President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden, often called MSG or simply The Garden, is a multi-purpose indoor arena in the New York City borough of Manhattan. Located in Midtown Manhattan between 7th and 8th Avenues from 31st to 33rd Streets, it is situated atop Pennsylvania Station. The Garden is used for basketball and ice hockey, as well as boxing, ice shows, professional wrestling and other forms of sports. It is close to other midtown Manhattan landmarks, including the Empire State Building, Koreatown and it is home to the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League, the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association, and residency to singer-songwriter Billy Joel. The Garden opened on February 11,1968, and is the oldest major sporting facility in the New York metropolitan area and it is the oldest arena in the National Hockey League and the second-oldest arena in the National Basketball Association. MSG is the fourth-busiest music arena in the world in terms of sales, behind The O2 Arena. At a total construction cost of approximately $1.1 billion and it is part of the Pennsylvania Plaza office and retail complex.
Several other operating entities related to the Garden share its name, Madison Square is formed by the intersection of 5th Avenue and Broadway at 23rd Street in Manhattan. It was named after James Madison, fourth President of the United States, two venues called Madison Square Garden were located just northeast of the square, the first from 1879 to 1890, and the second from 1890 to 1925. The first Garden, leased to P. T. Barnum, had no roof and was inconvenient to use during inclement weather, Madison Square Garden II was designed by noted architect Stanford White. The new building was built by a syndicate which included J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, P. T. Barnum, Darius Mills, James Stillman and W. W. Astor. It was 200 feet by 485 feet, and the main hall and it had a 1, 200-seat theatre, a concert hall with a capacity of 1,500, the largest restaurant in the city and a roof garden cabaret. A third Madison Square Garden opened in a new location, on 8th Avenue between 49th and 50th Streets, from 1925 to 1968, groundbreaking on the third Madison Square Garden took place on January 9,1925.
Designed by the theater architect Thomas W. Lamb, it was built at the cost of $4.75 million in 249 days by boxing promoter Tex Rickard. The arena was 200 feet by 375 feet, with seating on three levels, and a capacity of 18,496 spectators for boxing. Demolition commenced in 1968 after the opening of the current Garden and it finished up in early 1969, and the site is now where One Worldwide Plaza is located. The new structure was one of the first of its kind to be built above the platforms of a railroad station. It was an engineering feat constructed by Robert E. McKee of El Paso, public outcry over the demolition of the Pennsylvania Station structure—an outstanding example of Beaux-Arts architecture—led to the creation of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission
Along its 5. 5-mile, 110-block route, Lexington Avenue runs through Harlem, Carnegie Hill, the Upper East Side and Murray Hill to a point of origin that is centered on Gramercy Park. South of Gramercy Park, the axis continues as Irving Place from 20th Street to East 14th Street, the portion of Lexington Avenue between 14th and 20th Streets is known as Irving Place. Ruggles had purchased land in the area, and was developing it as a community of townhouses around a private park. He was developing property around the planned Union Square, the legislation approved, and, as the owner of most of the land along the route of the new street, Ruggles was assessed for the majority of its cost. Ruggles named the section, below 20th Street, which opened in 1833. The northern section, which opened three years later, in 1836, was named after the Battle of Lexington in the Revolutionary War. Lexington saw the first arrest in New York for speeding, in 1899, when a bicycle patrolman overtook cabdriver Jacob German, the portion of Lexington Avenue above East 42nd Street was reconstructed at the same time as the IRT Lexington Avenue Line of the New York City Subway.
The widened street and the line both opened on July 17,1918. Parallel to Lexington Avenue lies Park Avenue to its west and Third Avenue to its east, the avenue is largely commercial at ground level, with offices above. There are clusters of hotels in the 30s and 40s, roughly from the intersection with 30th Street through to its intersection with 49th Street. Portions of the avenue were widened in 1955, which required eminent domain takings of the facades of some structures along Lexington, Lexington Avenue has carried one-way traffic since July 17,1960. The July 18,2007 New York City steam explosion sent a geyser of hot steam up from beneath the avenue at 41st Street resulting in one death and more than 40 injuries. In contrast to Lexington Avenue, the stretch of Irving Place. Irving Plaza, on East 15th Street and Irving, hosts concerts for both well-known and indie bands and draws a crowd almost every night. Another component of the avenue are the apartment buildings which line the street from Gramercy Park to 17th Street.
