Hermann August Cappelen was a Norwegian painter. Cappelen was best known for his melancholic and romantic landscape compositions, hermann August Cappelen was born in Skien, Norway. He was the son of Diderik von Cappelen and Margaret Noble Severine Henriette Løvenskiold, both the Løvenskiold and Cappelen families were prominent Norwegian families of merchants, land owners, civil servants and politicians. His family were the owners of prominent iron works and various other properties and his grandfather, Diderik von Cappelen, was member of the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll in 1814. He grew up at Holden, a manor in Ulefoss in the Grenland district of the county of Telemark, after school graduation in Skien in 1845, he went to Christiania to take another exam at the Royal Frederick University. He subsequently went to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Hans Gude, Cappelen was a student at Kunstakademie Düsseldorf under Johann Wilhelm Schirmer in landscape painting class from 1846 to 1850.
He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting, Cappelen went on several study tours in Norway, the Gudbrandsdalen and Lom and Hardanger, as well as several summer residence in the countryside around Holden. His paintings were characterized by breadth and originality, combined with much poetical feeling and his wild designs from Telemark with forests and streams are filled with a pathetic mood of loneliness and transience. Powerful forms of nature, especially trees and mountains block, is effective in the composition and his most productive period was between 1850 and 1852, the two last years of his life. He struggled against gastric cancer of which he died, aged 25, the most important collection of Cappelens art is in the National Museum of Art and Design. The National Gallery owns three of his works, Waterfall in Lower Telemark, Forest Lake and Dying Forest. There is a landscape by him in the Oslo Kunstforening. In 1952, a monument to him by Norwegian sculptor Dyre Vaa was unveiled in a park in Holla
Sandvika is the administrative centre of the municipality of Bærum in Norway. It was declared a city by the council in Bærum on 4 June 2003. Sandvika is situated approximately 15 kilometers west of Oslo and it is the main transportation hub for Western Bærum, and has a combined bus and railway station. Sandvika is one of the stops along the route of the Airport Express Train, Sandvika has Scandinavias largest super mall, Sandvika Storsenter, with 190 stores and a total area of 60,000 square meters or 650,000 square feet. On 13 March 2013, the previously pedestrianized main street was opened for car traffic, Sandvika used to be home to the BI Norwegian Business School business school, which moved to new surroundings in Nydalen in August 2005. The building was, after refurbishing, converted into the home of Sandvika High School. The nearby island of Kalvøya is a place for recreation, the Boat Sport House is located on Kalvøya, and is used by Bærum KK and Bærum RK. It hosted one of the best known Norwegian music festivals Kalvøyafestivalen, a small islet in Sandviksbukta, outside Sandvika, is called Danmark.
Danes who live in the area join together every year on 5 June Denmarks national day to celebrate, claude Monet visited in early 1895. Perhaps the most well known of the paintings from this visit is Sandviken Village in Snow which features the Løkke bridge in the foreground with Kolsås in the background, the bridge still stands in Sandvika. Richard Wagners opera The Flying Dutchman takes place near Sandvika
Buskerud is a county in Norway, bordering Akershus, Oppland, Sogn og Fjordane, Hordaland and Vestfold. The county extends from the Oslofjord and Drammensfjorden in the southeast to Hardangervidda mountain range in the northwest, the county administration is located in Drammen. The county is named after the old manor Buskerud located on the west side of the Drammen River in Åmot, the first element is the genitive case of biskup, the last element is ruð n clearing, farm. The farm was one of the largest in Buskerud, and the name of the farm was probably Modum. At the time of the Reformation the farm property of the Crown at which time the farm served as the residence of the kings bailiffs until 1668. Buskerud extends from Hurum at the Oslofjord to the Halling mountains, the county is conventionally divided into traditional districts. These are Hallingdal, Ringerike, Lower Buskerud, which was part of Vestfold. Hallingdal consists of Flå, Gol, Hemsedal, Ål, Numedal consists of Flesberg and Nore og Uvdal.
