Order of the British Empire
There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire, nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bill Gates or Bob Geldof, for example. In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War, when first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was divided into Military. The Orders motto is For God and the Empire, at the foundation of the Order, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership.
In 1922, this was renamed the British Empire Medal, in addition, the BEM is awarded by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations. The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, and appoints all members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Mary, and the current Grand Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. The Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross,845 Knights and Dames Commander, and 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the number of members of the fourth and fifth classes. Foreign recipients, as members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, and so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, and second-lowest of knighthood. Because of this, Dame Commander is awarded in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor, for example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges become Knights Bachelor.
The Order has six officials, the Prelate, the Dean, the Secretary, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Bishop of London, a senior bishop in the Church of England, serves as the Orders Prelate. The Dean of St Pauls is ex officio the Dean of the Order, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, as are many other heraldic officers. From time to time, individuals are appointed to a higher grade within the Order, thereby ceasing usage of the junior post-nominal letters
Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus"
The Medal For the Defence of the Caucasus was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union. The Medal For the Defence of the Caucasus was established on May 1,1944 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, for the defenders who died in battle or prior to the establishment of the medal, it was awarded posthumously to the family. The Medal For the Defence of the Caucasus was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence or Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the Medal For the Defence of the Caucasus was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal with a raised rim. On the obverse in the center, the image of Mount Elbrus, at its foot, oil derricks. On the reverse near the top, the image of the hammer and sickle, below the image. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal For the Defence of the Caucasus
Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"
The medals statute was amended on July 18,1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X. Each medal came with an attestation of award certificate, the Medal For the Defence of Odessa was worn on the left side of the chest and in the presence of other awards of the USSR, was located immediately after the Medal For the Defence of Moscow. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the Medal For the Defence of Odessa was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal with a raised rim. A circular band following the entire circumference bears the relief inscription FOR THE DEFENCE OF ODESSA at its top. On the reverse near the top, the image of the hammer and sickle, below the image. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal For the Defence of Odessa
Distinguished Service Order
Instituted on 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria in a Royal Warrant published in the The London Gazette on 9 November, the first DSOs awarded were dated 25 November 1886. It is typically awarded to officers ranked major or higher, during the First World War,8,981 DSOs were awarded, each award being announced in The London Gazette. The order was established for rewarding individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war, after 1 January 1917, commanders in the field were instructed to recommend this award only for those serving under fire. Prior to 1943, the order could be only to someone mentioned in despatches. The order is given to officers in command, above the rank of captain. A number of junior officers were awarded the DSO. In 1942, the award of the DSO was extended to officers of the Merchant Navy who had performed acts of gallantry while under enemy attack. Since 1993, its award has been restricted solely to distinguished service and it has, despite some very fierce campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, remained an officers-only award and it has yet to be awarded to a non-commissioned rank.
Recipients of the order are known as Companions of the Distinguished Service Order. They are entitled to use the post-nominal letters DSO, one or more gold medal bars ornamented by the Crown may be issued to DSO holders performing further acts of such leadership which would have merited award of the DSO. The bars are worn as clasps on the ribbon of the original award. The medal signifying its award is a cross, enamelled white. In the centre, within a wreath of laurel, enamelled green, is the crown in gold upon a red enamelled background. On the reverse is the royal cypher in gold upon a red enamelled ground, within a wreath of laurel, a ring at the top of the medal attaches to a ring at the bottom of a gold suspension bar, ornamented with laurel. At the top of the ribbon is a gold bar ornamented with laurel. The red ribbon is 1.125 in wide with blue edges. The medals are issued unnamed but some recipients have had their names engraved on the reverse of the suspension bar, the bar for an additional award is plain gold with an Imperial Crown in the centre.
The back of the bar is engraved with the year of the award, a rosette is worn on the ribbon in undress uniform to signify the award of a bar
Order of the Red Banner
The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and it was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism and courage demonstrated on the battlefield, the order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, ships and social organizations, and state enterprises. In years it was awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military service without requiring participation in combat. The Russian Order of the Red Banner was established during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of September 16,1918, the first recipient was Vasily Blyukher on September 28,1918. The second recipient was Iona Yakir, during the Civil War there existed similarly named orders and decorations established by the Soviet communist governments of several other constituent and nonconstituent republics.
The August 1,1924 decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee established the all-Soviet Order of the Red Banner for deserving personnel of the Red Army, from 1918 till the late 1930s there was a collective variant - the Revolutionary Red Banner of Honor. This was in the form of a military color awarded to distinguished Red Army, Soviet Air Force and it was more older than the order, having been established on August 3, a month and several weeks before. As a military decoration, The Order of the Red Banner recognised heroism in combat or otherwise extraordinary accomplishments of military valour during combat operations. Before the establishment of the Order of Lenin on April 5,1930, during World War II, under various titles, it was presented both to individuals and to units for acts of extreme military heroism. Nearly all well-known Soviet commanders became recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, the order was awarded to individuals as well as whole formations, which added the prefix Red Banner to their official designations.
