General admiral was a Danish, German, Portuguese and Swedish naval rank. Its historic origin is a high military or naval dignitaries of early modern Europe sometimes held. In the German Kriegsmarine of the Second World War, Generaladmiral was a senior to an Admiral. Generaladmiral was a four-star admiral rank, equivalent to an admiral in the British. In the traditional German ranking system until World War II, an admiral was equivalent to a British or American vice admiral, the sleeve insignia for a Generaladmiral was the same as that of a regular admiral, being a thick rank stripe below three regular stripes. Generaladmirals wore a third pip on their boards to differentiate them from regular admirals. The German Army and Air Force equivalent of Generaladmiral was the colonel general. A similar practice was used in the German Army, allowing colonel generals to wear four pips on the board when engaged in duties befitting a field marshal. ⇒ see main article Ranks of the Kriegsmarine The rank of Generaladmiral was first given to the grand admiral Erich Raeder on 20 April 1936.
General-admiral was the highest rank of the Russian Navy as established by the Table of Ranks, the general admiral rank was abolished with the fall of the Empire and was not revived when rank distinctions were reintroduced during 1935-40. The rank of admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union can be considered as a modern equivalent, almirante general is a rank in the Spanish Navy that is above an admiral, but subordinate to a captain general. Almirante-general was the highest rank in the Portuguese Navy, from 1808 to 1812 and again and it was the naval equivalent to the rank of marechal-general of the Portuguese Army. The rank was introduced in 1808, to be assigned to the commander-in-chief of the navy. The almirante-general had similar functions to those of the former capitão-general da armada which had been extinguished in 1796, the rank was only given to Infante Pedro Carlos de Bragança, being extinguished when he died in 1812. In 1892, the rank was reintroduced as a mere ceremonial rank to be held by the King of Portugal in his constitutional function of supreme commander of the navy.
As supreme commander of the army, the king held the ceremonial rank of marechal-general. The last holder of the rank was King Manuel II, generalamiral is the highest rank of admiral that has existed in the Swedish Navy, created by Charles XI in the name of Admiral General. Gustav III revived the rank in 1780, and the year issued instructions for the General Admiral
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel.
According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner.
Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source
Captain lieutenant or captain-lieutenant is a military rank, used in a number of navies worldwide and formerly in the British Army. It is generally equivalent to the Commonwealth or US rank of lieutenant, the same rank is used in the navies of Finland and Norway. The Norwegian Navy goes a step further in ranking the kapteinløytnant as OF-3 when serving afloat, in the Estonian Navy the similarly sounding rank of kaptenleitnant is an officer rank classified as NATO OF-4, i. e. equal to commander in the Royal Navy and United States Navy. As the commander of the Estonian Navy is a captain, this is the de facto second highest rank in the Estonian Navy, the French Army of the Ancien Régime used a rank of capitaine-lieutenant very similar to the British one. It was mostly encountered in the Royal Guard, where the king was officially captain of most of the guard companies, dArtagnan is perhaps the most famous captain-lieutenant in French history, as commander of the first mousquetaire company. Kapitänleutnant is an OF2 rank equivalent to the Hauptmann in the German Army, see In the Royal Netherlands Navy, a kapitein-luitenant ter zee is equivalent to a US Navy or Royal Navy commander.
In the Portuguese Navy, a capitão-tenente is the equivalent naval rank to a British or American lieutenant commander, the Brazilian Navy uses the rank of capitão-tenente, in the same manner as the Navy of Portugal, but in contrast to those of other South American countries. It is equivalent to the USN and RN lieutenant, kapitan-leytenant is a rank in the Russian Navy, previously the Red Fleet/Soviet Navy and Imperial Russian Navy. It is the rank below a captain of the 3rd rank, in Soviet times, it may be achieved as early as an officers 5th year of service. In Russian and other East-European navies it is the most senior officer rank. The Russian Navy assigns this rank the two-and-a-half stripe insignia used in Britain, on the other hand, the US Navy considers this rank equivalent to lieutenant. In terms of responsibilities, officers of rank may serve as department heads on larger warships. Unlike the equivalent OF2-rank Kapitänleutnant in the German Navy, submarines are at least nominally not on the list of eligible positions, in the past, when the boats were smaller, captain-lieutenants were eligible for the submarine command.
