Antonello da Messina
His work shows strong influences from Early Netherlandish painting although there is no documentary evidence that he ever travelled beyond Italy. Giorgio Vasari credited him with the introduction of oil painting into Italy, unusually for a south Italian artist of the Renaissance, his work proved influential on painters in northern Italy, especially in Venice. Antonello was born at Messina around 1429–1431, to Giovanni de Antonio Mazonus and this account of his training is accepted by most art historians. Antonello returned to Messina from Naples during the 1450s, in around 1455 he painted the so-called Sibiu Crucifixion, inspired by Flemish treatments of the subject, which is now in the Muzeul de Artǎ in Bucharest. A Crucifixion in the Royal Museum of Antwerp dates from the same period, in his biography of the artist, Giorgio Vasari remarked that Antonello saw an oil painting by Jan Van Eyck belonging to King Alfonso V of Aragon at Naples. Another theory, supported only by vague documentary evidence, suggests that in 1456 Antonello visited Milan, neither is known for certain to have been in Milan at the time.
Between the years of 1456 and 1457, Antonello proved himself to be a painter in Messina. He shared his home with Paolo di Ciacio, a student from Calabria, at this date, he was already married, and his son Jacobello had been born. In 1460, his father is mentioned leasing a brigantine to bring back Antonello, from around 1460 are two small panels depicting Abraham Served by the Angels and St. Jerome Penitent now in the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in Reggio Calabria. In 1461 Antonellos younger brother Giordano entered his workshop, signing a three-year contract, in that year Antonello painted a Madonna with Child for the Messinese nobleman Giovanni Mirulla, now lost. Historians believe that Antonello painted his first portraits in the late 1460s, john Pope-Hennessy described him as the first Italian painter for whom the individual portrait was an art form in its own right. In 1474, he painted the Annunciation, now in Syracuse, Antonello went to Venice in 1475 and remained there until the fall of 1476.
His works of this begin to show a greater attention to the human figure. His most famous pictures from this include the Condottiero, the San Cassiano Altarpiece. While in Venice he was offered, but did not accept, Antonello had returned to Sicily by September 1476. Works from near the end of his include the famous Virgin Annunciate, now in the Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo. He died at Messina in 1479 and his testament dates from February of that year, and he is documented as no longer alive two months later. Some of his last works remained unfinished, but were completed by his son Jacobello, Antonellos style is remarkable for its union of Italian simplicity with Flemish concern for detail
Natural History Museum, Vienna
The Natural History Museum is a large natural history museum located in Vienna, Austria. The museums website provides an overview in the form of a virtual tour, the museums earliest collections of artifacts were begun over 250 years ago. Today, its collections on display cover 8,700 square metres, as of 2011, the museum houses approximately 30 million objects and the number is growing. Behind the scenes, collections comprising some 25 million specimens and artefacts are the basis for the work of over 60 staff scientists. The museum building opened in 1889 at the time as the Kunsthistorisches Museum. The two museums have identical exteriors and face each other across Maria-Theresien-Platz, the Museum was built to house the huge collection of the Habsburgs. Both buildings were built between 1872 and 1891 on the Ringstraße according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer, the insect collections date from 1793 when Franz I of Austria purchased the scientific collections of Joseph Natterer, Sr.
In 1806 the museum purchased a collection of European insects made by Johann Carl Megerle von Mühlfeld and he organised the purchase of the Gundian collection of European butterflies. In 1859, the frigate SMS Novara returned from a voyage with Georg Ritter von Frauenfeld and Johann Zelebor. These were worked on by Ludwig Redtenbacher, Friedrich Moritz Brauer, Henri Louis Frederic de Saussure, Gustav Mayr, Ignaz Rudolph Schiner, C Felder, R. Felder, the present museum organization dates from 1876. The main building of the museum is a palace that has accommodated these constantly growing collections. However, some of the collections had been moved from older buildings, such as the Austrian National Library. The interaction of the building, its decoration, furniture. A contemporary presentation of the exhibits, using modern technology, has been possible without any destruction of the buildings historical structures. The first floor displays the variety of the animal world. Note that some signs and explanations in the museum are in German, while much of the museum is in German, Imperial Natural History Museum, the current museums predecessor.
Other major museums in Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Museum of Fine Art sitting opposite the Vienna Museum of Natural History, lobkowitz Palace, housing the Kunsthistorisches Museums theatrical department and the Austrian National Library. Technisches Museum Wien, the Museum of Technology, Museum of Ethnology Official website Annals, an early history of the museum
Tintoretto was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso and his work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures, and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School. His real name Comin was discovered by Miguel Falomir of the Museo del Prado, Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language. Tintoretto was born in Venice in 1518, as the eldest of 21 children and his father, was a dyer, or tintore, hence the son got the nickname of Tintoretto, little dyer, or dyers boy, which is anglicized as Tintoret. The family originated from Brescia, in Lombardy, part of the Republic of Venice, older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family. In childhood Jacopo, a painter, began daubing on the dyers walls, his father, noticing his bent. This was supposedly towards 1533, when Titian was already fifty-six years of age, active disparagement was not wanting, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto.
