Ten American Painters
The Ten American Painters was an artists group formed in 1898 to exhibit their work as a unified group. John Henry Twachtman, J. Alden Weir, and Childe Hassam were the forces behind the organization. The Ten achieved popular and critical success, in America, popular painting styles usually originated on the east coast in cities like New York and Boston. The Ten continued a tradition of forming new groups in reaction to a lack of support from existing artists groups. The Ten American Painters was born from this group in 1898, when Twachtman and Hassam found the Society hostile to the Impressionist style they had adopted. Leaving the group was considered a move by the general public, but the Society of American Artists felt that it was easier to appease the members that were leaving. Impressionism was a French art movement that emerged in the 1870s, Painters like Monet and Degas are generally considered the masters of the impressionist movement. An Impressionist painting will often use small dabs of color in order to make the painting distinguishable from afar, but indistinguishable from up close.
The members of The Ten were Frank W. Benson, Joseph Rodefer DeCamp, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Childe Hassam, Willard Leroy Metcalf, Robert Reid, Edward Simmons, John Henry Twachtman, and J. Alden Weir. All were former members of the Society of American Artists, winslow Homer declined an invitation to join the group, Abbott Handerson Thayer accepted membership but withdrew before the groups first exhibition. After J. H. Twachtman died in 1902, William Merritt Chase joined The Ten in his place, in order for a new member to join the society, the members would have had to unanimously decide to accept the artist into their ranks. For twenty years, The Ten exhibited as a group in New York, Philadelphia, throughout the time that the group was active, it was decided that there would never be less than ten members active. After twenty years, the group dissolved due to death of the members and lack of public interest
Emil Otto Grundmann
Professor Emil Otto Grundmann, was a German painter who studied in Antwerp under Baron Hendrik Leys, and in Düsseldorf before moving to America where he became a noted painter. He was the first Director of the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, an appointment in which Francis Davis Millet, one of his colleagues at the Museum was Joseph DeCamp. Many notable American artists attended his classes and were influenced by his European ideas, some students who became prominent were Edmund C. Tarbell, Edward Clark Potter, Robert Reid, Ernest Fenollosa, Frank Weston Benson, list of German painters Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Meissen Street Names
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants, Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has called the Athens of the Middle Ages. A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, from 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. The Historic Centre of Florence attracts 13 million tourists each year and it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture, the city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florences artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, in 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy.
Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe, the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the Italian language. Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War and they similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European historys most important noble families, Lorenzo de Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century, Leo X, catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France.
Marie de Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII, the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole and it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century, Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. The population began to again and commerce prospered
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The style that was universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau. The staging of the first International Exhibition in 1855 was motivated by a desire to re-establish pride, the succession of exhibitions followed the same theme, the regeneration of nationality after war. Eight years before the launch of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and lifestyles, the Exposition Universelle was a uniting and learning experience. It presented the opportunity for foreigners to realize the similarities between nations as well as their unique differences, new cultures were experienced and an overall better understanding of the values each country had to offer was gained. The learning atmosphere aided in attempts to increase cultural tolerance, deemed necessary after a period of war, the early announcement and the massively positive response disenchanted the interest that had been circling around the first German International Exposition.
It is suspected that the Exposition Universelle did not do as well financially as expected because the public did not have the funds to participate in the fair. The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being about six hundred more than the price of admission. The exhibition lost a total of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event, with a much larger expected turnout the exhibit sites had gone up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became increasingly hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated, the concessionaires went on strike, which ultimately resulted in the closure of a large part of the exposition. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a refund of the rent they had paid. The financial consequences of the 1900 Exposition Universelle were devastating for many Parisians, the Exposition Universelle was where talking films and escalators were first publicized, and where Campbells Soup was awarded a gold medal.
At the exposition Rudolf Diesel exhibited his engine, running on peanut oil. Brief films of excerpts from opera and ballet were apparently the first films exhibited publicly with projection of both image and recorded sound, the exposition featured many panoramic paintings and extensions of the panorama technique, such as the Cinéorama and Trans-Siberian Railway Panorama. The centrepiece of the Palais de lOptique was the 1. 25-metre-diameter Great Exposition Refractor and this telescope was the largest refracting telescope at that time. The optical tube assembly was 60 meters long and 1.5 meters in diameter, light from the sky was sent into the tube by a movable 2-meter mirror. Partly organized by Booker Washington and W. E. B, du Bois, this exhibition aimed at showing African Americans positive contributions to American society. Many of the buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the conclusion of the exposition, many of the buildings were built on a framework of wood, and covered with staff, which was formed into columns, walls, etc
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Edmund C. Tarbell
Edmund Charles Tarbell was an American Impressionist painter. He was a member of a group of painters which came to be known as the Boston School. Tarbell was born in the Asa Tarbell House, which stands beside the Squannacook River in West Groton and his father, Edmund Whitney Tarbell, died in 1863 after contracting typhoid fever while serving in the Civil War. His mother, Mary Sophia Tarbell, remarried a shoemaking-machine manufacturer, as a youth, Tarbell took evening art lessons from George H. Bartlett at the Massachusetts Normal Art School. Between 1877 and 1880, he apprenticed at the Forbes Lithographic Company in Boston, in 1879, he entered the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, studying under Otto Grundmann. He matriculated in the class with Robert Lewis Reid and Frank Weston Benson. Tarbell was encouraged to continue his education in Paris, consequently, in 1883 he entered the Académie Julian to study under Gustave Boulanger and Jules Joseph Lefebvre. Paris exposed him to rigorous training, which invariably included copying Old Master paintings at the Louvre.
That duality would inform his work, in 1884, Tarbells education included a Grand Tour to Italy, and the following year to Italy, Belgium and Brittany. Tarbell returned to Boston in 1886, where he began his career as an illustrator, private art instructor, two years after returning to Boston, at age 26 Tarbell married Emeline Souther, an art student and daughter of a prominent Dorchester family. Preferring to work from posed models, Tarbell often painted those immediately at hand—his wife, four children, and grandchildren. While teaching at the Museum School in Boston and his family lived from 1886 until 1906 in the Ashmont section of Dorchester, the house belonging to his stepfather, David Frank Hartford. Then they lived on Commonwealth Avenue in Boston at the Hotel Somerset, located beside The Fens, in 1905, they bought as a summer residence a Greek Revival house in New Castle, New Hampshire, an island on the Atlantic coast. Tarbell built his studio perched on the bank of the Piscataqua River, ambling there each morning along gardens of peonies, through his north-facing wall of glass he could sketch sailboats as they tacked the busy shipping channel between Portsmouth and the ocean.
He was an early and avid proponent of the Colonial Revival movement, collecting American antiques and arranging them with Chinese ceramics, Japanese prints, Tarbell collected salvaged architectural elements, his studios facade featured a Federal fanlight doorway. In the new living room added to the house, he installed a Georgian mantelpiece attributed to Ebenezer Dearing. The Tarbells eventually would retire to New Castle, in 1889, Tarbell assumed the position of his former mentor, Otto Grundmann, at the Museum School, where he was a popular teacher. He gave pupils a solid academic art training, before they learned to paint and his students included Bertha Coolidge, Margaret Fitzhugh Browne, Marie Danforth Page, F
Charles Allan Grafly, Jr. was an American sculptor and educator. He taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts for 37 years, Grafly was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania of German and Quaker heritage and developed an interest in art at an early age. At 17 he was apprenticed to Struthers Stoneyard, at time one of the largest stone carving ventures in the country. He spent four years carving decorations and figures for Philadelphia City Hall, in 1888 Grafly moved to Paris where he studied with Henri Chapu and Jean Dampt, and gained admittance to the École des Beaux Arts, Paris. He received an Honorable Mention in the Paris Salon of 1891 for his Mauvais Presage, other awards include a Gold Medal at the Paris Exposition in 1900, and medals at the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, Atlanta,1895, and Philadelphia,1899. In 1892 he became Instructor in Sculpture at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, filling the chair at the Drexel University. He was a member of the National Sculpture Society and was elected a full member of the National Academy of Design in 1905.
In 1913 Grafly was awarded the first Widener Gold Medal for sculpture, the latter two served as pall-bearers at Graflys funeral following his 1929 death, in which he was struck by a hit-and-run driver. Eleanor Mary Mellon was among his pupils, on his deathbed, Grafly asked Walker Hancock to succeed him as Instructor of Sculpture at PAFA. Vulture of War, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Pennsylvania, symbol of Life, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Pennsylvania. From Generation to Generation, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, smith Memorial Arch, West Fairmount Park, Pennsylvania. Bust of Admiral David Dixon Porter Bust of John B, gest General John F. Reynolds Fountain of Man, Pan-American Exposition, New York. Allegorical figures of Great Britain and France, U. S, custom House, New York City, Cass Gilbert, architect. Vérité, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, pioneer Mother Memorial, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California. General George Gordon Meade Memorial, E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse, General Galusha Pennypacker, Logan Circle, Pennsylvania.
Albert Laessle completed the posthumous work, moissaye Marans, Charles Grafly as Teacher, National Sculpture Review, vol. Pamela H. Simpson, The Sculpture of Charles Grafly, PhD. dissertation, anne dHarnoncourt, Charles Grafly, Three Centuries of American Art, pp. 439–40. Susan James-Gadzinski and Mary Mullen Cunningham, Charles Grafly, 1862-1929, American Sculpture in the Museum of American Art of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Grafly, Charles
Thomas Hovenden, was an Irish artist and teacher. He painted realistic quiet family scenes, narrative subjects and often depicted African Americans, Hovenden was born in Dunmanway, Co. His parents died at the time of the famine and he was placed in an orphanage at the age of six. Apprenticed to a carver and gilder, he studied at the Cork School of Design, in 1863, he immigrated to the United States. He studied at the National Academy of Design in New York City and he moved to Baltimore in 1868 and left for Paris in 1874. Returning to America in 1880, he became a member of the Society of American Artists and he married Helen Corson in 1881, an artist he had met in Pont-Aven, and settled at her fathers homestead in Plymouth Meeting, outside of Philadelphia. She came from a family of abolitionists and her home was a stop on the Underground Railroad and their barn, used as Hovendens studio, was known as Abolition Hall due to its use for anti-slavery meetings. He was commissioned by Mr. Robbins Battell to paint a picture of the abolitionist leader John Brown.
He finished The Last Moments of John Brown in 1884, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Carl Stoeckel in 1897. Accession Number 97.5 Mrs. Stoeckel was Mr. Battells daughter and his Breaking Home Ties, a picture of American farm life, was engraved with considerable popular success. In 1886, he was appointed Professor of Painting and Drawing at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, among Hovendens students were the sculptor Alexander Stirling Calder and the leader of the Ashcan School, Robert Henri. Hovenden was killed at the age of 54, along with a ten-year-old girl, newspaper accounts reported that his death was the result of a heroic effort to save the girl, while a coroners inquest determined his death was an accident. A Pennsylvania state historical marker in Plymouth Meeting interprets Abolition Hall, Hovenden House and Abolition Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. He is buried across the street in the cemetery of the Plymouth Friends Meetinghouse. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota Jerusalem the Golden,1894, Metropolitan Museum of Art This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Hovenden. Thomas Hovenden Killed, The Pittsburgh Press,15 August 1895
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world