The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China. It is currently the second-largest in the country, the predecessor of the KMT, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, Sun was the provisional president but he did not have military power and ceded the first presidency to the military leader Yuan Shikai. After Yuans death, China was divided by warlords, while the KMT was able to only part of the south. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and it was the ruling party in mainland China from 1928 until its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after being defeated by the Communist Party of China during the Chinese Civil War. In Taiwan, the KMT continued as the ruling party until the reforms in the late 1970s through the 1990s loosened its grip on power. Since 1987, the Republic of China is no longer a single-party state, the KMT is currently the main opposition party in the Legislative Yuan.
The guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen and its party headquarters are located in Taipei. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union, the previous president, Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, was the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan. However, since 2008, in order to ease tensions with the PRC, the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, the then-President of the ROC, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy.
The party opposed constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan, the Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. But Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions, Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament, Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915, in order tonary Party, members must take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution. Thus, many old revolutionaries did not join Suns new organisation, Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to against the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai
Battle of Imphal
The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur in northeast India from March until July 1944. Japanese armies attempted to destroy the Allied forces at Imphal and invade India, the defeat at Kohima and Imphal was the largest defeat to that date in Japanese history. At the start of 1944, the war was going against the Japanese on several fronts and they were being driven back in the central and southwest Pacific, and their merchant ships were under attack by Allied submarines and aircraft. In southeast Asia, they had held their lines over the year, but the Allies were preparing several offensives from India. In particular, the town of Imphal in Manipur on the frontier with Burma was built up to be a substantial Allied logistic base, with airfields and supply dumps. Imphal was linked to a larger base at Dimapur in the Brahmaputra River valley by a road which wound for 100 miles through the steep. Imphal was held by the IV Corps, commanded by Lieutenant-General Geoffrey Scoones, the corps was in turn part of the British Fourteenth Army under Lieutenant General William Slim.
20th Indian Infantry Division under Major-General Douglas Gracey occupied Tamu,110 kilometres south-east of Imphal, the division was untried but well-trained. 17th Indian Infantry Division under Major-General Punch Cowan occupied Tiddim,243 kilometres south of Imphal, at the end of a long, the division, which had two brigades only, had been intermittently in action since December 1941. 23rd Indian Infantry Division under Major-General Ouvry Roberts was in reserve in and it had served on the Imphal front for two years and was severely understrength as a result of endemic diseases such as malaria and typhus. 50th Indian Parachute Brigade under Brigadier Maxwell Hope-Thompson was north of Imphal, 254th Indian Tank Brigade under Brigadier R. L. Scoones was stationed in and around Imphal. The Indian divisions were composed of both British and Indian personnel, in each brigade, there was generally one British, one Gurkha and one Indian battalion, although two brigades were composed entirely of Gurkha units.
Each division was supported by two artillery regiments and one Indian mountain artillery regiment. In March 1943, the Japanese command in Burma had been reorganised, a new headquarters, Burma Area Army, was created under Lieutenant-General Masakazu Kawabe. One of its formations, responsible for the central part of the front facing Imphal. Lieutenant-General Renya Mutaguchi was appointed to command this army in July 1943, from the moment he took command, Mutaguchi forcefully advocated an invasion of India. His motives for doing so appear to be complex and he had played a major part in several Japanese victories, ever since the Marco Polo Bridge incident in 1937, and believed it was his destiny to win the decisive battle of the war for Japan. He may have been goaded by the first Chindit expedition, Mutaguchi planned to exploit the capture of Imphal by advancing to the Brahmaputra Valley
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
Lee Beom-seok (prime minister)
Lee Beom-seok was a Korean independence activist and the first Prime Minister of South Korea from 1948 to 1950. For a time, he headed the Young Pioneer Corps. Lee Beom-seok was born in Gyeongseong on October 20,1900, lees father was an officer in the Joseon Dynasty and he was a descendant of Sejong the Greats son Gwangpyeong Daegun. Lee Beom-seok was exiled to the Republic of China after participating in activities as a teenager. In 1919 he started studying at the Shinheung military academy, a school whose goal was to build a new army to fight for independence. Soon after, Lee fought in the Battle of Cheongsanni, an engagement in eastern Manchuria. He served as a general in the Korean Liberation Army for the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, in 1945, Lee attempted to return to Korea but was forced to remain in exile in China. In 1946, he returned to Korea and helped found the Korean National Youth Corps with Ahn Ho-sang and he was opposed to Kim Gus South-North negotiations and allied himself with Lee Syng-man to establish a unitary government in South Korea.