Naval vessels flew a special ensign, the Order of the Red Banner was used as a long service award between 1944 and 1958 to mark twenty and thirty years of service in the military, state security, or police. This was surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat, at the bottom were the letters SSSR, additional awards of the Order bore a white enamelled shield with a silver sequence number at the bottom of the obverse. A recipient of three Orders of the Red Banner would wear a badge of the order followed by his second award bearing a number 2. The early variants of the Order were screw back badges to wear on clothing. Later variants hung from a standard Soviet pentagonal mount with a ring through the suspension loop, the mount was covered with an overlapping 24mm wide red silk moiré ribbon with 1. 5mm wide white edge stripes and a 7mm wide white central stripe. The Order of the Red Banner was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, pavel Dybenko won 3 Orders of the Red Banner, his first in the 1921 bloody suppression of the naval rebellion in Kronstadt, his 2 others in 1922 in the suppression of peasants uprisings
Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"
The Medal For the Defence of Stalingrad was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union. The Medal For the Defence of Stalingrad was established on December 22,1942 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the medals statute was amended on July 18,1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X. The Medal For the Defence of Stalingrad was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the Medal For the Defence of Stalingrad was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal with a raised rim. At the top in the center, a five pointed star, on either side of the star along the upper medal circumference. On the reverse near the top, the image of the hammer and sickle, below the image. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal For the Defence of Stalingrad
Medal "For the Capture of Budapest"
The medals statute was amended on July 18,1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X. Award of the medal was made on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the basis of documents attesting to actual participation in the capture of Budapest. The Medal For the Capture of Budapest was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the Medal For the Capture of Budapest was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal with a raised rim on the obverse. On its obverse at the top, a five pointed star. Below the star, the inscription in bold letters on two rows FOR THE CAPTURE OF BUDAPEST. On the reverse at the top, a plain five pointed star, below the star. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal For the Capture of Budapest
Medal "For the Capture of Vienna"
The medals statute was amended on July 18,1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X. Award of the medal was made on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the basis of documents attesting to actual participation in the capture of Vienna. The Medal For the Capture of Vienna was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the Medal For the Capture of Vienna was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal with a raised rim on the obverse. On its pebbled obverse at the top, a five pointed star. Below the star, the inscription in bold letters on three rows FOR THE CAPTURE OF VIENNA. At the bottom, the image of a laurel branch going up the left circumference of the medal up to the second row of the inscription. On the reverse at the top, a plain five pointed star, below the star
Order of the Red Star
The Order of the Red Star was a military decoration of the Soviet Union. The Order of the Red Star is worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the Order of the Red Star was used as a long service award from 1944 to 1958 to mark fifteen years of service in the military, state security, or police. The Order of the Red Star is a red enamelled 47mm to 50mm wide silver five pointed star, the band below the soldier bore the relief inscription USSR. Below the shield, the hammer and sickle of oxydised silver, the otherwise plain reverse bore the makers mark and the award serial number. The Order was attached to clothing by a threaded stud and screw attachment, when the order wasnt worn, a ribbon could be worn in its stead on the ribbon bar on the left side of the chest. The ribbon of the Order of the red Star was a 24mm wide silk moiré dark red with a 5mm wide central silver stripe. The Order of the Red Star was awarded 6 times to 5 people,5 times to more than 15 people, four times to more than 150 people, legal Library of the USSR Soviet-Awards.
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World War II Victory Medal (United States)
The World War II Victory Medal was first issued as a service ribbon referred to as the “Victory Ribbon. ”By 1946, a full medal had been established which was referred to as the World War II Victory Medal. The corresponding medal from the World War I is the World War I Victory Medal, on 8 August 1946, the separate Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal was established for members of the United States Merchant Marine who served during World War II. The medal is awarded for service between 7 December 1941 and 31 December 1946, both dates inclusive, the National Personnel Records Center has reported some cases of service members receiving the award for simply a few days of service. As the Second World War ended on 2 September 1945, there may be cases of members who had enlisted, entered officer candidate school. Military Academy, the U. S. Naval Academy or the U. S. Coast Guard Academy in 1946, the reason for this late date is that President Harry S. Truman did not declare an official end of hostilities until the last day of 1946.
The bronze medal is 1 3⁄8 inches in width, the rainbow on each side of the ribbon is a miniature of the pattern used in the World War I Victory Medal. Although the World War I Victory Medal included clasps, the World War II Victory Medal did not and this was because campaign medals were frequently awarded instead. Awards and decorations of the United States military Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal United States Statutes at Large, washington, DC, Office of the Federal Register. Washington, DC, Office of the Federal Register, navPers 15,790, Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual. Washington, DC, Department of the Navy, mIL-DTL-3943/237A, Detail Specification Sheet — Medal, World War II Victory. MIL-DTL-11589/149E, Detail Specification Sheet — Ribbon, World War II Victory Medal, fort Belvoir, The Institute of Heraldry, U. S. Army. Archived from the original on September 9,2009
The Victoria Cross is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry in the face of the enemy to members of the British armed forces and it was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857 and these investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War, since then, the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals,11 to members of the British Army, the traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. Some research has suggested a variety of origins for the material, research has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannons that were captured from the Russians in 1855.
Owing to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction, a number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross. The private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded, following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museums Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. These are unique awards of honours system, assessed and presented by each country. In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. This structure was limited, in practice awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the notice of the commanders in the field.
Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank, France awarded the Légion dhonneur and The Netherlands gave the Order of William. There was a feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a mans lengthy or meritorious service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that officially constituted the VC, the order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class, the medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services