Leipzig is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 570,087 inhabitants it is Germanys tenth most populous city, Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became an urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War. Leipzig played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in, Leipzig today is an economic center and the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, Leipzig is currently listed as Gamma World City and Germanys Boomtown.
Outside of Leipzig the Neuseenland district forms a lake area of approximately 300 square kilometres. Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means settlement where the linden trees stand, an older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin name Lipsia was used, the name is cognate with Lipetsk in Russia and Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt. de. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city, Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. During the Thirty Years War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls, the first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642.
Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side, on 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and a coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War, in 1913 the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways
Romania is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea, Ukraine, Serbia and it has an area of 238,391 square kilometres and a temperate-continental climate. With over 19 million inhabitants, the country is the member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth-largest city in the EU, the River Danube, Europes second-longest river, rises in Germany and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romanias Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest are marked by one of their tallest peaks, modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877, at the end of World War I, Transylvania and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war, following the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact.
After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and it has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. A strong majority of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are speakers of Romanian. The cultural history of Romania is often referred to when dealing with artists, inventors. For similar reasons, Romania has been the subject of notable tourist attractions, Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning citizen of Rome. The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, after the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a leader of the early 19th century. The use of the name Romania to refer to the homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861, in English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania.
Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975, Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. The Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the region of the earliest European civilization. Evidence from this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage
Comrat is a city in Moldova and the capital of the autonomous region of Gagauzia. It is located at 46°19′N 28°40′E, in the south of the country, in 2004, Comrats population was 23,429, of which the vast majority are Gagauzians. Comrat began to be settled in 1789, and received privileges in 1957. During the time when the town was part of Moldavian SSR, Comrats industry was geared toward the production of butter and rugs, the Comrat State University was established in 2002. 1989,25,8001991,27,5001996,27,4002004,23,4292006,22,3692011,24,1352016,26,300 Comrat is situated in the wine zone of Moldova. It is known for production of red wines and muscats, in Comrat and its suburbs there are about 10 wine factories. Food production is developed in the city. Comrat is a home for food processing factories, alcohol production, there is such economic agents as a ferro-concrete factory, furniture productions, wood processing, production of plastic windows and doors, cattle butcheries, and transport companies.
Comrat Wines - the oldest winery located in the south of Republic of Moldova, aur-Vin is a Moldovan wine producer from Comrat. This factory takes part of the Moldovan wine producer Dionis Club, alexandru Stoianoglo Petar Draganov - Russian philologist and Slavist. Irina Vlah — Governor of the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia, Comrat has an oceanic climate, characterized by warm, dry summers and snowy, cold winters. Winter temperatures are often below 0 °C, in summer, the average maximum temperature is approximately 25 °C. The average precipitation is relatively low, www. comrat. md Official site Komrat Stadium in www. divizianationala. com
Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace.
Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwelling
Jagdgeschwader 52 of the Luftwaffe, was the most successful fighter-wing of all time, with a claimed total of more than 10,000 victories over enemy aircraft during World War II. It was the unit of the top three scoring flying aces of all time, Erich Hartmann, Gerhard Barkhorn and Günther Rall, the unit flew exclusively with the various versions of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 throughout the war. Originally, JG52 was involved in the air fighting during the Battle of France, initially only a 2 Gruppe unit — most Jagdgeschwader were three Gruppen units, each Gruppe consisted of three or four Staffeln of 12-16 aircraft, as well as the required ground support crew. Jagdgeschwader 52s achievements during the offensives were rather unremarkable, by the end of 1940, the unit had amassed 177 claims, but had suffered high losses,53 pilots killed or POW in the Battle of Britain alone. During Operation Barbarossa, the unit operated on the southern and central sectors of the front, in the period between 22 June –5 December 1941, the unit destroyed 881 Soviet aircraft, in return for 49 losses in aerial combat and five aircraft on the ground.
