The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk in Belarus to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues and they ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks or Reds came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, with the Reds defeating the Whites, and others during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in December 1922. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism, in the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, held in Brussels and London during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules. Lenin wanted members who recognise the Party Programme and support it by material means, Julius Martov suggested by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the partys organisations.
Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a core of active members. A main source of the factions could be attributed to Lenin’s steadfast opinion. It was obvious at early stages in Lenin’s revolutionary practices that he would not be willing to concede on any party policy that conflicted with his own predetermined ideas and it was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia that caused the party split. He was seen even by fellow party members as being so narrow minded that he believed there were only two types of people and enemy—those who followed him, and all the rest. Leon Trotsky, one of Lenins fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin in 1904 to the French revolutionary Robespierre, Lenins view of politics as verbal and ideological warfare and his inability to accept criticism even if it came from his own dedicated followers was the reason behind this accusation. The root of the split was a book titled What is to be Done. that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile, in Germany, the book was published in 1902, in Russia, strict censorship outlawed its publication and distribution.
One of the points of Lenin’s writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person over the masses. After the proposed revolution had overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power. Lenin wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenins view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a supporter of Marxist theory. For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral, and were loyal to the idea of a completely classless society, so Lenin’s variations caused the party internal dissonance. Although the party split of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks would not become official until 1903, as discussed in What is to be Done. Lenin firmly believed that a political structure was needed to effectively initiate a formal revolution
Military occupations by the Soviet Union
During World War II, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed several countries effectively handed over by Nazi Germany in the secret protocol Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939. These included Eastern Poland, as well as Latvia, Lithuania, part of eastern Finland, apart from Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and post-war division of Germany, USSR occupied and annexed Carpathian Ruthenia from Czechoslovakia in 1945. Poland was the first country to be occupied by the Soviet Union during the World War II, the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact stipulated Poland to be split between Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. In 1944–1947, over a million Poles were resettled from the territories into Poland. Soviet troops were stationed in Poland from 1945 till 1993, other scholars date the Soviet occupation till 1989. The Polish Government in Exile existed until 1990, after existing as independent countries for twenty years, the Baltic states were occupied and illegally annexed in June 1940. In the case of refusal, the USSR effected an air and naval blockade, the military forces overtook the political systems of these countries and installed puppet regimes after rigged elections in June 1940.
The sovietisation was interrupted by the German occupation in 1941–1944, the Baltic Offensive re-established the Soviet control in 1944–1945, and resumed sovietisation, mostly completed by 1950. The forced collectivisation of agriculture began in 1947, and was completed after the deportation in March 1949. Private farms were confiscated, and farmers were made to join the collective farms, an armed resistance movement of forest brothers was active until the mid-1950s. Hundreds of thousands participated or supported the movement, tens of thousands were killed, the Soviet authorities fighting the forest brothers suffered hundreds of deaths. Some innocent civilians were killed on both sides, in addition, a number of underground nationalist schoolchildren groups were active. Most of their members were sentenced to terms of imprisonment. The punitive actions decreased rapidly after Joseph Stalins death in 1953, from 1956–58, during the occupation, the Soviet authorities killed, politically arrested, unlawfully drafted, and deported hundreds of thousands of people.
Numerous other kind of crimes against humanity were committed all through the occupation period, trying to enforce the ideals of Communism, the authorities deliberately dismantled the existing social and economic structures, and imposed new ideologically pure hierarchies. This severely retarded the Baltic economies, for example, Estonian scientists have estimated economic damages directly attributable to the post-World War II occupation to hundreds of billions of US dollars. The Soviet environmental damage to Estonia is estimated to about $4 billion, in addition to direct damages, the retarded economy led to severe inequality within the Northern Europe. After all, the attempt to integrate the Estonian society into the Soviet system failed, although the armed resistance was defeated, the population remained anti-Soviet
Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic
The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, called Soviet Karelia or simply known as Karelia was a republic of the Soviet Union. It existed from 1940 until it was part of the Russian SFSR in 1956 as the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic was set up on March 31,1940 by merging the KASSR with the Finnish Democratic Republic. The entire Karelian population of the areas, about 422,000 people, was evacuated to Finland. In 1944, the Soviet Union recaptured the area, Soviet sovereignty was recognized by Finland in the Moscow Armistice and Paris Peace Treaty. The Finnish Karelians were evacuated to Finland again, in September 1944, the Karelian Isthmus with Vyborg was transferred from the Karelo-Finnish SSR to the Leningrad Oblast of the RSFSR, but Ladoga Karelia remained a part of the republic. On July 16,1956, the republic was incorporated into the Russian SFSR as the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the abolition of the Karelian SSR in 1956 was the only case in the history of the USSR of merging a member republic of the USSR into another republic.