Also at 17th, a small bed-and-breakfast, the Inn at Irving Place, offices located on Irving Place include those of The Nation magazine, the New York branch of the Rosicrucian Order and the Seafarers and International House mission. There are a number of clinics and official city buildings along the street, including Washington Irving High School, the bottom of the street is anchored by the rear of the Zeckendorf Towers condominium apartment complex on the west side, and the Consolidated Edison Building on the east. M101 and M103 run to 125th Street, M102 runs to 116th Street, Lexington Avenue became part of a classic American cinematic moment, in the 1955 movie The Seven Year Itch, the scene in which Marilyn Monroe shot what would become her most famous scene
James Madison, Jr. was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the Father of the Constitution for his role in drafting and promoting the United States Constitution. Madison inherited his plantation Montpelier in Virginia and therewith owned hundreds of slaves during his lifetime and he served as both a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and as a member of the Continental Congress prior to the Constitutional Convention. After the Convention, he one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution. His collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay produced The Federalist Papers, Madisons political views changed throughout his life. During deliberations on the Constitution, he favored a national government. In 1789, Madison became a leader in the new House of Representatives and he is noted for drafting the first ten amendments to the Constitution, and thus is known as the Father of the Bill of Rights.
He worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government, breaking with Hamilton and the Federalist Party in 1791, he and Thomas Jefferson organized the Democratic-Republican Party. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts and Madison drafted the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, as Jeffersons Secretary of State, Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the nations size. Madison succeeded Jefferson as president in 1809, was re-elected in 1813, after the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against the United Kingdom, he led the U. S. into the War of 1812. The war was a morass, as the United States had neither a strong army nor financial system. As a result, Madison afterward supported a national government and military, as well as the national bank. Madison has been ranked in the aggregate by historians as the ninth most successful president, James Madison, Jr. was born on March 16,1751, at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to father James Madison, Sr.
and mother Nelly Conway Madison. He grew up as the oldest of twelve children and James Sr. had seven more boys and four girls. Three of James Jr. s brothers died as infants, including one who was stillborn, in the summer of 1775, his sister Elizabeth and his brother Reuben died from a dysentery epidemic that swept through Orange County because of contaminated water. His father, James Madison, Sr. was a planter who grew up on a plantation, called Mount Pleasant. He acquired more property and slaves, and with 5,000 acres, he became the largest landowner, James Jr. s mother, Nelly Conway Madison, was born at Port Conway, the daughter of a prominent planter and tobacco merchant. In these years, the colonies were becoming a slave society, in which slave labor powered the economy
Mad Men is an American period drama television series created by Matthew Weiner and produced by Lionsgate Television. The series premiered on July 19,2007, on the cable network AMC, after seven seasons and 92 episodes, Mad Mens final episode aired on May 17,2015. According to the pilot, the phrase Mad men was a slang term coined in the 1950s by advertisers working on Madison Avenue to refer to themselves. The plot focuses on the business of the agencies as well as the lives of the characters, regularly depicting the changing moods. Season one begins in March 1960 and moves through November 1970 by the conclusion of season seven, throughout its run, Mad Men received widespread critical acclaim for its writing and historical authenticity, it has won many awards, including 16 Emmys and five Golden Globes. The show was the first basic cable series to receive the Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series and it is widely regarded as one of the greatest television series of all time. In 2000, while working as a writer for Becker.
Television producer David Chase recruited Weiner to work as a writer on his HBO series The Sopranos after reading the script in 2002. It was lively, and it had something new to say, here was someone who had written a story about advertising in the 1960s, and was looking at recent American history through that prism. Weiner and his representatives at Industry Entertainment and ICM tried to sell the script to HBO and Showtime. The Sopranos was completing its final season then, and the network happened to be getting into the market for new series programming. Weiner listed Alfred Hitchcock as an influence on the visual style of the series. He was influenced by director Wong Kar-wai in the music, mise en scène and he says that Mad Men would have been some sort of crisp, soapy version of The West Wing if not for The Sopranos. Tim Hunter, the director of a half-dozen episodes from the shows first two seasons, called Mad Men a very well-run show and he said, They have a lot of production meetings during pre-production.
The day the script comes in we all meet for a first page turn, theres a tone meeting a few days where Matt tells us how he envisions it. And theres a full crew production meeting where Matt again tells us how he envisions it. The pilot episode was shot at Silvercup Studios and various locations around New York City and it is available in high definition for showing on AMC HD and on video-on-demand services available from various cable affiliates. Each episode had a budget between US$2–2.5 million, though the episodes budget was over $3 million
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Madison Square Garden (1879)
Madison Square Garden was an arena in New York City located at East 26th Street and Madison Avenue in Manhattan. The first venue to use that name, it had a capacity of 10,000 spectators. It operated from 1879 to 1890, when it was replaced with a new building on the same site. The building that became Madison Square Garden was originally the New York, Barnum converted it into an oval arena 270 feet long, with seats and benches in banks, that he called the Great Roman Hippodrome where he presented circuses and other performances. The roofless building was called Barnums Monster Classical and Geological Hippodrome, gilmore presented boxing, but since competitive boxing matches were technically illegal at the time, he called them exhibitions or illustrated lectures. The next to lease the space was W. M. Tileston and he attempted to attract a more genteel crowd with tennis, a riding school and an ice carnival – the arena had one of the first indoor ice rinks in the United States. After the death of Commodore Vanderbilt, who owned the site, his grandson William Kissam Vanderbilt took back control and announced the renaming of the arena to Madison Square Garden on May 31,1879. P. T.