By early 1942, the Geschwader provided the fighter support along the sector of the Eastern Front. On 8 May 1942, JG52 claimed its 1, 500th victory, by 3 June, it had reached 2,000. In mid-July 1942, the Gruppen commenced re-equipment with the new Bf 109 G Gustav, Gruppe I. by this time had become a highly mobile fire brigade formation, sent at short notice to areas where fighter cover was quickly and urgently required. Shuttling between areas ranging from the Kerch Peninsula on the Black Sea to the Moscow Front, I, /JG52 was in constant action. The Gruppes 700th claim was achieved in September 1942, during this time, the 4,000 kill mark was reached, on 10 December 1942. The first half of 1943 saw action centered around the Strait of Kerch, by mid March, II. and III. Gruppen had the task of protecting 17th Armys main line of retreat, Günther Rall scored the Geschwaders 5, 000th victory. I. and III. /JG52 moved into the Ukraine in July 1943 in preparation for the massive Kursk offensive, as two of the eight fighter Gruppen involved, the offensive saw JG52 pass the 6,000 mark in aircraft claimed shot down.
By this time, German pilots faced the new generation of advanced Soviet fighter aircraft, the withdrawal of JG3 in August 1943 left JG52 as the sole complete fighter wing on the Eastern Front. Constantly on the move, JG52 now operated from makeshift, by November 1943, the loss of Kiev threatened the stability of the entire Southern sector front, the whole of JG52 being brought together again to help bolster defences. By December 1943 JG52 had reached 8,000 victories, over the Uman region, III. /JG52 claimed 50 victories in 60 days. III. /JG52 became its most successful Gruppe, claiming its 3,500 kill on 21 March 1944, by the end of the month, III. /JG52 was based in Poland. On 10 May 1944, the 9, 000th claim was made, the last German troops left the Crimea in May 1944, II. /JG52 retiring from battle a week earlier
Krosno is a town and county in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland with 47,140 inhabitants, as of 30 June 2014. Krosno is a fortified town, a former Royal Free Town. Until recently it was a provincial capital, today it is a medium-sized town with a population of fifty thousand, ranking sixth among Polish towns with the best living conditions. This evident success appears understandable when one looks at the history of the town, center of regional and subregional levels. Notably Krosno is the site of the first oil well in the world, Krosno is on the river Wisłok. Slovakia is about 35 kilometres south, and Ukraine is about 85 kilometres east of the city and it is located in the heartland of the Doły, and its average altitude is 310 metres above sea level, although there are some hills located within the confines of the city. Neighbouring municipalities are, Krościenko Wyżne, Miejsce Piastowe, Chorkówka, situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship, previously it was the capital of Krosno Voivodeship.
It is the capital of Krosno County, Krosno covers an area of 45 km2, and has seven separate town quarters and 5 housing estates. The historical centre is situated on a hill between the fork of the Lubatówka and Wisłok Rivers. The first mention of the town, which names Krosno as one of 34 estates in Małopolska granted to the Lubusz Bishopric, appears in a document signed by Leszek II the Black, Duke of Kraków, in 1282. However, the oldest traces of settlement in the fork of the Wisłok and Lubatówka Rivers, found during archaeological research, today it is difficult to clearly determine the etymology of the place-name of Krosno. Scholars give several versions explaining the origin of the name, finally an opinion was adopted that the original Polish name disappeared and the existing name is the result of a transformation of the German name Krossen. Krosno, a town from its origin, used the coat of arms of the Piasts from Kujawy and. During the reign of Casimir III the Great the construction of fortifications was begun to encircle the hill.
But it was only under King Ladislaus Jagiello that the full-length stone, two gates led into the town, the Hungarian one from the south-east and the Kraków one from the north-west. The well-fortified and secure town provided perfect conditions for the development of craft, Krosno became an important production centre of cloths and fustians. The medieval town had waterworks and a system, which is evidence of its importance. The privilege granted by King Casimir IV Jagiellon in 1461 shows that Krosno, the archaeological research conducted recently, based on the dendrochronological method, enabled scholars to move the date of the systems installation back to the middle of the 14th century
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Eastern Front (World War II)
The battles on the Eastern Front constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, and immense loss of life due to combat, exposure and massacres. The Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches, ghettos, of the estimated 70 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million, many of them civilian, occurred on the Eastern Front. The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome of the European portion of World War II and it resulted in the destruction of the Third Reich, the partition of Germany for nearly half a century and the rise of the Soviet Union as a military and industrial superpower. The two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in action in the Eastern Front, the United Kingdom. The joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front, in addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front.
