The Yakovlev Yak-9 was a single-engine fighter aircraft used by the Soviet Union in World War II and after. Fundamentally a lighter development of the Yak-7 with the same armament, the Yak-9 had a lowered rear fuselage decking and all-around vision canopy. Its lighter airframe gave the new fighter a flexibility that previous models had lacked, the Yak-9 was the most mass-produced Soviet fighter of all time. It remained in production from 1942 to 1948, with 16,769 built, towards the end of the war, the Yak-9 was the first Soviet aircraft to shoot down a Messerschmitt Me 262 jet. Following World War II it was used by the North Korean Air Force during the Korean War, the Yak-9 represented further development of the successful Yakovlev Yak-7 fighter, a production version of the lightened Yak-7DI, taking full advantage of the combat experience with its predecessor. Greater availability of duralumin allowed for construction which in turn permitted a number of modifications to the basic design. Yak-9 variants carried two different wings, five different engines, six different fuel tank combinations and seven types of armament configurations, fuel capacity was increased to 400 l.
In order to re-balance the model, the wing was repositioned four inches forward and in order to improve pitch control, the rear part of the canopy was lengthened and the antenna cable was moved inside it. Usual armament was a 20 mm ShVAK cannon with 120 rounds firing through a propeller shaft. The State trials took place from January to April 1944 and they revealed a clear superiority in top speed over all other fighters in service on the Eastern front, up to 6,000 m. The aircraft was simple to fly and stable, despite these defects, the Yak. 9U/VK-107 was ordered into production in April 1944, with 1,134 machines produced by December 1944. The first Yak-9 entered service in October 1942 and first saw combat in late 1942 during the Battle of Stalingrad, the versatile Yak-9 operated with a wide variety of armament for use in anti-tank, light bomber and long-range escort role. At low altitude in which it operated predominantly, the Yak-9 was faster and more maneuverable than its main foe, the Bf 109, a series of improvements in performance and armament did not hamper the superb handling characteristics that allowed its pilots to excel at dog-fighting.
Soviet pilots regarded the Yak-9s performance as on the level as the Bf 109G. After the Battle of Smolensk, in the half of 1943. The four flights were named for the towns of Rouen, Le Havre, Cherbourg, in June 1944, at the beginning of the great summer offensive, the French Yak-9s achieved their first air victories, but suffered their first losses as well, in the Borisov region. On 15 July 1944, the Group was moved to Mikountani, in Lithuania, the French pilots took their Soviet chief air crews in the fuselage of the fighters, but during the trip, Lieutenant Maurice de Seynes Yak suffered a mechanical failure. The French pilot refused to out and thus abandon his Soviet mechanic Biezoloub
The BMW132 was a nine-cylinder radial aircraft engine produced by BMW starting in 1933. BMW took over the license for manufacturing air-cooled radial engines from Pratt & Whitney on 3 January 1928, the nine-cylinder model Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet was initially manufactured virtually unchanged under the designation BMW Hornet. Soon BMW embarked on its own development, the result was the BMW132 that went into production in 1933, which was essentially an improved version of the Hornet engine. A number of different versions were built, aside from the carburetor designs used mainly in civilian aircraft, versions with direct fuel injection were manufactured for the German Luftwaffe. The engines had a displacement of 27.7 L and generated up to 960 PS depending on model, numerous pioneering flights were undertaken with the BMW132. The most impressive was the first direct flight from Berlin to New York in a Focke-Wulf 200 S-1 Condor equipped with four BMW132 engines
For aircraft, this air is usually bled off from the gas turbine engines at the compressor stage, and for spacecraft, it is carried in high-pressure, often cryogenic tanks. The air is cooled and mixed with recirculated air if necessary, the cabin pressure is regulated by the outflow valve. It serves to increase passenger comfort and is a regulatory requirement above 15,000 feet in the U. S. A. The principal physiological problems are listed below, Pressurization of the cargo hold is required to prevent damage to pressure-sensitive goods that might leak, burst or be crushed on re-pressurization. In some individuals, particularly those with heart or lung disease, symptoms may begin as low as 5,000 feet, at this altitude, there is about 25% less oxygen than there is at sea level. Hypoxia may be addressed by the administration of oxygen, either through an oxygen mask or through a nasal cannula. Without pressurization, sufficient oxygen can be delivered up to an altitude of about 40,000 feet. At 40,000 feet, the ambient air pressure falls to about 0.2 bar, emergency oxygen supply masks in the passenger compartment of airliners do not need to be pressure-demand masks because most flights stay below 40,000 feet.