In the waning days of the USSR, the Karelian ASSR became the Republic of Karelia, the chairman of the Karelo-Finnish Supreme Soviet was Finnish communist Otto Ville Kuusinen. In the republic there was a separate Karelo-Finnish Communist Party led in the 1940s by G. N, yuri Andropov served for some years as the first secretary of the republics Komsomol branch, the Leninist Communist Youth League of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic. Winter War Karelia Karelia Karelian question in Finnish politics Republics of the Soviet Union First Secretary of the Karelian Communist Party
State Great Khural
The State Great Khural is the unicameral parliament of Mongolia. It is located in the Government Palace, 1924–1960 The first Ulsyn Ikh Hural was called to session in November 1924. This body was the legislature of the Mongolian Peoples Republic and it delegated much of its powers to an executive committee, the Ulsyn Baga Hural. The Great Khural held nine sessions between November 1924 and February 1949, following electoral reforms in 1951, the numbering of its sessions began again. The first was held in July 1951 and the third in July 1957, 1960–1992 In 1960 a new constitution was adopted and the body was renamed the Peoples Great Khural, but the sessions were not renumbered. The fourth took place in July 1960 and the last in September 1992, in Russian and Mongolian historiography, the term Peoples Great Khural is frequently extended back to refer to the 1924–60 Khural to distinguish it from the post-1992 State Great Khural. The first free and multi-party election in Mongolia was held in 1990, the newly elected parliament changed the Constitution, established the State Baga Hural which replaced the Peoples Great Hural as the highest legislative body.
This elected the first Chairman, Radnaasumberel Gonghigdroj, and the first Chairman of the Secretariat, the State Baga Hural had 5 standing committees. The Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party, The Mongolian Democratic Party, The Mongolian Social Democratic Party, the State Baga Hural adopted 27 new laws, ratified 17 international treaties and conventions as well as made amendments to 19 laws. 1992–1996 The State Great Hural had 10 standing committees, the elected Chairman was Natsag Bagabandi, and the Chairman of the Secretariat was Namsrai Rechnindorj. The State Great Hural adopted 137 laws, made amendments to 142 laws, the parliament ratified 40 international treaties and conventions during its term. 1996–2000 The State Great Hural had 5 standing committees in 1996-1997 and this increased to 7 standing committees in 1997-2000. The Democratic Union Coalition, The Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party, The Mongolian Conservative United Party won seats in the parliament, the elected Chairman was Radnaasumberel Gonghigdroj, and the Chairman of the Secreteriat was Log Tsog until 1999.
The next Chairman of the Secretariat was Baasanganobo Enebish, the State Great Hural adopted 173 new laws, made amendments to 255 laws and repealed 32 laws. The parliament ratified 71 international treaties and conventions, 2000–2004 The State Great Hural had 7 standing committees. The elected Chairman was Lkhamsurem Enebish till 2001, and the Chairman of the Secretariat was Baasanganobo Enebish till 2001, the next Chairman was Sanjbegz Yumur-Ochir, and the next Chairman of the Secretariat was Dagdankhuu Batbaatar till 2003. The third and final Chairman of the Secretariat during this term was Namsraijav Luvsanjav, the State Great Hural adopted 140 new laws, made amendments to 443 laws, and repealed 51 laws. The parliament ratified 110 international treaties and conventions, 2004–2008 The State Great Hural had 11 standing committees as well as 8 subcommittees in 2004-2006
Moshchny is an island in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, located some 120 km west of Saint Petersburg. The island is a part of the Leningrad Oblast, the area of the island is approximately 13.9 km². After the Finnish Civil War and until the Russo-Finnish Winter War the island was a part of Finland, the island, which had the largest population of the Finnish islands in the gulf was evacuated in 1939 - an operation that lasted merely a few hours. The Russians had a naval station and a radar on the island. On November 18,1942 three Finnish motor torpedo boats Syöksy and Vihuri, as well as a minelaying KM-boat made an assault on the harbour of Lavansaari, Syöksy managed to hit the gunboat Krasnoye Znamya with one torpedo. The Soviet vessel was sunk in her moorings, but was raised on 13 November 1943. The German naval forces wanted to prevent the Soviet naval forces operating to the West of Lavansaari by mine-laying two large seamine barrages. Both the Seeigel and Seehund barrages were recognised by the Finnish Navy as Suursaari - Kiskolan rivi, Seeigel I-IV and VI-VIII consisted of 2526 pieces of sea mines together with Seeigel V in the depth of from two metres to three metres below the water surface.
