Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The rank is equal to the rank of colonel. Equivalent ranks worldwide include ship-of-the-line captain, captain of sea and war, captain at sea, the NATO rank code is OF-5, although the United States of America uses the code O-6 for the equivalent rank. O. The naval rank should not be confused with the army, air force, or marine ranks of captain, on large US ships, the executive officer may be a captain in rank, in which case it would be proper to address him by rank. Often the XO prefers to be called XO to avoid confusion with the CO, who is a captain in rank and the captain of the ship. Captains with sea commands generally command ships of size or larger, the more senior the officer, the larger the ship. Even when an officer who is in the ships captains chain of command is present. The following articles deal with the rank of captain as it is used in various navies, Captain Captain Captain Capitaine de vaisseau Kapitän zur See Komandor Kapitan of the 1st rank Sea captain Post captain
Bombing of Osaka
The bombing of Osaka during World War II first took place from the middle of the night on February 26,1945, to the early morning of the next day. There were raids on March 13,14, June 6,7,15,26, July 10,24, and August 14. It is said that more than 10,000 civilians died in bombings in Osaka. Osaka was the second largest city in Japan, with a population of 3,252,340 in 1940, traditionally, it was the most important industrial concentration in the Far East. Osaka was one of the centers of heavy industry, noted for its shipbuilding, steel, rolling stock works. It had become a center, and ranked third as a port. Much work had been done to develop its naturally shallow harbor, lastly, it was the center of an extensive system of railways. The first air raid on Osaka lasted for three and a half hours from 23,57 on March 13,1945 to 03,25. A total of 274 B-29 heavy bombers attacked Osaka, at first,43 bombers of the 314th Bombardment Wing flew from Guam island. It was a night raid from an altitude of about 2.
The pathfinder dropped napalm bombs at a target in Minato ward, the following bombers dropped incendiary cluster bombs around the point. Then,107 bombers of the 313th Bombardment wing arrived from Tinian, finally,124 bombers of the 73rd Bombardment Wing from Saipan arrived and attacked Kita ward and Nishi ward. This bomb raid resulted in 3,987 dead and 678 missing, there were 274 aircraft that dropped a total of 1,733 tons of bombs on the primary target. One B-29 bombed a target and one bombed Chichi-jima. Five B-29’s bombed Ujiyamada, Kobe and Kushimoto, the destruction of Osaka was almost entirely concentrated in one area southwest of Osaka Castle. Total damage amounted to about 8.1 square miles destroyed, one was lost from an accident and one from an unknown reason. The U. S. suffered no crew member casualties during this mission, the aircraft lost from the accident crashed and burned on take-off, but all crew members escaped. The eighth bomb raid was executed on August 14,1945 and they dropped about 700 1-ton bombs, targeting the Japanese Armys factories in Eastern Osaka
Japanese air attacks on the Mariana Islands
During World War II, a series of Japanese air attacks on the Mariana Islands took place between November 1944 and January 1945. These raids targeted United States Army Air Forces bases and sought to disrupt the bombing of Japan by B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers operating from the islands, the Japanese lost 37 aircraft during this operation, but destroyed 11 B-29s and damaged a further 43. Preparations were made for commando raids on the bases in early and mid-1945, while the attacks on the Mariana Islands did not seriously disrupt the USAAF air campaign, they had an effect on other American operations. After determining that the Japanese raiders were staging through Iwo Jima, while the decision to invade Iwo Jima had been made before the raids commenced, stopping the attacks formed part of the justification for the landing. In addition, further air defense units were deployed to the Mariana Islands to protect the B-29 bases, United States forces captured Guam and Tinian in the Mariana Islands between June and August 1944, as part of the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign.
These islands were needed to provide bases for USAAF Twentieth Air Force B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers to attack the Japanese home islands, the USAAF bases in the Mariana Islands were within range of a number of Japanese air bases in the Pacific. These included Wake Island to the east and the Gilbert and Marshall Islands to the southeast, Woleai to the south, to the north the Japanese had air bases in the Nampo Shoto chain of islands and Bonin Islands, which included three airstrips on Iwo Jima. Several of the islands in the Mariana chain remained in Japanese hands. Despite the limited threat of attack, the United States military took steps to protect the B-29 bases in the Mariana Islands, the USAAFs Seventh Air Force played the most important role, and continuously attacked the Japanese-held islands until just before the end of the war. United States Navy and United States Marine Corps aircraft and XXI Bomber Command B-29s occasionally participated in these attacks, the Thunderbolts were responsible for suppressing the Japanese-held Mariana Islands, though it proved difficult to stop the 3, 600-man garrison from repairing the airfield on Pagan.
In addition, the US Army stationed elements of eight anti-aircraft gun battalions, accordingly, he allocated a Microwave Early Warning radar to protect the bases on Saipan. This advanced radar was not immediately installed, however, as the local commanders believed that the air defenses were adequate. The first Japanese air attacks on the B-29 bases occurred while they were under construction, small numbers of Japanese aircraft flying from Guam, Iwo Jima and Truk made occasional raids on the American forces on Saipan during the fighting there, but caused little damage. Between June 24 and July 21 the 6th Night Fighter Squadron intercepted 37 raids on Saipan, the attacks disrupted airbase construction on several days and contributed to delays completing the B-29 base on Saipan, Isley Field. Small numbers of Japanese soldiers who had avoided capture at the end of the battles on the islands raided the B-29 bases on occasion, the main Japanese air offensive against the Mariana Islands began in early November 1944.