Above that altitude the pressure of oxygen will fall below 0.2 bar even at 100% oxygen. Passengers may experience fatigue, headaches and these are the same symptoms that mountain climbers experience, but the limited duration of powered flight makes the development of pulmonary oedema unlikely. The mechanism is the same as that of compressed-air divers on ascent from depth, symptoms may include the early symptoms of the bends—tiredness, headache, stroke and subcutaneous itching—but rarely the full symptoms thereof. Decompression sickness may be controlled by a suit as for altitude sickness. Barotrauma As the aircraft climbs or descends, passengers may experience discomfort or acute pain as gases trapped within their bodies expand or contract, the most common problems occur with air trapped in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses by a blocked Eustachian tube or sinuses. Pain may be experienced in the tract or even the teeth. The pressure inside the cabin is technically referred to as the equivalent effective cabin altitude or more commonly as the cabin altitude and this is defined as the equivalent altitude above mean sea level having the same atmospheric pressure according to a standard atmospheric model such as the International Standard Atmosphere.
Thus a cabin altitude of zero would have the pressure found at sea level. Federal Aviation Administration regulations in the U. S. mandate that under normal operating conditions, the rate of change of cabin altitude strongly affects comfort as humans are sensitive to pressure changes in the inner ear and sinuses and this has to be managed carefully. The cabin altitude of the Boeing 767 is typically about 6,900 feet when cruising at 39,000 feet and this is typical for older jet airliners
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a star when viewed from the front, and is called a star engine in some languages. The radial configuration was very commonly used for aircraft engines before gas turbine engines became predominant, the pistons are connected to the crankshaft with a master-and-articulating-rod assembly. One piston, the uppermost one in the animation, has a rod with a direct attachment to the crankshaft. The remaining pistons pin their connecting rods attachments to rings around the edge of the master rod, extra rows of radial cylinders can be added in order to increase the capacity of the engine without adding to its diameter. Four-stroke radials have an odd number of cylinders per row, so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order can be maintained, for example, on a five-cylinder engine the firing order is 1,3,5,2,4 and back to cylinder 1.
Moreover, this leaves a one-piston gap between the piston on its combustion stroke and the piston on compression. The active stroke directly helps compress the next cylinder to fire, if an even number of cylinders were used, an equally timed firing cycle would not be feasible. The radial engine normally uses fewer cam lobes than other types, as with most four-strokes, the crankshaft takes two revolutions to complete the four strokes of each piston. The camshaft ring is geared to spin slower and in the direction to the crankshaft. The cam lobes are placed in two rows for the intake and exhaust, for the example, four cam lobes serve all five cylinders, whereas 10 would be required for a typical inline engine with the same number of cylinders and valves. C. M. Manly constructed a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine in 1901, manlys engine produced 52 hp at 950 rpm. This was installed in his triplane and made a number of short free-flight hops, another early radial engine was the three-cylinder Anzani, originally built as a W3 fan configuration, one of which powered Louis Blériots Blériot XI across the English Channel.
Georges Canton and Pierre Unné patented the engine design in 1909, offering it to the Salmson company. It was similar in concept to the radial, the main difference being that the propeller was bolted to the engine. The problem of the cooling of the cylinders, a factor with the early stationary radials, was alleviated by the engine generating its own cooling airflow. Most German aircraft of the time used water-cooled inline 6-cylinder engines, in the early 1920s Le Rhône converted a number of their rotary engines into stationary radial engines. By 1918 the potential advantages of air-cooled radials over the inline engine
Swedish Air Force
The Swedish Air Force is the air force branch of the Swedish Armed Forces. The Swedish Air Force was created on July 1,1926 when the units of the Army. Because of the international tension during the 1930s the Air Force was reorganized and expanded from four to seven squadrons. When World War II broke out in 1939 further expansion was initiated, although Sweden never entered the war, a large air force was considered necessary to ward off the threat of invasion and to resist pressure through military threats from the great powers. By 1945 the Swedish Air Force had over 800 combat-ready aircraft, a major problem for the Swedish Air Force during World War II was the lack of fuel. Sweden was surrounded by countries at war and could not rely on imported oil, instead domestic oil shales were heated to produce the needed petrol. The Swedish Air Force underwent a rapid modernization from 1945 and it was no longer politically acceptable to equip it with second-rate models. When the Saab 29 Tunnan fighter was introduced around 1950, Sweden suddenly had planes that were equal to the best of the Royal Air Force, the Soviet Unions VVS, during the 1950s the air force started to build road bases after an idea taken from Germany.
Built under the BASE60 distributed airfield scheme, the bases were ordinary highways constructed in such a way that they could serve as landing strips. In the early eighties road number 44 was rebuilt to four short runways. Along the road a number of turn-around-sites for rearming and refueling were built. These short runways are used today for training and taking off with Gripen. During the Cold War large amounts of money were spent on the Swedish Air Force, in 1957 Sweden had the worlds fourth most powerful air force, with about 1000 modern planes in front-line service. During the 1950s, it introduced fighters such as the Saab J29 Tunnan, Saab A32 Lansen, in June 1952 the Swedish Air Force lost two aircraft on Cold War operations, in what became known as the Catalina affair. A signals intelligence Douglas DC-3 was intercepted by Soviet MiG-15s over the Baltic, a PBY Catalina rescue seaplane was also downed, the five-man crew being rescued from the sea by a freighter. When the Soviet Union attacked Finland in November 1939, Sweden came to its neighbours assistance in most ways short of joining the war outright, a Swedish volunteer infantry brigade and a volunteer air squadron fought in northern Finland in January till March 1940.