As an exception to the other barrages, Seeigel V had mines in the 25 metres depth from the water surface, in June the supplementary mine-laying consisted of 244 magnetic seamines, about 3000 anchored depth mines and about 1,630 minesweeping obstacles. The smaller barrage, the Seehund consisted of only about 200 mines and about 250 minesweeping obstacles against the surface vessels, on 23 June 1943 German bombers sank the Soviet motor torpedo boat, MO-171 off the waters of Lavansaari. On 14 May 1944, a German motor torpedo boat sank the Soviet motor torpedo boat MO-122 with a torpedo, risto Hamari, Martti Korhonen, Timo Miettinen, Ilmar Talve, Suomenlahden ulkosaaret, Seiskari, Tytärsaari, Jyväskylä1996, ISBN 951-717-879-4
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, known as Soviet Lithuania or Lithuania was a republic of the Soviet Union. It existed from 1940 to 1990, between 1941 and 1944, the German invasion of the Soviet Union caused its de facto dissolution. However, with the retreat of the Germans in 1944–1945, Soviet hegemony was re-established, on 18 May 1989, the Lithuanian SSR declared state sovereignty within its borders during perestroika. On 11 March 1990, the Republic of Lithuania was declared to be re-established as an independent state, Soviet Union itself recognized Lithuanian independence on 6 September 1991. There had been an attempt to establish a Soviet government in Lithuania by the Bolshevik Red Army in 1918–1919. The Lithuanian SSR was first proclaimed on 16 December 1918, by the revolutionary government of Lithuania. The Lithuanian SSR was supported by the Red Army, but it failed to create a de facto government with any support as the Council of Lithuania had successfully done earlier. It has been suggested that the failure to conquer Poland in the Polish–Soviet War prevented the Soviets from invading Lithuania, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, stated that Lithuania was to be included into the German sphere of influence.
However soon after World War II began in September 1939, and this was granted in exchange for Lublin and parts of the Warsaw province of Poland, originally ascribed to the Soviet Union, but by that time already occupied by German forces. Following the 1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania and subsequent invasion of 15 June 1940, before doing so, in accordance with the Lithuanian constitution, he turned over his duties on a provisional basis to Prime Minister Antanas Merkys. The day after Smetonas departure, Merkys announced he had deposed Smetona and had taken over the presidency in his own right, on 17 June, at the behest of the Soviets, Merkys appointed a left-wing journalist, Justas Paleckis, as prime minister. Merkys himself resigned, making Paleckis acting president as well, for all intents and purposes, Lithuania had lost its independence. Paleckis appointed a Communist-dominated peoples government with Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius as prime minister and this government dissolved the Fourth Seimas and announced elections for a Peoples Seimas on 14 July.