Barnum used the Garden to exhibit Jumbo, another notable use of the first Garden was as a velodrome, an oval bicycle racing track with banked curves. At the time, bicycle racing was one of the biggest sports in the country and he top riders among the sports stars of their day. The bike races at Madison Square Garden were all the rage around the turn of the 20th century, Madison Square Garden was the most important bicycle racing track in the United States and the Olympic discipline known as the Madison is named after the original Garden. Unfortunately, the roofless Garden was hot in the summertime and freezing in the wintertime, demolition began in July 1889, and the second Madison Square Garden, which cost more than a half-million dollars to build, opened on June 6,1890. It was demolished in 1926, and the New York Life Building, designed by Cass Gilbert and completed in 1928, Madison Square Madison Square Garden Madison Square Garden Madison Square Garden Madison Square Garden Bowl Arena information
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Since the 1920s, Harlem has been known as a major African-American residential, originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlems history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, African-American residents began to arrive by a lot in 1905, with numbers fed by the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the Harlem Renaissance, with job losses in the time of the Great Depression and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly. Harlems African-American population peaked in the 1950s, in the second half of the 20th century, Harlem became a major hub of African-American businesses. In 2008, the United States Census found that for the first time since the 1930s, less than half of residents were black, since New York Citys revival in the late 20th century, long-time residents of Harlem have been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth.
Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan, often referred to as Uptown by locals. Central Harlem is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, and the Harlem River on the north. A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks, on the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park, known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem. The bulk of the falls under Manhattan Community Board No.10. In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, the West Harlem neighborhoods of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights comprise part of Manhattan Community Board No.9. The two neighborhoods area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway on the South, 155th Street on the North, nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the East, and Riverside Park/the Hudson River on the west. Morningside Heights is located in the southern most section of West Harlem, Manhattanville begins at roughly 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street.
The northern most section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights, the New York City Police Department patrols six precincts located within Harlem. The New York City Fire Department operates 9 firehouses in Harlem, as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. Between 1637 and 1639, a few settlements were established, during the American Revolution, the British burned Harlem to the ground. It took a time to rebuild, as Harlem grew more slowly than the rest of Manhattan during the late 18th century. After the American Civil War, Harlem experienced an economic boom starting in 1868, the neighborhood continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but increasingly those coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian
Carnegie Hill is a neighborhood within the Upper East Side, in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Its boundaries extend from 86th Street on the south to 96th Street to the north, the neighborhood is part of Manhattan Community Board 8. According to the official Carnegie Hill Neighbors website, Carnegie Hill extends from 86th to 105th Streets, the neighborhood is named for the mansion that Andrew Carnegie built at Fifth Avenue and 91st Street in 1901. Today the mansion houses the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, a branch of the Smithsonian Institution, facing it on 91st Street is the Otto H. Kahn House, a Florentine palazzo, now housing the Convent of the Sacred Heart. A number of townhouses in the area have been converted to schools, including the recent purchase of the William Goadby. From the 1950s to 1991, the National Audubon Society was housed in the Willard Straight House, when it moved to NoHo, the International Center of Photography moved in but consolidated its operations in Midtown near Bryant Park.
In 2001, it became a private residence. The limestone was crafted in Morningside Heights at the Cathedral Stoneworks, frank Lloyd Wrights originally maligned and now celebrated Guggenheim Museum opened on Fifth Avenue in 1959. The New York Road Runners occupies a townhouse around the corner at 9 East 89th Street, the northern section neighborhood was once seen as a less fashionable end of the East Side, but is now prized for its esthetic sensibility and restaurants. Besides, Andrew Carnegie, Marjorie Merriweather Post, Margaret Rockefeller Strong and its western boundary is Central Park, and its eastern boundary varies from Madison Avenue in some parts to Lexington Avenue farther east in others. There are efforts to expand this district in order to protect undesignated landmarks, including 179 East 93rd Street, the New York City Department of Education operates public schools. The main campus of the La Scuola dItalia Guglielmo Marconi Italian international school is in Carnegie Hall, however, in 2016 it will move to another building in West Midtown.