The squadron was designated F19 and consisted of 12 Gloster Gladiator fighters, the Swedish Air Force saw combat as part of the United Nations peace-keeping mission ONUC during the Congo Crisis in 1961 to 1964. It established an air wing, F22, equipped with a dozen semi-obsolete Saab 29 Tunnans
Developed from the Avro 652 airliner, the Anson, named after British Admiral George Anson, was developed for maritime reconnaissance, but found to be obsolete in this role. It was found to be suitable as a multi-engined aircrew trainer, by the end of production in 1952, a total of 8,138 had been built by Avro in nine variants, with a further 2,882 built by Federal Aircraft Ltd in Canada from 1941. The Air Ministry requested tenders for aircraft to meet this requirement, with Avro responding with the Avro 652A, a modified version of the Avro 652 twin-engined, six-seat monoplane airliner. The Avro 652A first flew on 24 March 1935 at Avros Woodford factory, the Avro aircraft proved superior, and was selected as the winner of the competition on 25 May. Air Ministry Specification 18/35 was written around the Type 652A, the first production Anson made its maiden flight on 31 December 1935, changes from the prototype included an enlarged horizonal tailplane and reduced Elevator span to improve stability.
Deliveries to the RAF began on 6 March 1936, the Anson Mk I was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a retractable undercarriage, the first type with this configuration to enter service with the RAF. It had a wing, of plywood and spruce construction, while the fuselage was constructed of steel tubing, mainly clad in fabric. It was powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IX seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, rated at 350 horsepower each, driving two-bladed metal propellers, the aircrafts retractable Conventional landing gear undercarriage was manually operated, requiring 144 turns of a crank handle situated by the pilots seat. To forgo this process, early aircraft often made short flights with the landing gear extended at the expense of 30 mph of cruising speed. Initially, the Anson was flown with a crew in the maritime reconnaissance role. Up to 360 pounds of bombs, consisting of two 100 pounds and eight 20 pounds bombs, could be carried in the aircrafts wings. A total of 11,020 Ansons were built by the end of production in 1952, the Anson entered service on 6 March 1936 with 48 Squadron equipped with the Anson.
At the start of the Second World War, the RAF had received 824 Ansons, all of the squadrons in Bomber Command in 1939 with Anson Is were operational training squadrons that prepared crews for frontline service. 12 of the squadrons were in No.6 Group, after training in the frontline aircraft type, crews would advance to the frontline bomber squadrons with those aircraft types. At the start of the war, the Lockheed Hudson was beginning to replace the Ansons in Coastal Command with one squadron of Hudsons, Limited numbers of Ansons continued to serve in operational roles such as coastal patrols and air/sea rescue. Early in the war, an Anson scored a hit on a German U-boat. In June 1940, a flight of three Ansons was attacked by nine Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 109s, before the dogfight ended, without losing any of their own, one of the Ansons destroyed two German aircraft and damaged a third. The aircrafts true role, was to train pilots for flying multi-engined bombers such as the Avro Lancaster, the Anson was used to train the other members of a bombers aircrew, such as navigators, wireless operators, bomb aimers and air gunners
A twin tail is a specific type of vertical stabilizer arrangement found on the empennage of some aircraft. Two vertical stabilizers—often smaller on their own than a conventional tail would be—are mounted at the outside of the aircrafts horizontal stabilizer. Separating the control surfaces allows for additional rudder area or vertical surface without requiring a single tail. On multi-engine propeller designs twin fin and rudders operating in the propeller slipstream give greater rudder authority and improved control at low airspeeds, a twin tail can simplify hangar requirements, give dorsal gunners enhanced firing area, and in some cases reduce the aircrafts weight. It affords a degree of one tail is damaged. Many canard aircraft designs incorporate twin tails on the tips of the main wing, very occasionally, three or more tails are used, as on the Breguet Deux-Ponts, Lockheed Constellation and Boeing 314 Clipper. A very unusual design can be seen on the E-2 Hawkeye and this arrangement was chosen for the stringent size limitations of carrier-based aircraft.
Significant aircraft with twin tails include the Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Handley-Page Halifax, Avro Lancaster, the arrangement is not limited to World War II-vintage aircraft, however. Airbus has filed a patent for a new, twin-tail, trijet design, cruciform tail Pelikan tail T-tail V-tail
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Nowadays the term supercharger is usually applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices, compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger, turbochargers are commonly used on truck, train and construction equipment engines. They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines and they have been found useful in automotive fuel cells. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885. During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success, in 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine.