Voters were selected with a single list provided by the Union of the Working People of Lithuania, on 3 August, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR accepted the petition and admitted the Lithuanian SSR as the 14th republic of the Soviet Union. Lithuania now maintains that since Smetona never resigned, Merkys takeover of the presidency was illegal, Lithuania was subsequently invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany in June 1941. With the 1944 Soviet Baltic offensive, Soviet rule was re-established in July 1944, after both Soviet occupations, mass deportation of the Lithuanians into gulags and other forced settlements ensued. The United States refused to recognize the annexation of Lithuania or the other Baltic States, by the Soviet Union, all legal ties of the Soviet Unions sovereignty over the republic were cut as Lithuania declared the restitution of its independence. The Soviet Union claimed that this declaration was illegal, as Lithuania had to follow the process of secession mandated in the Soviet Constitution if it wanted to leave
Tuvan People's Republic
The Tuvan Peoples Republic was a partially recognized independent state in the territory of the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia known as Uryankhaisky Krai. Although formally a sovereign, independent nation from 1921 to 1944, the Soviet Union and the Mongolian Peoples Republic were the only countries to recognize its independence. It joined the Soviet Union in 1944, the territory corresponding to that of Tannu Tuva is the non-sovereign Tuva Republic within the Russian Federation. Before its annexation by the Russian Empire, Tuva was part of the Chinese Qing dynasty, following the Russian Revolution of 1917, communist troops took Tuva in January 1920. The chaos accompanying this era allowed the Tuvans to again proclaim their independence, on 14 August 1921, the Bolsheviks established a Tuvan Peoples Republic, called Tannu Tuva until 1926. Tannu refers to the Tannu-ola Mountains while Tuva is derived from the Tuvan ethnicity, the capital Khem-Beldir was eventually renamed Kyzyl. A treaty between the Soviet Union and the Mongolian Peoples Republic in 1926 affirmed the country’s independence, no other countries formally recognized it, although it appeared on maps and globes produced in the United States.
Tuva’s first Prime Minister was Donduk Kuular of the Tuvan Peoples Revolutionary Party, Kuular made Buddhism the state religion and tried to limit settlers and propaganda coming from Russia. He tried to establish ties with Mongolia, the Soviet Union became increasingly alarmed by these initiatives and in 1929 Prime Minister Kuular was arrested and executed in the 1929 Tuvan coup détat. In the USSR meanwhile five members of the Communist University of the Toilers of the East, the new government set about trying to destroy Buddhism and shamanism in Tuva, a policy encouraged by Stalin. The attempts at eradicating nomadic husbandry were more difficult, a census in 1931 showed that 82. 2% of Tuvans still engaged in nomadic cattle breeding. Salchak Toka, one of the commissars extraordinary mentioned above, was made General Secretary of the Tuvan Peoples Revolutionary Party in 1932 and he stayed in power in Tuva until his death in 1973. It is sometimes written that Tuva entered World War II with the USSR on 22 or 25 June 1941, nevertheless, a voluntary funding campaign in Tuva helped the Red Army in the fight against the Axis Powers.
Additionally, Tuva despatched thousands of horses, overcoats, Tannu Tuva sent an infantry regiment and a cavalry squadron to fight the Axis as part of the Red Army. The Small Peoples Khural formalized the annexation at its session on 1 November 1944. Salchak Toka was given the title of First Secretary of the Tuvan Communist Party, Tuva remained an autonomous republic from 10 October 1961 until 1992. The area that was the Tuvan Peoples Republic is now known as Tyva Republic within the Russian Federation, over 75% of the population of Tuva are ethnic Tuvans. a. Russian population declined due to Red Army conscription during World War II, list of leaders of Communist Tuva Postage stamps and postal history of Tannu Tuva Tannu Uriankhai Tuvan akşa, the national currency
Areas annexed by Nazi Germany
There were many areas annexed by Nazi Germany both immediately before and throughout the course of World War II. The territories listed below are those that were annexed into Germany proper. The Memel Territory, north of the Neman River and including the city of Klaipėda, the area was to be administered by the League of Nations according to the Treaty of Versailles, but had been unilaterally occupied by Lithuania in 1923. The Free City of Danzig, incorporated on 8 October 1939 into the newly formed Reichsgau of Danzig-West Prussia, after Germanys invasion of their former partner in 1941, some parts of eastern Poland that had been annexed to the Soviet Union were in turn annexed by Germany. The Sudetenland, in October 1938 from the inter-war Czechoslovakia, the areas bordering Germany of Austria-Hungary that been dissolved by the post-First World War treaties and part of the newly created country were predominantly German-populated. Adolf Hitlers demands for their autonomy or reattachment to Germany triggered the Sudeten Crisis and it was resolved by the Munich Agreement, which allowed their annexation in exchange by a guarantee from Hitler to respect the future territorial integrity of the remainder of Czechoslovakia.