The latter sought for no further teaching, but studied on his own account with laborious zeal, he lived poorly, collecting casts, bas-reliefs etc. and practising by their aid. His noble conception of art and his personal ambition were evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano. Now and afterwards he very frequently worked by night as well as by day, the young painter Andrea Schiavone, four years Tintorettos junior, was much in his company. Tintoretto helped Schiavone gratis in wall-paintings, and in many subsequent instances he worked for nothing, the two earliest mural paintings of Tintoretto—done, like others, for next to no pay—are said to have been Belshazzars Feast and a Cavalry Fight. These are both long since perished, as are all his frescoes, early or later, the first work of his to attract some considerable notice was a portrait-group of himself and his brother—the latter playing a guitar—with a nocturnal effect, this is lost.
It was followed by some subject, which Titian was candid enough to praise. For the Scuola della Trinità he painted four subjects from Genesis, up till 2012, The Embarkation of St Helena in the Holy Land was attributed to his contemporary Andrea Schiavone. But new analysis of the work has revealed it as one of a series of three paintings by Tintoretto, depicting the legend of St Helena And The Holy Cross, the error was uncovered during work on a project to catalogue continental European oil paintings in the UK. The Embarkation of St Helena was acquired by the V&A in 1865 and its sister paintings, The Discovery Of The True Cross and St Helen Testing The True Cross, are held in galleries in the US. Towards 1546 Tintoretto painted for the church of the Madonna dellOrto three of his works, the Worship of the Golden Calf, the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple. He took the commission for two of the paintings, the Worship of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment, on a cost only basis in order to make himself better known and he settled down in a house hard by the church
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, known in English as Titian /ˈtɪʃən/, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno, during his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, during the course of his long life, Titians artistic manner changed drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his pieces, their loose brushwork. The exact date of Titians birth is uncertain, when he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II, King of Spain, to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures that would equate to birthdates between 1473 and after 1482 and he was the son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia.
His father was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore, Gregorio was a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titians grandfather, were notaries, and the family of four were well-established in the area, at the age of about ten to twelve he and his brother Francesco were sent to an uncle in Venice to find an apprenticeship with a painter. At that time the Bellinis, especially Giovanni, were the artists in the city. There Titian found a group of men about his own age, among them Giovanni Palma da Serinalta, Lorenzo Lotto, Sebastiano Luciani. Francesco Vecellio, his brother, became a painter of some note in Venice. A fresco of Hercules on the Morosini Palace is said to have one of Titians earliest works. Others were the Bellini-esque so-called Gypsy Madonna in Vienna, and the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth, now in the Accademia, a Man with a Quilted Sleeve is an early portrait, painted around 1509 and described by Giorgio Vasari in 1568. Scholars long believed it depicted Ludovico Ariosto, but now think it is of Gerolamo Barbarigo, Rembrandt borrowed the composition for his self-portraits.
Titian joined Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary critics found his work more impressive—for example in exterior frescoes that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Their relationship evidently contained a significant element of rivalry, distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy. A substantial number of attributions have moved from Giorgione to Titian in the 20th century, one of the earliest known Titian works, Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, depicting the Ecce Homo scene, was long regarded as by Giorgione. In 1507–1508 Giorgione was commissioned by the state to create frescoes on the re-erected Fondaco dei Tedeschi and Morto da Feltre worked along with him, and some fragments of paintings remain, probably by Giorgione
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid. It is used as coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually means a coating for the outside of a building, and plaster one for interiors, as described below, but other European languages, importantly including Italian, do not have the same distinction, stucco means plaster in Italian and serves for both. This has led to English often using stucco for interior decorative plasterwork in relief, especially in art history, the difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition. Animal or plant fibers were often added for additional strength, in the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster, traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water, lime is added to increase the permeability and workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the properties of the stucco. This is usually done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, lime stucco is a relatively hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty. The lime itself is white, color comes from the aggregate or any added pigments. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is very hard and brittle and can easily crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, typically its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Todays stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
As a building material, stucco is a durable, attractive and it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick or stone surface. The finish coat usually contained a color and was typically textured for appearance. The lath added support for the wet plaster and tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco, while the increased thickness, the traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat
A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy, there are a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives, a lantern may cover an oculus and may itself have another dome. Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, stone, brick, metal and plastic over the centuries. The symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary and governmental traditions that have developed over time. Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, which may explain the forms spread and they are found in Persian, Hellenistic and Chinese architecture in the Ancient world, as well as among a number of contemporary indigenous building traditions. They were popular in Byzantine and medieval Islamic architecture, and there are examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance style spread from Italy in the Early modern period, advancements in mathematics and production techniques since that time resulted in new dome types. The domes of the world can be found over religious buildings, legislative chambers, sports stadiums. The English word dome ultimately derives from the Latin domus —which, up through the Renaissance, labeled a revered house, such as a Domus Dei, or House of God, the French word dosme came to acquire the meaning of a cupola vault, specifically, by 1660. A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution, sometimes called false domes, corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each horizontal layer of stones inward slightly farther than the lower one until they meet at the top. A false dome may refer to a wooden dome, true domes are said to be those whose structure is in a state of compression, with constituent elements of wedge-shaped voussoirs, the joints of which align with a central point. The validity of this is unclear, as domes built underground with corbelled stone layers are in compression from the surrounding earth, as with arches, the springing of a dome is the level from which the dome rises.