He served as the new countrys first prime minister from July 31,1948 to April 20,1950, following his term in office, Lee Beom-seok served as Korean ambassador to the Republic of China and as Secretary of the Interior. He ran for the presidency in 1952, and again in 1956. Throughout the 1960s he remained an opposition leader to the ruling party. At the end of his career, Lee served as an adviser on the Board of National Unification, on May the 10th,1972 he was granted a philosophy doctorate by the Taiwan Chinese Academy. The following day, May 11, he died of an infarction in the Seongmo hospital of Myeong-dong in Seoul. His state funeral was held in Square of Namsan Mountain on May 17 and he was buried in Seoul National Cemetery. Udungbul Bangrangui Jungyul Hangookui Bunro Bangrangui Jungyul Minjok Gwa Cheongnyun Hyulgeon, Cheongsanni Ghakgeon Tomsk Haneul Arae Lee Beom-seok Memorial museum Lee Beom-seok
Kim Won-bong was a Korean anarchist, independence activist, and statesman from North Korea. Kim Won-bong was born on September 28,1898, in Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-Do province and his father was Kim Ju-Ik and his mother was Lee Gyeong-Nyeom. Lee died giving birth to Kim Won-bongs brother, Kyung-Bong, in February 1919, Kim entered the Shinheung Military Academy and underwent military education for six months, after which he dropped out of the academy. On November 9 of the year, Kim organized a Korean nationalist underground organization known as the Korean Heroic Corps, with Yang Gun-ho, Gwak Jae-ki, Han Bong-geun, Kim Ok. Among the Heroic Corps aims were the assassinations of Japanese officials and their collaborators, after assuming the position of leader of the Heroic Corps, Kim Won-Bong found that he could not accomplish the aims of the organization as it did not have a sufficient number of members. As a result, he joined the Whampoa Military Academy in 1926, Kim used the pseudonym Choi Rim and organized the Korean National Revolutionary Party, and the Joseon Communist Reconstruction Party.
The Korean National Revolutionary Party was formed in Shanghai in 1935 by a group of left-wing nationalist Korean parties, organized by Kim Kyu-sik, Kim Won-Bong and Cho Soang. On July 10,1937, at the invitation of the Government of the Republic of China, Kim went to Lushan, during his time there, Chinese governors insisted upon associating the united front against Japanese Imperialism. Before his return, Won-bong received extensive funding from the Chinese governor, Kim Won-Bong served as the deputy commander of the Korean Liberation Army of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. After Korean Independence, he returned to Korea with the Provisional Government of the Republic of Koreas governors on December 3, after the liberation, he attended a meeting with Kim Gu, Kim Kyu-sik and Pak Hon-Yong. His first wife, Choi Dong-seon, died young, after her death, he married Park Cha-jeong. He had two sons and one daughter, Kim Cheol-Geon, Kim Joong-Geon and Kim Hak-Bong and his pen name was Yaksan, which means like a mountain.
In 1958, he was purged by Kim Il-Sung, there are many different accounts of Kims death. According to one, Kim committed suicide by taking cyanide
Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver.
Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry.
This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history and practice
The Burmese Independence Army was trained by the Japanese and spearheaded the initial attacks against British Empire forces. The campaign had a number of notable features, the geographical characteristics of the region meant that factors like weather and terrain had a major effect on operations. The lack of transport infrastructure placed an emphasis on engineering and air transport to move and supply troops. The campaign was politically complex, with the British, the United States. It was the land campaign by the Western Allies in the Pacific Theatre which proceeded continuously from the start of hostilities to the end of the war. This was due to its geographical location, the climate of the region is dominated by the seasonal monsoon rains, which allowed effective campaigning for only just over half of each year. Japanese objectives in Burma were initially limited to the capture of Rangoon and this would close the overland supply line to China and provide a strategic bulwark to defend Japanese gains in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies.
The Japanese successfully attacked over the Kawkareik Pass, and captured the port of Moulmein at the mouth of the Salween River after overcoming stiff resistance and they advanced northwards, outflanking successive British defensive positions. Troops of the 17th Indian Infantry Division tried to retreat over the Sittaung River, on 22 February, the bridge was demolished to prevent its capture, a decision that has since been extremely contentious. The loss of two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that Rangoon could not be defended, although some units arrived, counterattacks failed and the new commander of Burma Army, ordered the city to be evacuated on 7 March after its port and oil refinery had been destroyed. The remnants of Burma Army broke out to the north, narrowly escaping encirclement, with the effective collapse of the entire defensive line, there was little choice left other than an overland retreat to India or to Yunnan. After the fall of Rangoon in March 1942, the Allies attempted to make a stand in the north of the country, having been reinforced by a Chinese Expeditionary Force.
The Japanese had reinforced by two divisions made available by the capture of Singapore, and defeated both the newly organised Burma Corps and the Chinese force. The Allies were faced with growing numbers of Burmese insurgents, with their forces cut off from almost all sources of supply, the Allied commanders finally decided to evacuate their forces from Burma. The retreat was conducted in very difficult circumstances, starving refugees, disorganised stragglers, and the sick and wounded clogged the primitive roads and tracks leading to India. Burma Corps managed to make it most of the way to Imphal, in Manipur in India just before the monsoon broke in May 1942, having lost most of their equipment, they found themselves living out in the open under torrential rains in extremely unhealthy circumstances. The army and civil authorities in India were very slow to respond to the needs of the troops, due to lack of communication, when the British retreated from Burma, almost none of the Chinese knew about the retreat.