Austria, in the Anschluss of March 1938, northern Slovenia, in April 1941 following the invasion of Yugoslavia on the sixth of that month. Part of Cisleithania before the First World War and Alsace became respectively part of Gau Westmark and Reichsgau Oberrhein. The grand duchy owed its independence to the facts it had been in a union until 1867 with the crown of the Netherlands and part of the German Confederation. It was fused with the Gau of Koblenz-Trier to form the Gau of Moselland, eupen-Malmédy in June 1940, when the predominantly German-speaking in Belgiums border area was integrated with Köln-Aachen Gau. Historically a part of the Low Countries, they had awarded to Rhenish Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Belgium and northern France, de jure only from December 1944, in July 1944 it had been ephemerally replaced by a civil administration, the Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich. The theoretically annexed area was divided into three Reichsgaue, of Flanders and the district of Brussels, a part of Wallonia was under German control in December 1944/January 1945 during the Battle of the Bulge.
The territories listed below are those that were incorporated into the Greater German Reich. The name was shortened to just Generalgouvernement on 31 July 1940 by governor Hans Frank on Hitlers authority. In 1941 eastern Galicia, part of the Habsburg Austrian empire since the First Partition of Poland in 1772, was added to the governorate, although officially a protectorate, it was a de facto annexation. Slovakia gained its independence as a German client state as part of the event, the Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral was established on 10 September 1943, two days after its main Axis partner Italy signed the Armistice of Cassibile with the Allies. Although not formally annexed, it was administered as a part of Reichsgau Kärnten, the goal was to unite all or as many as possible ethnic Germans and Germanic peoples, including non-Germanic speaking ones considered Aryans, in a Greater Germanic Reich
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Gogland or Hogland is an island in the Gulf of Finland in the eastern Baltic Sea, about 180 km west from Saint Petersburg and 35 km from the coast of Finland. Hogland has an area of approximately 21 km2, its highest point is 173 m and it belongs to Russias Kingiseppsky District in the Leningrad Oblast. Hoglands tourist industry is growing in importance, with most tourists coming from St. Petersburg, in 2006, Russian authorities declared Hogland a border area, which means that foreign nationals are not allowed to travel to the island without special permits. This limits tourism from abroad to small groups, admitted one at a time, there is some confusion regarding the transliteration of the name from the Russian language. The name Hogland has never changed, however, in Russian. Since being ceded to Russia, the Russian name form, as seen on maps, is often used in western languages. Hogland has been inhabited by ethnic Finns since at least the 16th century, peter had the islands first lighthouse built in 1723.
During the Russo-Swedish War the Battle of Hogland, between the Russian and Swedish fleets, took place offshore, in July 1788, offshore there have been several notable shipwrecks. The crew of the three-mast clipper Amerika, which sank near the shore in October 1856, after the Finnish War, Gogland officially passed to the Russian Empire, although it was made part of the newly created Grand Duchy of Finland which gained independence from Russia in 1917. Most of the population lived in two fishing villages administrated from Viipuri. Hogland is known as the location of one of the earliest radio contacts, in return, the Soviet Union would show its good faith by offering a large slice of empty and unofficially disputed Karelian borderland in exchange. Soviet troops occupied the island during the Winter War, and the population was evacuated. Finnish forces captured Hogland during the Battle of Suursaari, Hogland reverted to Russian possession at the end of the war. During the war years both Soviet and Finnish troops built extensive fortifications, which are found all over the island.
The island has both modern and very old lighthouses, the log village of Suurkylä has been leveled and replaced with a few modern dwellings, possibly for a Soviet fishing collective farm, as well as some military facilities. Currently, about 50 people live permanently on the island, the island is renowned for its rugged scenery, including five lakes. Since 1826, the hill Mäkiinpäällys has two of the points in the Struve Geodetic Arc, tourist attractions of Gogland Account of a trip to Gogland, with illustrations Old pictures and maps from the Finnish era FSBs order number 239