Ringerike consists of Hole, Krødsherad, Modum and Sigdal, Western Vingulmark consists of Hurum and Røyken. Lower Buskerud consists of Drammen, Kongsberg, Nedre Eiker, Røyken, the district is merged from parts that belonged to Vestfold and Vingulmark. Buskeruds western part is a plateau with forested valleys and high, grassy pastures, its eastern part contains a lowland basin with many lakes. Tyrifjorden and Krøderen are the biggest lakes, numedalslågen, the third longest river in Norway, starting in Hordaland, runs through Buskerud unto Vestfold where it reaches the sea, while river Begna sweeps into lake Sperillen. Buskerud was separated from Akershus as an amt of its own in 1685 and it consisted of the present districts Eiker and Ringerike. The area of the present municipalities of Flesberg, Kongsberg, Nore og Uvdal, the name Buskeruds amt was changed to Buskerud fylke in 1919. The municipality of Skoger was transferred from Vestfold to Buskerud in 1964, the area Ringerike may once have been a small kingdom.
During the 10th century, Norways kings Olaf Tryggvason and Olaf Haraldsson grew up at Bønsnes in Ringerike, in the valley of Numedal, silver has been mined in Kongsberg from the 17th century until discontinued in 1957. Weapons industry had developed in Kongsberg from 1814, and various high tech industry companies now represent the towns major employers. At Modum there was Blaafarveværket, a cobalt pigment production works, agriculture, wood-pulp mills and other related industries are the countys main economic activities, ample hydroelectric power is produced by the rivers Begna and Rands
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Michael Bryan (art historian)
Michael Bryan was an English art historian, art dealer and connoisseur. He was involved in the purchase and resale of the great French Orleans Collection of art, selling it on to a British syndicate, Bryan was born in Newcastle upon Tyne and educated at the Royal Grammar School under Dr. Moyce. In June 1784, he married Juliana Talbot, the sister of Charles Talbot, the 15th Earl of Shrewsbury, Bryan moved back to London in 1790 establishing himself as an authority and dealer in Fine Art. In 1793 or 1794, he went to the continent in search of fine pictures. Among other places he visited Holland, and remained there until an order arrived from the French government to stop all English citizens resident there and he was, amongst many others, detained at Rotterdam. It was here that he met Jean-Joseph de Laborde who, in 1798, Bryan, in effect, became a middleman for the purchase, and contacted the Duke of Bridgewater, who authorised him to open negotiations. The collection was displayed in Bryans private art gallery in Pall Mall, London, in 1801 Bryan obtained, through the Duke of Bridgewater, the kings permission to visit Paris in order to purchase art from the cabinet of Monsieur Robit to bring back to England.
Among other fine pictures, he returned with two by the baroque Spanish artist Murillo - The infant Christ as the Good Shepherd, in 1804 Bryan retired from the art world, and settled at his brothers home in Yorkshire, where he remained until 1811. In 1812 Bryan again visited London, and commenced writing his magnum opus - the Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers in 2 volumes, the first part appeared in May 1813, and concluded in 1816. He owned a gallery in Londons Savile Row, which became a gathering place for artists. In 1818 he became involved with some speculative art purchases which proved a failure, on 14 February 1821, Bryan suffered a severe paralytic stroke, dying at Portman Square, London on 21 March of the same year. Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers ( London, New York and Bombay Edition of 1903 -1905, Volume 11903 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 51905 Bryan, Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers revised and enlarged by George C
Drammen is a city in Buskerud, Norway. The port and river city of Drammen is centrally located in the eastern, Drammen is the capital of the county of Buskerud. There are more than 63000 inhabitants in the municipality and the surrounding communities are growing more than ever before. The city makes good use of the river and inland waterway called Drammensfjord, no city in the country has received as many awards for environmental and urban development as Drammen,6 national and 2 international prizes since 2003. The Old Norse form of the name was Drafn. The fjord is, probably named after the river Drammenselva, the coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 17 November 1960, the arms are blue with a gray/silver column on top of a foundation of rocks. A key and a Viking sword are crossed in the forming a x. It is based upon the old seal dating from 1723 for Bragernes, the motto for Bragernes was In Fide Et Justitia Fortitudo, and the items in the seal are referring to this, key = faith, sword = justice, column on rocks = strength.