After recuperating they were re-equipped and retrained by American instructors, the rest of the Chinese troops tried to return to Yunnan through remote mountainous forests and out of these, at least half died
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The earliest Korean pottery dates to 8000 BC, with three kingdoms flourishing in the 1st century BC and its rich and vibrant culture left 19 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity, the third largest in the world, along with 12 World Heritage Sites. Annexed into Imperial Japan in 1910, Korea was divided after its surrender in 1945, peace has since mostly continued with the two agreeing to work peacefully for reunification and the South solidifying peace as a regional power with the worlds 10th largest defence budget. South Koreas tiger economy soared at an average of 10% for over 30 years in a period of rapid transformation called the Miracle on the Han River. A long legacy of openness and focus on innovation made it successful, today, it is the worlds fifth largest exporter with the G20s largest budget surplus and highest credit rating of any country in East Asia.
It has free trade agreements with 75% of the economy and is the only G20 nation trading freely with China, the US. Since 1988, its constitution guarantees a liberal democracy with high government transparency, high personal freedoms led to the rise of a globally influential pop culture such as K-pop and K-drama, a phenomenon called the Korean Wave, known for its distinctive fashionable and trendy style. Home of the UN Green Climate Fund and GGGI, South Korea is a leader in low carbon growth, committed to helping developing countries as a major DAC. It is the third least ignorant country in the Index of Ignorance, ranking eighth highest for peaceful tolerance. It is the worlds largest spender on R&D per GDP, leading the OECD in graduates in science, the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a form of its name. The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, and thus inherited its name, the modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Companys Hendrick Hamel.
After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the name for the entire territory. The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon, in 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk. The name Daehan, which means great Han literally, derives from Samhan, the name Joseon was still widely used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted, there were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the part of the Korean Peninsula
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world. When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicators, major is one rank senior to that of an army captain and it is considered the most junior of the field officer ranks. Majors are typically assigned as specialised executive or operations officers for battalion-sized units of 300 to 1,200 soldiers, in some militaries, notably France and Ireland, the rank of major is referred to as commandant, while in others it is known as captain-major. The rank of major is used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures, such as the Pennsylvania State Police, New York State Police, New Jersey State Police. As a police rank, major roughly corresponds to the UK rank of superintendent, the term major can be used with a hyphen to denote the leader of a military band such as in pipe-major or drum-major. Historically, the rank designation develops in English in the 1640s, taken from French majeur, in turn a shortening of sergent-majeur, which at the time designated a higher rank than at present
Republic of Korea Armed Forces
The Republic of Korea Armed Forces are known as the ROK Armed Forces, are the armed forces of South Korea. Created in 1948, following the division of Korea, the Republic of Korea Armed Forces is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world with a personnel strength of 3,725,000 in 2016. The ROK military forces are responsible for maintaining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the republic, more recently the ROK military began increasing its participation in international affairs, acknowledging its role and responsibility as the eleventh economic power in the world in terms of GDP. The ROK military has participated in peacekeeping operations, and counter-terrorism operations. The South Korean armed forces were largely constabulary forces until the outbreak of the Korean War and it was heavily damaged by North Korean and Chinese attacks and in the beginning relied almost entirely on American support for weapons and technology. After the Korean War South Korea maintained a military ground force.
Today, the South Korean armed forces enjoy a mix of avant-garde as well as older conventional weapons. South Korea has one of the highest defense budgets in the world, ranking 12th globally in 2011 and its capabilities include many sophisticated American and European weapon systems, complemented by a growing and increasingly more advanced indigenous defense manufacturing sector. For example, by taking advantage of the local shipbuilding industry. South Korea has a joint military partnership with the United States, alliance, as outlined by the Mutual Defense Treaty signed after the Korean War. During the outbreak of the Vietnam War, ROK Army and the ROK Marines were among those fighting alongside South Vietnam, more recently, South Korea takes part in regional as well as pan-Pacific national military wargames and exercises such as RIMPAC and RSOI. Until January 2011, mixed-race men were prohibited from being conscripted into the South Korean military, the military authority runs from the President to the Minister of Defense, who is commonly a retired 4-star General.
Traditionally, the position is filled by an officer of the Army, the chain of Operational Authority runs straight from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Commandants of the several Operational Commands. Currently there are five Operational Commands in the Army, two in the Navy and one in the Air Force, the respective Chiefs of Staff of each Service Branch has administrative control over his or her own service. Each Chief of Staff is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Republic of Korea Joint Chiefs of Staff headquarters is a group of Chiefs from each branch of the armed services in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. Unlike the United States, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff has operational control all military personnel of the armed forces. All regular members are 4-star generals or admirals, although the deputy chairman sometimes has only 3 stars, the ROK Army is by far the largest of the military branches, with 495,000 personnel as of 2014