However, in current Soviet/Russian ship ranking no modern submarine is given 3rd rank and this reflects the high status of submarines, as all nuclear submarines are considered 1st rank and large and medium diesels 2nd rank, while smaller 3rd rank submarines simply arent built. Rank insignia IRA, Soviet Navy, RF Navy The rank is used by the navies of several ex-Soviet republics. It is used in the navies of Ukraine and Latvia, captain-lieutenant was formerly a rank in the British Army, the senior subaltern rank, above lieutenant and below captain. A regiments field officers - its colonel, lieutenant colonel, and major - originally commanded their own companies and this left the colonels company without a captain. The lieutenant of this company thus became its acting captain and this state of affairs was formally recognised with the creation of the rank of captain-lieutenant, with its own entry in the table of prices for the purchase of commissions
Corvette captain is a rank in many navies which theoretically corresponds to command of a corvette. The equivalent rank in the United Kingdom and United States is lieutenant commander, the Royal Canadian Navy uses bilingual ranks, with capitaine de corvette being the French equivalent of lieutenant commander. Notable users of the rank of captain in Europe include the navies of France, Italy, Spain. Other users include many Latin American countries, while the NATO rank code is OF-3, the official translation of the rank as per NATO STANAG2116 varies between commander junior grade and commander. Some NATO members class their corvette captains as OF-4 when they are serving afloat, the Russian/Soviet equivalent is captain, 3rd grade. Korvettenkapitän is an OF3 rank equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of Major
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to an admiral and junior to an admiral. The rank insignia for a vice admiral often involves three stars, but this is not always the case, in the navy of Iraq, vice admiral insignia involves one star. Vice admiral is the equivalent of air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force, in the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of vice-admiral is equivalent to lieutenant-general of the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force. A vice-admiral is an officer, the naval equivalent of a general officer. A vice-admiral is senior to a rear-admiral and major general, two rows of gold oak leaves are located on the black visor of the white service cap. Vice-admirals are addressed by rank and name, thereafter by subordinates as Sir or Maam, vice-admirals are normally entitled to a staff car, the car will normally bear a flag, dark blue with three gold maple leaves arranged one over two.
A vice-admiral generally holds only the most senior command or administrative appointments, barring only Chief of Defence Staff, Prince of Wales holds the honorary rank of vice admiral in the Royal Canadian Navy. The vice-amiral rank used to be an OF-8 rank in NATO charts, the rank of vice-amiral descadre equals a NATO OF-8 rank. In the ancien régime Navy, between 1669 and 1791, the office of Vice-Admiral of France was the highest rank, the supreme office of Admiral of France being purely ceremonial. Distinct offices were, 1669-1791 Vice-admiral of the West, 1778-1791 Vice-admiral of the Asian and American Seas. 1784-1788 Vice-admiral of the Indian Seas, vizeadmiral is an OF-8 three-star rank equivalent to the German Heer and Luftwaffe rank of Generalleutnant. In India, vice admiral is a three star admiral, in Italy, the equivalent to vice admiral is the ammiraglio di squadra or squadron admiral. In the Philippines, the vice admiral is the highest-ranking official of the Philippine Navy. He is recognized as the flag officer in-charge of the Navy, the rank vice-admiral in the Philippines, has the same ranking in the U.
S Navy. In Vietnam, the equivalent to vice admiral is the phó đô đốc
Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in a regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag. This rank has generally replaced in army ranks by second lieutenant. Ensigns were generally the lowest ranking commissioned officer, except where the rank of subaltern existed. In contrast, the Arab rank of ensign, لواء, derives from the command of units with an ensign, not the carrier of such a units ensign, and is today the equivalent of a major general. Ensign is enseigne in French, and chorąży in Polish, each of which derives from a term for a flag, the Spanish alférez and Portuguese alferes is a junior officer rank below lieutenant associated with carrying the flag, and so is often translated as ensign. Unlike the rank in other languages, its etymology has nothing to do with flags, in the German Landsknecht armies, the equivalent rank of a Cornet existed for those men who carried the troop standard.
It is still used in the artillery and cavalry divisions of the Netherlands, the NATO rank code is OF-1. In Argentina, the rank of ensign is used by both the air force and the gendarmerie and it is, used differently in the two services. The air force uses the rank for newly qualified officers, while the gendarmerie uses ensign ranks as an equivalent for the armys lieutenant ranks, the other armed forces of Argentina have ranks equivalent to ensign, subteniente in the army and guardiamarina in the navy. In the army, the most junior sublieutenant in a regiment is the flag carrier, during the Ancien Régime in France, as in other countries, the ensign was the banner of an infantry regiment. As in other countries, the name began to be used for the officers who carried the ensign and it was renamed sub-lieutenant at the end of the 18th century. The Navy used a rank of ensign, which was the first officer rank. It was briefly renamed ship-of-the-line sub-lieutenant in the end of the 18th century, the rank is still used in the Marine Nationale, Ship-of-the-line ensign is the name of the two lowest officer ranks Both ranks of ensign use the style lieutenant.
However, French-Canadian sub-lieutenants use the form of enseigne instead of lieutenant. The rank ensign is used to refer to second lieutenants in household regiments of the Canadian Army. Fähnrich which has a parallel etymology to ensign, containing the corresponding German word stem of flag in it, is a German, the word Fähnrich comes from an older German military title, Fahnenträger, and first became a distinct military rank on 1 January 1899. The German Fähnrich is a non-commissioned officer promoted from the rank of Fahnenjunker or Seekadett, Fähnrich is equivalent to Feldwebel, but with additional responsibilities as an officer cadet