Hardenbergh/Rhinelander Historic District Museum Mile, New York City Yorkville Bibliography Alpern, the New York Apartment Houses of Rosario Candela and James Carpenter. Notes Media related to Carnegie Hill, Manhattan at Wikimedia Commons
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare going through the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States. It stretches from West 143rd Street in Harlem to Washington Square North at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and it is considered among the most expensive and best shopping streets in the world. The lower stretch of Fifth Avenue extended the stylish neighborhood of Washington Square northwards, Fifth Avenue is the central scene in Edith Whartons 1920 Pulitzer Prize winning novel The Age of Innocence. The novel describes New Yorks social elite in the 1870s and provides context to Fifth Avenue. Originally a narrower thoroughfare, much of Fifth Avenue south of Central Park was widened in 1908, the midtown blocks, now famously commercial, were largely a residential district until the start of the 20th century. In 1906 his department store, B. Altman and Company, the result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them.
Lord & Taylors flagship store is located on Fifth Avenue near the Empire State Building. In the 1920s traffic towers controlled important intersections from 14th to 59th Streets, traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge. Fifth Avenue serves as the line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan. It separates, for example, East 59th Street from West 59th Street, the most expensive street in the world moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the worlds most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world, some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings. The American Planning Association compiled a list of 2012 Great Places in America and this historic street has many world-renowned museums and stores, luxury apartments, and historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future.
Below is a list of sites on Fifth Avenue with their designation dates,500 Fifth Avenue Building – December 14,2010 Aeolian Building – – December 10,2002 George W. It recognizes structures, buildings and districts associated with important events, Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 135th Street to Washington Square North, the changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14,1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown. From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along which streetcars did not operate. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk
The neighborhood, which is divided between New York Citys Manhattan Community Board 5 and Manhattan Community Board 6, is generally perceived to be a quiet and safe area. The neighborhood, associated historic district, and park have generally received positive reviews, calling it a Victorian gentleman who has refused to die, Charlotte Devree in The New York Times said that There is nothing else quite like Gramercy Park in the country. When the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission created the Gramercy Park Historic District in 1966, pines 1921 book, The Story of Gramercy Park, The laying out of Gramercy Park represents one of the earliest attempts in this country at City Planning. The neighborhoods boundaries are 14th Street to the south, Third Avenue to the east, 23rd Street to the north, and Park Avenue South to the west. The boundaries of the Historic District, set in 1966 and extended in 1988, are irregular, lying within the neighborhood, and can be seen in the map in the infobox on the right.
The brook, which become known as Crommessie Vly, flowed in a 40-foot gully along what is now 21st Street into the East River at 18th Street. Krom Moerasje/Krom Mesje became corrupted to Crommessie or Crommashie, mayor James Duane – for whom the citys Duane Street is named – acquired the site in 1761 from Gerardus Stuyvesant and named it Gramercy Seat. Gramercy is an archaic English word meaning many thanks, the area which is now Gramercy Park was once in the middle of a swamp. Ruggles, a developer and advocate of space, proposed the idea for the park due to the northward growth of Manhattan. Ruggles deeded the land on December 17,1832 to five trustees, to develop the property, Ruggles spent $180,000 to landscape it, draining the swamp and causing about a million horsecart loads of earth to be moved. It was the second private square created in the city, after Hudson Square, known as St. Johns Park, the new streets reduced the number of lots around the park from 66 to 60. Gramercy Park was enclosed by a fence in 1833, but construction on the surrounding lots did not begin until the 1840s, in one regard this was fortunate, since the opening of the Croton Aqueduct in 1842 allowed new townhouses to be constructed with indoor plumbing.
The first formal meeting of the trustees took place in 1844 at 17 Union Square, the mansion of James W. Gerard. By that time, landscaping had already begun with the hiring of James Virtue in 1838, major planting took place in 1844 – the same year the parks gates were first locked – followed by additional landscaping by Brinley & Holbrook in 1916. These plantings had the effect of softening the parks prim formal design, Gramercy Park itself had been protected with howitzers by troops from the Eighth Regiment Artillery, while the 152nd New York Volunteers encamped in nearby Stuyvesant Square. At #34 and #36 Gramercy Park are two of New Yorks first apartment buildings, designed in 1883 and 1905, in addition, #34 is the oldest existing co-operative apartment building in the city. Elsewhere in the neighborhood, nineteenth century brownstones and carriage houses abound, though the 1920s brought the onset of tenant apartments, in 1890 an attempt was made to run a cable car through the park to connect Irving Place to Lexington Avenue.
The bill passed the New York State Legislature, but was vetoed by Governor David B. Hill, the Hotel Irving, at 26 Gramercy Park South, was constructed c.1903