Turbochargers were first used in aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s, turbochargers were used in aviation, most widely used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, and P-47 Thunderbolt. Turbochargers are widely used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power, in contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, for example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower. Yet the benefits outweigh the costs, for the 150 hp to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 400-horsepower, a net gain of 250 hp.
This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent, another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers. Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of an ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Even under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated temperature, however. Roots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers often producing 15% to 30% more power based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, in contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as lag or spool time
Invasion of Poland
The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German-Soviet Frontier Treaty. German forces invaded Poland from the north and west the morning after the Gleiwitz incident, as the Wehrmacht advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established lines of defence to the east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, Polish forces withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. While those two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, in the end their aid to Poland was very limited. The Soviet Red Armys invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September, in accordance with a protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible, on 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland.
The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, the Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, and immediately started a campaign of sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West. On 30 January 1933, the Nazi Party, under its leader Adolf Hitler, as part of this long-term policy, Hitler at first pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, trying to improve opinion in Germany, culminating in the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. Earlier, Hitlers foreign policy worked to weaken ties between Poland and France, and attempted to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a front against the Soviet Union. The Poles feared that their independence would eventually be threatened altogether, the so-called Polish Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, and inhabited by a Polish majority.
The Corridor had become a part of Poland after the Treaty of Versailles, many Germans wanted the city of Danzig and its environs to be reincorporated into Germany. Danzig was a city with a German majority. It had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into the nominally independent Free City of Danzig, the series of border violations, which are unbearable to a great power, prove that the Poles no longer are willing to respect the German frontier. Poland participated with Germany in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement and it coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the region of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on 30 September 1938, which was accepted by Czechoslovakia on 1 October. This region had a Polish majority and had been disputed between Czechoslovakia and Poland in the aftermath of World War I, the Polish annexation of Slovak territory served as the justification for the Slovak state to join the German invasion. Poland rejected this proposal, fearing that after accepting these demands, it would become subject to the will of Germany
South African Airways
South African Airways is the flag carrier and largest airline of South Africa, with headquarters in Airways Park on the grounds of OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park, Gauteng. Thuli Mpshe was appointed as the acting CEO of SAA in August after Nico Bezuidenhout, South African Airways was founded in 1934 after the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government. The airline was initially overseen and controlled by South African Railways, sanctions by African countries which would have otherwise provided stopover airports during apartheid forced it to adopt long-range aircraft and other measures to counter these restrictions. During this time, it was known by its Afrikaans name, Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens. In 1997 SAA changed its name and aircraft livery, in 2006, SAA split from Transnet, its parent company, to operate as an independent airline. SAA is the airline of the Association of Tennis Professionals. SAA owns Mango, a low cost domestic airline, and has established links with Airlink and it currently operates as a member of the Star Alliance.
South African Airways was formed on 1 February 1934 following the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government. Forty staff members, along with one de Havilland DH.60 Gypsy Moth, one de Havilland 80A Puss Moth, upon acquisition, the government changed the airlines name to South African Airways. Came under control of the South African Railways and Harbours Administration, on 1 February the following year, the carrier acquired Suidwes Lugdiens / South West Airways, which had since 1932 been providing a weekly air-mail service between Windhoek and Kimberley. During this time, South African ordered three Junkers Ju 52/3m aircraft, which were delivered in October 1934 and entered service 10 days and these aircraft were configured to carry 14 passengers, along with four crew. They enabled thrice-weekly Durban–Johannesburg services, with services on the Durban–East London–Port Elizabeth–George/Mossel Bay–Cape Town route. From July the following year a weekly Rand–Kimberley–Beaufort West–Cape Town service commenced, in April 1936, a fourth Ju 52/3m soon joined the fleet.
Orders for a further 10 Ju 52/3m, along with eighteen Junkers Ju 86 and this raised the number of Ju 52 to fourteen, although three older models were sold when deliveries of the newer Ju 52s began. From 1 February 1934 until the start of World War II, SAA carried 118,822 passengers,3,278 tonnes of airmail and 248 tonnes of cargo, on 24 May 1940, all operations were suspended. Following the war, frequencies were increased and more routes were opened and these aircraft would prove to be unsuitable for passenger and cargo services and were returned to the SAAF after the arrival of the Junkers Ju 86s. The main aircraft of SAA in the 1930s was the Junkers JU-52, other types used in the 1930s included eighteen Junkers JU-86s, which served from 1937 onwards, and of which one spotted the Watussi off the Cape Coast at the start of the war. The slow growth continued during the 1940s, though the airline was closed for the duration of World War II
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943