Despite their ideological antipathy, both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union shared a dislike for the outcome of World War I. The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was an agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union, Estonia and Lithuania would return to Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. I need the Ukraine so that they cant starve us out, the two powers invaded and partitioned Poland in 1939. The annexations were never recognized by most Western states, the annexed Romanian territory was divided between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum, acquiring new territory for Germans in Eastern Europe, Wehrmacht officers told their troops to target people who were described as Jewish Bolshevik subhumans, the Mongol hordes, the Asiatic flood and the red beast.
The vast majority of German soldiers viewed the war in Nazi terms, Hitler referred to the war in unique terms, calling it a war of annihilation which was both an ideological and racial war. In addition, the Nazis sought to wipe out the large Jewish population of Central, after Germanys initial success at the Battle of Kiev in 1941, Hitler saw the Soviet Union as militarily weak and ripe for immediate conquest. On 3 October 1941, he announced, We have only to kick in the door, Germany expected another short Blitzkrieg and made no serious preparations for prolonged warfare. Throughout the 1930s the Soviet Union underwent massive industrialization and economic growth under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, Stalins central tenet, Socialism in one country, manifested itself as a series of nationwide centralized Five-Year Plans from 1929 onwards. It served as a testing ground for both the Wehrmacht and the Red Army to experiment with equipment and tactics that they would employ on a wider scale in the Second World War
Roman is a city with the title of municipality located in the central part of Moldavia, a traditional region of Romania. It is located 46 km east of Piatra Neamț, in Neamț County at the confluence of the Siret and its name was taken from Moldavian Voivode Roman I of Moldavia, believed to be its founder. Romans first son was Alexandru cel Bun, from here prince Roman has realized the centralization of Moldavia, Roman city being capital of Lower Country of Moldavia. The earliest mention of the city is in the Novgorod Chronicle, five years later, the name appeared on a donation deed. The city is mentioned in a Moldavian document, signed by Moldavias Voivode Roman I, Roman became a diocesan see in September 14,1408, when Alexandru cel Bun established an orthodox bishopric in the city. The representatives of the Catholic population of Roman, shepherded by the Bishop of Baia, on in the late 15th century, Ştefan cel Mare build a new stone fortress on the left bank of the Siret river, to replace the old earthen one.
Several documents from 1458,1465 and 1488 during Ştefans reign mention the Cathedral of Saint Paraskeva in Roman, in 1467, the fortress resisted the siege of the Hungarian army under King Matthias Corvinus, before the battle of Baia. In 1476, an Ottoman army, led by Mohamed II, besieged the new fortress again, petru Rareş ordered the construction of a new episcopal see on the same spot in 1542. The old fortress was destroyed by Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino, following Ottoman command. One of the last mentions of it back to 1561–1563 during the reign of Ioan Iacob Heraclid. In 1623, the community was described by the Franciscan missionary Andreas Bogoslavici in a letter sent to Rome, as Hungarian that understood. The Catholics appear to have a dedicated to Saint Peter. In 1569, Ruxandra Lăpuşneanu built a church dedicated to the Holy Virgin on the same spot the eponym church is placed today. In 1595, the church Sfinţii Voievozi is built, the current Armenian Orthodox Church was built in 1610. Some demographic data from 1641, recorded by the Vicar of Sofia, a major personality of the city was orthodox bishop Dosoftei who translated the Psalter into Romanian in 1665–1671.
In December 1691, Miron Costin, one of the first historians, the statue marking the spot is now obscured by a blue glass pyramid near the Roman Hotel. The first hospital in Roman was built in 1798 on the place where the Municipal Hospital Precista Mare is located today. Talmud Torah, one of the first Jewish schools in Principality of Moldova, was inaugurated in 1817, Roman became a railway hub in the 19th century, when the second railway in Romania was opened in December 1869, from Roman to Suceava
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan