
Israeli military decorations
The Israeli Military decorations are the decorations awarded to soldiers in the Israel Defense Forces who exhibit extraordinary bravery and courage. Its decorations consist of the Medal of Valor, the Medal of Courage, and it includes the Citations, which are awarded in four classes. Two soldiers share the title of being the most decorated soldier of the IDF, Captain Nechemya Cohen, campaign ribbons awarded for service during war. Citation is worn on the ribbon in times of war. Service ribbons awarded for activity in the struggle for the establishment of Israel and Decorations of Israel Awards and Decorations of Israel
Medal of Distinguished Service
The Medal of Distinguished Service is an Israeli military decoration. The medal was instituted in 1970 by act of law in the Knesset, the medal is awarded for an act of exemplary bravery in the line of duty. To date,601 medals have been awarded, the last in 2015, five recipients have been awarded the medal twice. One unit, the battalion of the Givati Brigade was awarded the medal in 2005. The medal was designed by Dan Reisinger, its shape is circular, on the front of the medal is a sword with an olive branch, symbolizing controlled strength. The medal is attached to a ribbon, with two-time recipients of the medal wearing a small clasp in the form of the medal on its ribbon. The medal is minted by the Israel Government Coins and Medals Corporation, it is made from 25 gram silver/935, Gallantry Medals & Awards of the World, pp. 109-110
The Paratroopers Brigade, known as the 35th Brigade, is an elite unit of paratroopers within the Israel Defense Forces, and forms a major part of the Infantry Corps. It has a history of carrying out special forces-style missions dating back to the 1950s, paratrooper Brigade soldiers wear maroon berets with the infantry pin and reddish-brown boots. Distinct from all other soldiers of the IDF, Paratroopers wear a tunic and these are most likely the most highly trained reservist brigades in the IDF. The brigade was created in the mid-1950s when the commando Unit 101 was merged with the 890th Battalion in order to form an infantry brigade. The new unit was equipped with the IMI Uzi submachine gun as their primary weapon as it provided light and small fire, essential properties for recon units. The goals in creating the Paratroopers Brigade were, To have a leading force. To innovate and improve fighting skills within other units, to raise the next generation of military commanders and officers. The first commander of the Paratroopers Brigade was Ariel Sharon, the Paratroopers Brigade has had only one operational combat parachute drop, during the 1956 Sinai War.
In the Six Day War the brigade took part in the capture of Jerusalem, along with the Jerusalem Brigade, Harel Brigade, in January 1970, during the War of Attrition, the brigade spearheaded Operation Rhodes, taking over the Egyptian island of Shadwan. Three Israeli soldiers were killed in the raid saw the paratroopers remain on the island for 36 hours before departing with 62 Egyptian POWs. Over the years, the Paratroopers Brigade has been the source of several future Israeli Chiefs of Staff, including Shaul Mofaz, Moshe Yaalon, each year the brigade receives five times more applicants than it can accept. More than a quarter of recruits drop out, after they complete the march, they are officially inducted into the Paratroopers Brigade. The war began with a drop of a paratroop battalion over the eastern approaches to the Mitla Pass. The remaining members of the force were to travel along a 300 km route. This break-through took 28 hours, during which the column swept through the deserted Kuntilla, the major paratroop action during the campaign was the battle for Mitla Pass. A paratroop reconnaissance patrol entering the pass found itself trapped by an enemy force.
The Egyptians enjoyed topographical advantage, fighting positions and niches in superior terrain. Outnumbered reinforcements who entered the fray fought desperately to rescue their comrades, after nightfall, the Egyptians were finally routed, but at the cost of 38 paratroopers dead and over 100 more wounded
Syrias capital and largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Sunnis, Alawites, Mandeans, Salafis, Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, in the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a number of military coups. In 1958, Syria entered a union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, in the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon.
However, the discovery of the inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The area designated by the word has changed over time, since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic, archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla near present-day Idlib, gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Eblas contact with Egypt. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is an agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c.2300 BC.
The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages, Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia, Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet. The Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC, Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh, the Hurrians states, the army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam
Yitzhak Mordechai is an Israeli former general and politician. He served as a member of the Knesset between 1996 and 2001, and as Minister of Defense and Minister of Transport and he retired from political life after being indicted for sexual assaults during his military service and periods. Mordechai was born in Akre or Aqrah Iraqi Kurdistan, and made aliyah to Israel in 1949 and he holds a BA in history from Tel Aviv University and an MA in Political Science from the University of Haifa. In 1962 he enlisted to the Combat Engineering Corps of the IDF, in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, he was battalion commander in the Battle of the Chinese Farm in Sinai, and was decorated with the Medal of Courage. In 1984, in became known as the Kav 300 affair, Mordechai. Mordechai was tried, and acquitted when the became known. He was promoted to the rank of Major-General in 1986, and became known as the General of the Three Commands, the First Intifada broke out in December 1987, when Mordechai was commander of the Southern Command.
As commander of the Northern Command he commanded over Operation Accountability in 1993, Mordechai retired from active service in 1995 after 33 years of service, when new Chief of General Staff Amnon Lipkin-Shahak did not appoint him as his deputy. In 1995 Mordechai joined Likud and was on the partys list for the elections the following year, after Binyamin Netanyahu won the election for Prime Minister, he appointed Mordechai as Defense Minister, where he became Lipkin-Shahaks boss. In 1999, a rift occurred between Mordechai and Netanyahu because of political rivalry and difference of opinion regarding the negotiations with Palestinians. Netanyahu dismissed Mordechai shortly before Mordechai would have reportedly resigned, on 23 February 1999 Mordechai left Likud along with several other members to establish the new Israel in the Centre party. However, despite strong initial poll results, the party fared badly in the 1999 elections, the party joined Ehud Baraks new Labor-led government and Mordechai became Minister of Transport.
Mordechai resigned from his position in 2000 after being indicted for sexual misconduct during his military service. In March 2001 he was convicted of harassing and sexually assaulting two women, receiving an 18-month suspended sentence. After his conviction, he resigned from the Knesset, list of Israeli public officials convicted of crimes or misdemeanors Yitzhak Mordechai on the Knesset website