The municipality of Drammen was established on 1 January 1838, the rural municipality of Skoger was merged with the municipality of Drammen on 1 January 1964 and was transferred from Vestfold county to Buskerud county at the same time. The city itself has 66000 inhabitants, making it Norways ninth largest, Drammen is currently divided into eight districts. The largest rock carving at Åskollen depicts a moose, Drammen originally consisted of three small seaports and Strømsø and Tangen. For trade purposes, small seaports were placed under market towns, despite their geographical proximity, Bragernes was placed under Christiania and Strømsø under Tønsberg. For this reason, cooperation between the adjacent seaport towns was almost impossible, in 1662, a merger was proposed to unite Strømsø and Bragernes to form a market town with the name Frederiksstrøm. The proposal was rejected by Frederick III of Denmark, Bragernes received limited market town rights in 1715, and merged with Strømsø to gain status as a single city on 19 June 1811.
Its geographical location made the city favorable for seafaring, log driving, during 19th century and pulp industries were developed. Large parts of the city were ruined in the fire of 12–13 July 1866. The Drammen Line opened in 1872 providing rail service between Drammen and Oslo, in 1909, Drammen got the first trolleybus system in Scandinavia, the Drammen trolleybus
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Christian Skredsvig was a Norwegian painter and writer. He is especially known for his picturesque paintings. Christian Skredsvig was born in Modum, Buskerud in 1854, when he was 15 years old he became a pupil at the Eckersberg drawing and paint school in Christiania. He studied in Copenhagen and Paris, in 1881 he won, as the only Norwegian artist, the gold medal for the painting Une ferme à Venoix at the Saloon in Paris. After many years in Paris he moved back to Norway in 1886, Skredsvigs famous neo-romantic painting Seljefløiten was painted by the lake Dælivannet in Bærum. In 1894, he moved to Eggedal in Sigdal municipality where he built his home Hagan, in the natural landscape of Eggedal, Skredsvig found inspiration and motives to paint. The most famous are perhaps Idyll and Jupsjøen, in 1896 Skredsvigs good friend and fellow student from the years in Munich, the painter Theodor Kittelsen, settled in Sigdal, shortly after having visited Skredsvig in his new home. Skredsvigs autobiography Dager og netter blant kunstnere was published in 1908, christian Skredsvig was married for 12 years to Maggie Plahte from Høvik, a daughter of Frithjof M.
Plahte, but was divorced in 1894. In 1898 Skredsvig married Beret Berg who was from Eggedal, Skredsvig lived in Hagan in Eggedal until his death in 1924. Hagan lies high up in Eggedal with a view over the lake Solevann, Skredsvigs former home has been a museum since 1970. The furnishings and artifacts are preserved as they were when Skredsvig lived there and his own work and paintings by his friends still hang on the walls, all together about 150 originals pieces of art. The former residence belongs to members of the Skredsvig family. The municipality of Sigdal is responsible for maintenance and management of the museum, Skredsvig Hagan, the artists home and museum in Eggedal Sigdal Municipality in Norway
Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was embodied most strongly in the arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of heroic individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art, there was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism, the decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the point of the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist.
The importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich that the feeling is his law. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were laws that the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone. As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creators own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist who was able to produce his own work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism. This idea is called romantic originality. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief, this is particularly in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the voice of the artist. So, in literature, much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves.