The top of a dome is the crown, the inner side of a dome is called the intrados and the outer side is called the extrados. The haunch is the part of an arch that lies halfway between the base and the top. The word cupola is another word for dome, and is used for a small dome upon a roof or turret. Cupola has used to describe the inner side of a dome. Drums, called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with or without windows that support a dome, a tambour or lantern is the equivalent structure over a domes oculus, supporting a cupola
San Cassiano Altarpiece
The San Cassiano Altarpiece is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Antonello da Messina, dating to 1475-1476. Commissioned for the church of San Cassiano in Venice, it was disassembeld in the early 17th-century and it was one of the most influential paintings in the Veneto area of the time. It is unknown when it was disassembeld or why, but it was already in fragments when parts of it were documented by David Teniers the Younger for his Theatrum Pictorium in 1660. It wasnt until 1929 that three of the fragments were reunited by the Hungarian art historian Johannes Wilde, other surviving fragments have been analysed to fit according to the model of a reconstruction in a virtual architectural study. Originally a larger altarpiece, it now only the central panel with the Virgin Enthroned. Allegedly inspired by another Holy Conversation by Giovanni Bellini in the church of San Giovanni e Paolo, it however a more balance composition. Antonello adopted a pyramidal layout, enhanced by the use of light.
The book with three golden balls held by St. Nicholas alludes to the episode in which he gave them to three girls to be used as dowry, Italian Renaissance painting, development of themes J. Wilde, Pala di San Cassiano Rekonstruktionsversuch, Jahrbuch der Kunsthist. III, pp. 57-72 De Vecchi, Elda Cerchiari, page at the museums website Antonello da Messina, Sicilys Renaissance Master, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on the altarpiece
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and even the mood of the person, for this reason, in photography a portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features. The 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c.2144 -2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality. Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypts Fayum district. These are almost the only paintings from the world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures. Although the appearance of the figures differs considerably, they are considerably idealized, the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones.
During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of a symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are mostly generalized, true portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings. Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations which produced portraits and these works accurately represent anatomical features in great detail. The individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the elite, warriors. They were represented during several stages of their lives, the faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found, there is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vincis painting titled Mona Lisa.
What has been claimed as the worlds oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old. Profile view, full view, and three-quarter view, are three common designations for portraits, each referring to a particular orientation of the head of the individual depicted. Such terms would tend to have greater applicability to two-dimensional artwork such as photography, in the case of three-dimensional artwork, the viewer can usually alter their orientation to the artwork by moving around it
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and many others from 2 December 1848 until his death on 21 November 1916. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation, in December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc as part of Ministerpräsident Felix zu Schwarzenbergs plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinands nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne, largely considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains. Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign and he concluded the Ausgleich of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary, hence transforming the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Empire under his dual monarchy. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, the Bosnian crisis was a result of Franz Josephs annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which had been occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin.
On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungarys declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia and this activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for almost 68 years and he was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles. His name in German was Franz Joseph I and I and his names in other languages were and Bosnian, Franjo Josip I. Ukrainian, Фра́нц Йо́сиф I, Francisc Iosif Slovene, serbian, Фрања Јосиф Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, at the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style, Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Archduke Karl Ludwig, and Archduke Ludwig Viktor, and a sister, Maria Anna, who died at the age of four.
Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, by all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the setting of Innsbruck. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June. It was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his bride, a girl of ten. Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt safe to return to Vienna, but within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, and in September the court left again, this time for Olomouc in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, the military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne. By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, at this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name
Baron Karl von Hasenauer
Baron Karl von Hasenauer was an important Austrian architect and key representative of the Historismus school. He created several Neo-Baroque monuments, many around near the Ringstraße in Vienna and he was a student of August Sicard von Sicardsburg and Eduard van der Nüll. For his outstanding work, he was ennobled by Emperor Franz Joseph I in 1873, and made Freiherr, Hasenauer was the chief architect for the Vienna Worlds Fair in 1873. Together with Gottfried Semper he designed the complex with the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the Naturhistorisches Museum, the Burgtheater, the Hermesvilla, after a conflict with his former business partner Semper he managed the building of the Hofburg alone. The conflict over attribution of their joint projects continues to this day between the supporters of Semper and Hasenauer, because the older master Semper is credited with the Semperoper in Dresden, Hasenauer receives more credit for the architecture in the Ringstraße