On November 1, a B-29 flying from the Marianas overflew the Tokyo region for the first time, the next day, nine or ten IJN G4Ms belonging to the IJN Attack Hikōtai 703 struck Isley Field and the adjacent Kobler Field on Saipan. The raiders arrived over Saipan shortly after 1,30 am, only five bombs struck Isley Field, and these caused little damage. A Black Widow from the 6th Night Fighter Squadron shot down one of the G4Ms, on November 3 the Imperial General Headquarters issued a statement which falsely claimed that Japanese aircraft had bombed and destroyed fifteen locations in Saipan and Tinian
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo and northern Korea. Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm, the invasion began on 9 August 1945, exactly three months after the German surrender on May 8. It has referred to as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. This was to be performed by the Transbaikal Front from the west and by the 1st Far Eastern Front from the east, the only Soviet equivalent of a theater command that operated during the war, Far East Command, consisted of three Red Army fronts. The Transbaikal Front was to form the western half of the Soviet pincer movement, attacking across the Inner Mongolian desert, the 36th Army was attacking from the west, but with the objective of meeting forces of the 2nd Far Eastern Front at Harbin and Tsitsihar. The 1st Far Eastern Front, under Marshal Kirill Meretskov, the 1st Far Eastern Front was to form the eastern half of the pincer movement. This attack involved the 1st Red Banner Army, the 5th Army, once that city was captured, this force was to advance towards the cities of Jilin and Harbin.
Its final objective was to link up with the forces of the Transbaikal Front at Changchun and this secondary objective was to be carried out by the 25th Army. Meanwhile, the 35th Army was tasked with capturing the cities of Boli, the 2nd Far Eastern Front, under General Maksim Purkayev, included, 2nd Red Banner Army 15th Army 16th Army 5th Separate Rifle Corps Chuguevsk Operational Group Amur Military Flotilla 10th Air Army. The 2nd Far Eastern Front was deployed in an attack role. Its objectives were the cities of Harbin and Tsitsihar, and to prevent an orderly withdrawal to the south by the Japanese forces. Once troops from the 1st Far Eastern Front and Transbaikal Front captured the city of Changchun, each front had front units attached directly to the front instead of an army. The forces totaled 89 divisions with 1.5 million men,3,704 tanks,1,852 self propelled guns,85,819 vehicles and 3,721 aircraft, approximately one-third of its strength was in combat support and services. The Soviet plan incorporated all the experience in warfare that they had acquired in fighting the Germans.
In addition, the Japanese were assisted by the forces of their states of Manchukuo. The former had an army of about 170,000 to 220,000 troops, while the latter had around 10,000, the next target for the Soviet Far East Command, was garrisoned by the Japanese Seventeenth Area Army. The Kwantung Army had over 700,000 men in twenty-five divisions and these contained over 1,215 armored vehicles,6,700 artillery pieces, and 1,800 aircraft. They were deployed against the Nationalist Chinese in Operation Ichigo, by 1945, the Kwantung Army contained a large number of raw recruits and conscripts, with generally obsolete, light, or otherwise limited equipment
Bombing of Kobe in World War II
The city would be bombed again in months. Kobe was selected as a target for firebombing raids for a number of reasons, first off, it was the 6th largest city in Japan at the time, with a population of roughly 1 million. The houses were built with wood and thus highly flammable—perfect for starting and sustaining large fires. Second, it was Japans largest port, home to the largest concentration of shipbuilding, Kobe was an important city for transportation and business. National highways ran through the city, especially through the business section, and Kobe contained business facilities for steel, rubber, railway equipment. Lastly, Kobes low water supply, consisting of three reservoirs, and its poor firefighting equipment created a very fire-prone environment. On March 16/17,1945,331 American B-29 bombers launched an attack against the city of Kobe. This raid was executed by all three wings of the XXI Bomber Command, namely the 73rd, 313th, and 314th bombardment wings. It was flown in honor of Brigadier General LaVerne Saunders, who was, at the time, recuperating in Walter Reed General Hospital from injuries he sustained during an aircraft accident.
The raid targeted 4 key areas, the northwest corner of the city, the south of the main railroad line, the area northwest of the main railroad station. Of the citys residents,8,841 were confirmed to have killed in the resulting firestorms. At the time, the city covered an area of 14 square miles, more than 650,000 people had their homes destroyed, and the homes of another million people were damaged. Three bombers were lost during the raid, but the reason for their losses are unknown, on 5 June that same year, Kobe was bombed again. Incendiaries dropped from 530 bombers destroyed 3.8 square miles of the city, grave of the Fireflies, an anime film based on the novel. Werrell, Kenneth P. Blankets of Fire and London, Smithsonian Institution Press