In both French and German the closeness of the adjective to roman, meaning the new literary form of the novel, had some effect on the sense of the word in those languages. It is only from the 1820s that Romanticism certainly knew itself by its name, the period typically called Romantic varies greatly between different countries and different artistic media or areas of thought. Margaret Drabble described it in literature as taking place roughly between 1770 and 1848, and few dates much earlier than 1770 will be found. In English literature, M. H. Abrams placed it between 1789, or 1798, this latter a very typical view, and about 1830, however, in most fields the Romantic Period is said to be over by about 1850, or earlier
Johannes Flintoe was a Danish-born painter of Norwegian ancestry, known for his landscapes, costume studies and historical scenes. His works play a significant role in the transition to romantic nationalism and his family came from Hurum and his father was a metal caster. At the age of thirteen, he was apprenticed to a decorative painter named Pader Faxøe. In 1802, he studies at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. During this time, he took private lessons in decorative. From 1807 to 1808, he served in the Napoleonic Wars and developed rheumatism, in 1811, he was named a master painter in the Copenhagen guild and moved to Christiania, to join his brother Jacob, who had become established there as a master mason. He worked as a decorative until he took a position at the newly created Norwegian National Academy of Craft. During his tenure there, he travelled extensively throughout Norway, visiting Telemark, Hardanger, Trøndelag and other scenic locations and he accompanied Gerhard Munthe on a mapping expedition to Aurland and, together with Wilhelm Maximilian Carpelan, made some of the first drawings of the Jotunheimen mountains.
One of his most popular works is the Fugleværelset, a room at the Royal Palace, painted to give the illusion that one is looking at landscapes. From 1842 to 1851, he was on the board of the National Gallery, many of his sketches and paintings were published from 1838 to 1840 with text by Maurits Hansen. Among his best-known students were Hans Gude and Johan Frederik Eckersberg, in 1851, he returned to Copenhagen and lived on a pension. By 1866, his health had deteriorated to the point that he had to be cared for by the wife of a former student, gyldendal,1940 Noss Aagot, Johannes Flintoes draktakvarellar. Samlaget,1970 Ingrid Lydersen Lystad, Johannes Flintoe og fugleværelset, en reise i norsk natur, historie og egenart. Dreyers forlag,2015 ISBN 978-82-82651-35-6 Works by Flintoe @ the Vaering Art Gallery, drawings by Flintoe @ the Nasjonal Museet
Gerhard Peter Frantz Munthe was a Norwegian painter and illustrator. Munthe was born in Elverum to physician Christopher Pavels Munthe and his wife Christine Margrethe Pavels Aabel and he was a brother of historian Hartvig Andreas Munthe, writer Margrethe Munthe and military officer Carl Oscar Munthe. He was a nephew of historian and cartographer Gerhard Munthe, through his mother he was a nephew of Andreas Leigh Aabel and Oluf Andreas Aabel, and a first cousin of Hauk Aabel. In December 1886 he married Sigrun Sandberg, between 1886 and 1890 Bjørn Bjørnson was his stepfather-in-law. Munthe and Sandberg settled in Sandvika and Lysaker, Munthe had a studio at Ringstabekk for a short period. The couple divorced in 1919, the year she married Fridtjof Nansen. Munthe was a letter writer, and published several articles. When Munthe moved to Christiania in 1863, his intention was to study medicine like his father and he studied under Johan Fredrik Eckersberg in 1870, and continued under Morten Müller and Knud Bergslien until 1874.
Between 1874 and 1876 he studied under Andreas Achenbach and his third cousin Ludvig Munthe in Düsseldorf, from 1877 to 1882 he lived in Munich most of the time. However, many of his motifs were taken from Norway, at this time he painted in the naturalist style. He is represented with works in the National Gallery of Norway. Internationally he took part at the Exposition Universelle of 1900, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, from the 1890s he experimented with decorative art in the Arts and Crafts style. From 1896 to 1899 he was occupied with illustrating the works of Snorri Sturluson, together with Erik Werenskiold, some of his works were woven into large tapestries. He created monumental decorations, some of which have been lost, Munthe was a member of the selection committee at Høstutstillingen from its start in 1882 to 1890. He was a member of the board of the National Gallery of Norway from 1892 to 1905 and Den norske Husflidsforening from 1897 to his death, and chair of the National Gallery from 1905 to 1907.
He was made a Commander of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and a Knight of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog and he died in Bærum, but was buried in Elverum. Clicking on the thumbnail will give you the full image and information concerning it
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus