The Taman Peninsula, a peninsula in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia, borders on the north with the Sea of Azov, on the west with the Strait of Kerch and on the south with the Black Sea. The area has evolved over the past two millennia from a chain of islands into todays peninsula, in ancient times the Pontic Greek colonies of Hermonassa and Phanagoria stood on the peninsula, as did the city of Tmutarakan. The Maeotae and Sindi settled in the area from ancient times, in the classical period it became part of the Bosporan kingdom, its inhabitants included Sarmatians, Anatolian settlers from Pontus, and Jews. In the 4th century CE the area fell to the Huns, it was the capital of Great Bulgaria, following the breakup of the Khazar Khaganate in c. 969, the formed part of a Khazar Jewish successor state under a ruler named David. By the late 980s it came largely into the possession of the Kievan Rus, the Mongols seized the area in 1239 and it became a possession of Genoa, along with Gazaria in Crimea, in 1419.
For most of the 15th century the Guizolfi family, founded by the Genoese Jew Simeone de Guizolfi, the rulership of the region by Jewish consuls, commissioners or princes has sparked much debate over the extent to which Khazar Judaism survived in southern Russia during this period. The Khanate of Crimea seized the Taman Peninsula in 1483, either It fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1783. In 1791, during the Russo-Turkish War, it passed into the control of the Russian Empire, Russia ceded it back to the Ottomans in 1792. It finally passed to Russia in 1828. }For much of the succeeding century, the largest settlement was the Cossack town of Taman, succeeded by the port town of Temryuk in modern times. Mikhail Lermontov describes the town of Taman in his novel, A Hero of Our Time, the peninsula contains small mud volcanoes and deposits of natural gas and petroleum. The German Wehrmacht and the Romanian Army occupied the Taman Peninsula in 1942, the story of the motion picture Cross of Iron revolves around conflicts that arise within the leadership of a Wehrmacht regiment during the German retreat from the Kuban bridgehead
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along the bottoms of valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or uplands. In a valley, a plain is enclosed on two sides but in other cases a plain may be delineated by a complete or partial ring of hills, where a geological region contains more than one plain, they may be connected by a pass. Coastal plains would mostly rise from sea level until they run into elevated features such as mountains or plateaus, plains are one of the major landforms on earth, where they are present on all continents, and would cover more than one-third of the world’s land area. Plains may have formed from flowing lava, deposited by water, wind, or formed by erosion by these agents from hills. Plains would generally be under the grassland, savannah or tundra biomes, in a few instances and rainforests can be plains. Structural plains are relatively undisturbed horizontal surfaces of the Earth and they are structurally depressed areas of the world that make up some of the most extensive natural lowlands on the Earths surface.
Erosional plains have been leveled by various agents of such as running water, rivers and glacier which wear out the rugged surface. Plain resulting from the action of these agents of denudation are called peneplains while plains formed from wind action are called pediplains, depositional plains formed by the deposition of materials brought by various agents of transportation such as rivers, wind and glaciers. Their fertility and economic relevance depend greatly on the types of sediments that are laid down, flood plain, adjacent to a stream, lake or wetland that experiences occasional or periodic flooding. Scroll plain, a plain through which a river meanders with a low gradient. Lacustrine plain, a plain that originally formed in a lacustrine environment, lava plain, formed by sheets of flowing lava. Glacial plains, formed by the movement of glaciers under the force of gravity, sandar consist mainly of stratified gravel and sand. Till plain, a plain of glacial till that forms when a sheet of ice becomes detached from the body of a glacier.
Till plains are composed of unsorted material of all sizes, abyssal plain, a flat or very gently sloping area of the deep ocean basin. Planitia, the Latin word for plain, is used in the naming of plains on extraterrestrial objects, such as Hellas Planitia on Mars or Sedna Planitia on Venus
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
PBC Lokomotiv Kuban
PBC Lokomotiv Kuban is a Russian professional basketball team that is based in Krasnodar. The club participates in the VTB United League, and EuroCup, the team is one of the top tier basketball teams in Russia. The teams honour list includes a EuroCup championship in the 2012–13 season, the history of the Lokomotiv starts back in 1946 in Mineralnye Vody. There were few volunteers to play basketball during the first after-war years – not more than 150 people, teenagers were trained by experienced and patient mentors – railways workers Grigory Abugov and Nikolai Kharchenko. Grigory Abugov became a coach, who raised a number of high-class professionals. Some of them are still in basketball as coaches, Lokomotiv played in the first league championship for a number of years, until in 1994 it finally got into the elite of the national basketball. In 1999 Lokomotiv got the right to represent Russia in the European tournaments, the season 2002–03 became the final for the team from Mineralnye Vody. Lokomotiv hardly reached the play-off, taking the 8th place out of 10 and it became obvious to many that changes needed to be made.
The decision was made to move the club to a more developed. The basketball club Lokomotiv Rostov was established in 2003 in Rostov-on-Don, the project was organised by Andrey Vedischev, the world-class master of sports, bronze medallist of the European Championship and the Russian National Championship. During the next six years the club played in the city of Don, during these years the railways team was one of the strongest in Russia, regularly entering the play-off of the national championship and in the European cups. The best achievement of the Lokomotiv during these years was the 5th place in the Russian National Championship, in the summer of 2009 the president of the Russian Railways, Vladimir Yakunin, made the decision to move the club from Rostov-on-Don to Krasnodar. The main reason for that was that the arenas in Rostov were not satisfying the requirements of the Russian National Championship, relocation was followed by the name change to Lokomotiv Kuban. Lokomotivs first season in Krasnodar was under Sašo Filipovski, the season started successfully for the railways team.
Krasnodar got close to win against CSKA in first round, won four times in a row. Second half of the season was not that successful, Loko went through a few defeats and lost its position in Russian League, Sašo Filipovski was replaced by the Lithuanian national basketball team head coach – Kęstutis Kemzūra. After losing all chance of staying in EuroChallenge, railways team concentrated on the Russian League, under Kęstutis Kemzūra the team started showing stable results. Gerald Green was the most efficient player in the team after second half of the season, in the 2011–12 season Lokomotiv Kuban spent under legendary coach Božidar Maljković and got through to EuroCup Top-8, took bronze medals in Russian League
Don Cossacks are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don. As of 1992, by the decree of the Russian Federation. A number of Cossack communities have been reconstituted to further the Cossack cultural traditions, Don Cossacks have had a rich military tradition, playing an important part in the historical development of the Russian Empire and participating in most of its major wars. The name Cossack was widely used to free people as opposed to others with different standing in a feudal society. The word cossack was applied to migrants, free-booters and bandits, the exact origins of Cossacks are unknown. More than two years ago the Scythians lived on the banks of the river Don. Many Scythian tombs have found in this area. Subsequently, the area was inhabited by the Khazars and the Polovtsians, the steppes of the Don River were called The Wild Field. The area was under the control of the Golden Horde. The first Christians to settle on the territories around the Don were the Jassi, after the fall of the Golden Horde in 1480, more Russian colonists started to expand onto this land from the Novgorod Republic after the Battle of Shelon and from neighboring Principality of Ryazan.
Until the end of the 16th century, the Don Cossacks inhabited independent free territories, Cossacks of Ryazan are mentioned in 1444 as a defenders of Pereslavl-Zalessky against the units of Golden Horde and in a letter of Ivan III of Russia since 1502. After the Golden Horde fell in 1480, the area around the Don River was divided between the Crimean west side and the Nogai east side, in the course of time they turned into a united community and were called the Cossacks. At first the main occupation of these armed detachments was hunting and fishing—as well as the constant struggle against the Turks. Only they began to settle and work on the land, the first records relating to the Cossack villages, the stanitsa, date back to 1549. In the year 1552 Don Cossacks under the command of Ataman Susar Fedorov joined the Army of Ivan the Terrible during the Siege of Kazan in 1552. On 2 June 1556 the Cossack regiment of Ataman Lyapun Filimonov, together with the Army of Moscovits comprising strelets, during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the ataman Yermak Timofeyevich went on an expedition to conquer Siberia.
After defeating Khan Kuchum in the fall of 1582 and occupying Isker, the detachment led by Bogdan Bryazga, passed through the lands of the Konda-Pelym Voguls and reached the walls of the town of Samarovo. Taken by surprise by the attack, the Ostyaks surrendered
The Black Sea is a body of water between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Ukraine. It is supplied by a number of rivers, such as the Danube, Rioni, Southern Bug. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a depth of 2,212 m. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south and by the Caucasus Mountains to the east, the longest east-west extent is about 1,175 km. The Black Sea has a water balance, that is, a net outflow of water 300 km3 per year through the Bosphorus. Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a two-way hydrological exchange, the Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, via the Aegean Sea and various straits. The Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and these waters separate Eastern Europe and Western Asia. The Black Sea is connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch, the water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the level in the basin. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established and it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean.
When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is a basin, operating independently of the global ocean system. Currently the Black Sea water level is high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows, On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara, a line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Strabos Geographica reports that in antiquity, the Black Sea was often just called the Sea, for the most part, Graeco-Roman tradition refers to the Black Sea as the Hospitable sea, Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos. This is a euphemism replacing an earlier Inhospitable Sea, Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, strabo thinks that the Black Sea was called inhospitable before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes.
The name was changed to hospitable after the Milesians had colonized the southern shoreline and it is possible that the epithet Áxeinos arose by popular etymology from a Scythian word axšaina- unlit, the designation Black Sea may thus date from antiquity. A map of Asia dating to 1570, entitled Asiae Nova Descriptio, from Abraham Orteliuss Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, english-language writers of the 18th century often used the name Euxine Sea to refer to the Black Sea
FC Kuban Krasnodar
FC Kuban is a Russian football club based in Krasnodar playing in the Russian Football National League. The team began playing in the Russian Premier League in 2011, FC Kuban is one of the oldest football clubs in Russia. Founded as Dynamo of the Krasnodar NKVD, FC Kuban has changed its affiliations because of changing politics in the USSR, club members and fans are called Kubantsies or yellow-greens. The team is known as the Cossacks by fans. Other nicknames associated with the colours are The Canaries and The Toads. Dynamo Neftyanik Kuban Spartak Kuban Football first appeared in Kuban during the early 20th century, the first matches were intra-club, and football competed with other sports, interest gradually grew and friendly matches were played between clubs in different cities. The first intercity football match was played in Ekaterinodar on 6 August 1912 when the Achilles club defeated Novorossiysk Olympia 5–0, since 1913, when the first city championship was played, matches between city teams have become common.
According to the club, its history began in 1928 with the organization in Krasnodar of Dynamo NKVD, according to some reports the team was founded a year earlier, but documentary evidence of that club does not exist. The team came into existence in 1928, according to documents in the archives, before there was a national championship, Dynamo played friendly matches with the best teams in Russia and the Caucasus. In addition to matches, tournaments were played in the city. In 1931 Dynamo moved into its own stadium, in the center of Krasnodar and that year, the club received the Sportspeople of the Northern Caucasus award. In 1935, Dynamo played in the intercity USSR Championship, in the group stage in Pyatigorsk, the team played three games in five days. On 26 June, they played to a 2–2 draw with Yerevan, on 30 June the club lost to Pyatigorsk 1–2, finishing third in the group. Dynamo was undefeated in the zone tournament, the playoffs began on 3 October at the Dynamo stadium, where the hosts reached the finals undefeated.
On 17 October 1948 Dynamo beat Molotov 4–0 in the final and became, for the first time in their history, in 1953 Dynamo changed its name to Neftyanik, representing Krasnodar in the Class B Soviet League the following year. The team played well in the first round of the 1953 championship but faltered in the second, in the 1955 season, Neftyanik finished in fifth place and was promoted to Class A of the Soviet Top League. The following year, the finished fourth. In the 1957 season Neftyanik again finished fourth, in 1958 the team again changed its name, this time to Kuban
Black Sea Governorate
The Black Sea Governorate, known as Chernomore or the Black Sea Government, was an administrative division of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus. It was established in 1896 on the territory of Black Sea Okrug of Kuban Oblast, in 1905, the population of the governorate was about 70,000 and the area—6,475 square versts, making it the smallest Russian governorate by both measures. The governorates territory was included into the unofficial Kuban-Black Sea Oblast in March 1920